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ThU table is de8igii(;il bb a help lo all c1a>M« oreplril drinkers, from tlie 
mui who lines his gill per day, lo the man who uses hix lilnl, and tin) 
one who uses bii quart, and closes the day in a state of intoxicalinn. 
Each of these claasea may, by innpectioo of this table. Bee the ituuiiliiy 
they will drinh in one, two, or five years, aod m on to tliirty. 

We have also cali-ulated the expense of drinkinj;, from one to lliirty 
yean at difiereul Bums per day, from three lo tweiiiy-fivc cents. Pew 
poisons who spend three, six, or twelve eenw per day, are aware how 
MM the BDiouot increases, or of how niany comforts they deprive theiii- 
Mhiet, by their habit of gmall expenditures. One thing, however, must 
be noticed in the expetue port of this table ; no interest is added to the 
principal, and no calculation is made for Ion of tinte, &e. These would 
gnuly iDcrense tbe respective sum total. — T^emf. Rtt. 

(C^ All coinmuuicBtions, relative to the general coDcernsof the Amer- 
kHI Temperance Society, niay be addressi 
OomspoDdiDg Secretary, Ahooves, Mass 

([^ Donations and the payment of Huhscriptioiw, and all commiioica- 
lions with regard to money, may be sent to Hon. tiEOftOB Odiokhe, 
Tntuunr o/Ot Saeitl^ 97 Milk Streoi, Boatoa. 



Connection betw e en Aror in Principle mnd InunonUity In Praclice, 1 } Cooneqnenoee fhtnl, 1 ; 
TBetimony of Phyaieinns, Jnritts and DiTtnea, 3 } Slate preriooa to the Temperance 
4 } Great Chaafe, 5 } Origin of the American Temperance Society, 6 } Testimony to the 
eflts of Abatinence, 7 ; ** The Well-conducted Farm," 8 } Formation of the American 
•nee Society, 11 *, Addreaa of the Execntive Committee, 12; The ln(Ulible Antidote, 14 { ]ff»- 
tional Philanthropiat, 15; Temperance Aaaociation in Andover, 15 ; Agents, 15; TemperaM* 
Pablications, 16; Resolutions of the Massachusetts Society for Suppression of lutempefMMa, 
17 ; Testimony of Kittredge and Beecher, 18 ; Testimony of Medical Societies, 21 ; Stat* of 
Things at the dose of 1837, 22; Operations and Success in 1828, 23 ; Kittredge*s Addre« at 
the Annoal Meeting, 24 ; State of Things at the close of 1839, 27 ; Decrease of Mortality, 38 ; 
Increased Success of the Gospel, 28 ; Commencement of the Temperanra Reformatloa in 
Europe, 29; Operations and Success In 1890,80; Testimony of Members of Congresa, tt; 
Teatimoay of the President of the United States, 32 ; Testimony of the Secretary of War, tt ; 
Desertions trom the Army, 39 ; Reform in the Army, 33 ; RefcMrm in the Navy, 34 ; Refom In 
Merchant Vessels, 35 ; Efffects of Ardent Spirit on Seamen, 36 ; State of the Reformattaa at 
the close of 1830, 38 ; EflboU of one Man*s using a Little daily, 99 ; Eflbcts of another MaB^ 
ming None, 39; Drunliards reclaimed, 40; Great Benefits fltun small Expenditures, 41 ) 
timotiy of Physicians, 42 ; Perrons presented ttom becoming Drunkards, 44 ; Expense of 
soadlng Men to abstain from the Use of Ardent Spirit compared with the Expense of taking 
Care of those who use it, 45 ; The Good which may be effiwted by $10,000, 45; Reasons why 
morp Drunl^rds are not reformed, 46 ; Established Principle of Law, 47 ; Testimony of Mer- 
chants, 47 ; Principle of the Divine Government, 48 ; The great Ilinderance to the Temperaaee 
Reformation, 49 ; Belief of the Churches, 50 ; Success of the Cause, 50 ; Publications oa tlM 
Immoraliiy of the Traffic, 61 ; Progress of Reform in Foreign Countries, 52; Prospeeta of 
Extending througti the World, 52; Things to be avoided, 53 ; Dealers in Ardent Spirit tai Ibnr 
Cities, 53 *, Benellis of Temperance Societies, 55 ; Character of thoKC wlio continue in tke 
Tra(r;c, SC ; Tostimony of the New York State Committee, 57 ; Ot^ctious stated and answer- 
ed, 5C. 

ArPEH Dix. — Nature and Origin of the Use of Ardent Spirita, 63 ; Lunatics in DnbUn aad 
Liverjool, 64 ; Statements in ^ The Well-conductrd Farm," 66 ; Origin of the Massachoaetts 
Society ft>r Suppression of Ij|teniperance, 68 ; Error corrected, 69 ; Judge Parker's Letter, 70 , 
Jodge HslIock*s Decision, 70 ;<Desertions fh>m the Army, 71 ; General Jones's Statement, 71 ; 
General Gaines's Statement, 71 ; Lieut. Gallagher's Statement, 72 ; Dr. Sewall's Letter,- 73 ; 
Dr. Warren's Remarks, 74 ; Letter from a Gentleman of the Army, 75 ; Judge Cranch'a 8Cat»- 
ment, 76; Cocneelion between Temperance and Religion, 81 ; The Iniquities of the FallMn 
▼islted upon the Children, 85 ; Testimony of Dr. Sewall, 86 ; Testimony of Forty PhystekBa, 
•9; Dr. Hosack's Statements, 91 ; Dr. Hale's Essay, 91 ; Dr. Alden's Address, 95; TesttoMMy 
of Physicians in Scotland and Ireland, 97 ; Dr. Cleland'^ Tables, 97 ; Deaths by Ardent Spirlta, 
98; Judge Cranch's Statement, 98 ; Barbour's Statement, 99; Resolutions of EcclestaatieBl 
Bodiea, 99 ; London Tamperaaoe Society, 100; Virginia Association to abstain from Tea, MX 


Tniths established by the Fourth Report, 111 ; Opinion of a Member of Congress, 111 } Gir- 
eolation of the Fourth Report, 112; Testimony of old Men, 113; Report re-published In Great 
Britain, 116; Lord Chancellor's Declaration, 116; Formation of the British and Foreign 
yeranoe Society, 117 ; ElTbct of Strong Drink in producing the Cholera, 118 ; Guilt of those ' 
■dl Ardent Spirit, 119; Comparison with the Slave Trade, 120; Connection with Burking, 139} 
Chancellor Walworth's Opinion, 121 ; Meeting at Washington, 122; Wirt's Testimony, ISS| 


Rnoltttltitu uulAdilren of American Temperance Society, 135', National Circular, 127} Cor- 
responding Secretary, 128 *, Profemor Ware's Testimony, 129) President Waylaud^s Inqulrtea, 
129; President Fiske's Address to Cliurch Members, 132; Dickinson's Advice, 130; Beecher*s 
Address to the Young Men of Boston, 134 ; Judge Daggett's Declaration, 136; Opinion of 
Judge Craiicli, 135; Injustice or the Traffic in Ardent Spirit, 136; The Rum-eelling Chur^ 
Menil>er, 137 ; Venders of Ardent Spirit in the City of Washington, 188 ; Confession of a Re* 
lailer, 136 ; WiveH murdered by their husbands, 139 ; Children murdered by their Fathers, 141 ; 
l^osM of the Rothsay Cnstle, 142; Commodore Riddle's Letter, 143^ Letter from an Ollicer in 
the Army, 144; Massachusetts Lunatic Asylum, 145; Demoralising Eflfbct of the TraiTlc In 
Ardent Spirit, 116; Circular cxincerning Churches, 147; Connection between Temperance and 
Religion, 149; Influence of Church Members who traflic in Ardent Spirit, 150; Testimony ot 
the British and Fnruijrn Temperance Society, 151 ; The Great Obstruction to the Tem|.-erance 
Reformation, 153 ; Churches in which are no Memben in the Tralfic, 155 ; Family Temperance 
Societies, 155; Factsi in the Slate of New York, 156 ; Tavern Keepers ruined,*15G; 'lemper- 
•nce Taverns, and Groceries, IGO; Progress of the Cause and its Results, ICl ; The Sabbath 
the proper Time to speak upon it, 162; Duty of Ministers and Churches, 163, Temperance 
Societies in Africa and the Sandwich Islands, 164 ; Conclusion, 165. 

AppsNDix.— Edgar's Speech, 178; Wealthy Drunkards, 174; Higgin's Letter, 176; Jeraey 
Temperance Society, 176 ; Licenaes in Glasgow, 177 ; British and Foreign Temperance Society, 
178 { Maryland State Temperance Society, 180; Address of the Bishop of London, 181 ; Na- 
tional Circular, 186 ; The Immorality of the Traffic, 198 ; Letter, 221 ; Resolutions of Ministers 
of the Gospel, 222 ; Extract from the Minutes of the General Assembly, 222 ; The danger of 
■elling Ardent Spirit, 223; Temperance EflTorts In China, 224 ; Imporunt Decision In Chan* 
eery, 224 ; Tax on the Sale of Ardent Spirit, 225; The sale of Ardent Spirit a Nuisance, 225 j 
Benefits of Ah«tinence from the use of Intoxicating Liquor, 226. 


Truths rstnblishcd in thr last two Reports, 227 ; Number of copies printed in this country, 
228; Testimony of distir.gniKhcd men concerning them, 228; Object of those Reports, and of 
the present, 229; Additional A<rents, 230; Circular for Simultaneous Meetings, 231; Order 
from the War Depnrtmrnt, 235; Testimony of a distinguished Jurist, 235; Testimony of a 
Mail Contractor, iJCC; Temimony of Thomas Jefferson, 237; Testimony of the Secretary of 
the Navy, 238; Trutimopy of Naval O/llcers, 239 j Bribery of Electors by Candidate*! for 
office, 2-W); Ccirernl Conference rftlu* Methodist Episcopal Church, 241 ; Genera] AsKcmbly ol 
the rrcKbytt'riim Church, 2 12; d'eneral Association of New Hampshire, 243; General Aibio- 
ciations of MnKnachusrttn, Conrecticut, and Maine, 244 ; American Quarterly Temperance 
Magazine, 244: Cook's Speech nt tlie Capitol in Washington, 246; Testimony of a European 
writer, 248 ; Conduct of a Millwright, and of a Miller, 249; Doings of Legislatures, 250 ; Sale 
of Ardent B|)irit treatml as immoral, 251 ; Churches (tte IVom traffickers in ardent spirit, 258 « 
A great Mistake, 253 ; Testimony of a gambler, and a vender of lottery tickers, 2iA ; Temper- 
ance efforts in the City of New York, 255; Circular for a United States Convention, 256; 
Meeting at the Capitol in Washington, 257 ; Formation of the American Congressional Tem- 
perance Society, 259; Simultaneous Meetings in Great Britain, 260; Address of John Wilks, 
Biq. M. P., 260 ; Address of the Bishop of Chester, 261 ; Address of P. Crampton, Sol. Gen. 
Ibr Ireland, 262 ; English Temperance Magazine, 263 ; Insurance of Temperance ships, 264; 
Ihmnkards ce9!*ing to use intoxicating drinks, 265; The way to render reformation permanent, 
969 } The great hindrance to the Temperance Reformation, 370 ; License laws morally and 
politically wrong, 271 ; License lawa promote intemperance, 271 ; Licenae lawa injurious to 
the wealth of a nation, 272; Testimony of a country merchant, 274; Testimony of a city 
merchant, 275; Amount lost by the traffic in ardent spirit, 276; Beneficial uses to whldi It 
might be applied, 277 ; The traffic in spirit injurious to the public health, 278 ; The traflic la 
^irit productive of Cholera, 281 ; The traffic in spirit injurious to intellect and to morals, 282; 
Reasons why it produces such efiTects, 283 ; Obstacles to the Temperance Reformation, 286 ; 
License laws ricious, 287 ; License laws without foundation, 288 ; Licenae lawa highly expen- 
■tre, 289; License laws detrimental to Agriculture, 291 ; Judge PlattHi Opinion, 298} The 
Turning Point. 294. 


Amiroix. — ExtnMTta from Gerrit 8intdi*t Addren, 300 { Bxtncta from Judge Platte 4i- 
drcM, 905} Extracts from Prasident Fiak^s Addraia, 306} Lawa of MuMudiuBetts iigaiiwt Lat- 
teries, sod leLden plpee, SI 6 j United States Temperance CoDTOition, 317 ; Reasons (br e«i- 
plyinf with the Sesolutiou of the Convention, 325; Extracts of a letter ft>om a gent l e m ia •! 
Washington, 328 ; Constitution of the Am. Congressional Temp. Society, 329 ; Redaotlwi «f 
Taxes, 330 { Letter from a merchant in Alabama, 331 ) Letter from the Sandwich Iiilanda,B9t| 
Facts with regard to Catskill, 333} New York State Report, 338} General Association if 
Massachusetts, 338 } Laws which license the trafflc in ardent spirit mormiig wrongs 338. 


Aoapicioas indications of the present time, 388 } OI^}ect of fbrming the American 
anoe Society, 341 } SUte of Temperance in 1833, 343} Meeting of the United Sutes* 
ance Convention, 343 ; Convention in Massachusetts, 343 ; Conrentlon in New York, M4} 
Conventions in Ohio, Mississippi, and Kentucky, 345} Conventlona In Vermont, U^iam, Mi 
New Jersey, 346 } Congressional Temperance Meeting, 346 } Conventions in Piiiiiiejlin«i% 
Missouri, and Delaware, 350 } Present sUte of the Temperance cause, 353 } InsoraaM fll 
Temperance vessels, 358} Dmnkards reformed, 855} Temperance Talea,307} The prtoeef 
blood, 380 } Conscience and the spirit vender, 363 } Temperance in England, 371 } Tempe n mea 
in Sweden, 372 } Temperance in Russia, 373 } Temperance in India and Africa, 374 ; Tampar> 
aace in New Holland, 375} Reports of the American Temperance Society, 376} OpIaloM if 
Jorists and Statesmen, 380 } Remarks in a London Magaxine, 383 } TralBc in ardent spirH ftr- 
bidden by the Bible, 394 } Principles involved, 386 } Ellbcts on crimes, 397 } Effteta on 1Mb, 4084 
TralSc dishonest, 406} Trafllc destroys the soul, 408} Letters ftt>m England, 413} B— ilyliaM 
of American Temperance Society, 416} Resolutions of Ecdesiaslical Bodies, 418} T eeti m —y 
of Edtlors, 419 ; Objections, 432 } Address to Moderate Drinkers, 435 } Address to Vcaden^ 4i6t 
Addrcsa to Ministers of the Gospel, 439} Address to Memben of Churches, 433. 

Appsiroix. — American Congressional Reaolutiona, 440} Extraeta from the Addi 
B. F. Butler, 441 } Extracts ftx>m the Address of Hon. H. L. Pinckney, 443} Extraeta 
Gerrit Smithes letter, 443} Extracts from ChipmanHi Report, 449} Summary of Resulla ef tte 
New York State Temperance Society, 450} American Temperanee Union, 450. 


Alcohol, the product of rinous fermenution, 455 } The process of extracting it, 458 ( O^a. 
of iu Medical virtues, 457 } Distilled liquor introduced as a drink, 458 } Reasons wkf 
continue to drink it, 469 } Reasons why they continue to increase the quantity, 481 1 TW 
way in which Alcohol causes death, 463 } Its ellbcu on Inlknt children, 464 } The testlneay ef 
God, with regard to it, 465} Violation of principle, and its results, 467 } Eflbcts of AloolMil an 
the soul, 469} Its production of pauperism and crime, 470} Its eflbets in counteraotiag Um 
elbcacy of the Gospel, 473} Its polluting and hardening influence upon the heart, 47S) State 
of Che Temperance Reformation in the U. S., 474} Do. in Great BriUin, 475} Ellbcto ef eheli- 
aence from all intoxicating drinks, 476 } J. S. Buckin^am*s statement, 484 } Addreas to tiM 
Drenkards of Great Britain, 485 } Progress of Temperance in Sweden, 486 } Do. in Ressliw 
Finland, and India, 487 } Do. in Burmah and Sumatra, 488 } Do. In Egypt, 489 } Plan ef iDHW 
•perationa, 491 } Dr. Mnssey's Prixe Essay, 494 } Experiments in the Auburn Sute Friaoa, 4ft s 
Otlier experiments, 495} The best protection against diseases, 496 } Eflbcts of Alcohol •• Ike 
Cholera, 496 } Testimony of Physicians to water, as the proper drink for man, 497 } 
of sea-foring men, 500 } Substitutes for Alcohol as a medicine, 501 } Restoratives from i 
804 } Extracts from Dr. Lindsly's Prite Essay, 507 } Eflbcts of Alcohol on children and to am*. 
807 } Substitutes for ardent spirit, as a medicine, 509} In Dyspepsy and In low TyplioM etaAaa 
ef the system, Ac. 511 } Opinion of Drs. Sewall, and Warren, 518 } EeaoluUoas of It* Mtw 
York Sute Temperance Society, 514. 


Tbs great increase of dnmkenneM, within the last half century, nnuug the pBopb 
of the United States, led a number of phibuilhropic individuals, in the year la25 to 
eonsuh together, upon the duty of making more united, systematic, and extended eflbcts 
for the prevention of this evil. Its cause was at once seen to be, the use uf intoxicat- 
Mjl liaoor; and its appropriate remedy, aUtuunce, It was ako known, that the cne 
•Csuch liquor, as a beverage, is not only needless, but injurious to the health, the 
vutne, and the happiness of men. It was believed, that the &cts which had been, and 
Mrhich miffht be collected, would prove this, to the satis&ction of every disinteroited and 
candid miml ; and that if the knowle<!^ of them were nniversally disseminated it would, 
widi the divine blessing, do much toward changing the habits of tlie nation. It waa 
dtootfht therefore to be proper to make the experiment. Fur this purpose, was formed 
•II Ae 18th of February, 1826, The American TxMPXRAifoic Society. Its 
olysGl is, by the diffusion of information, the exertion of kind mural influence, and 
the power of united, and consistent example, to effect such a changi) of sentiment and 
oractiee, that drunkenness and all its evils will cease ; and temperaiice, with its atten- 
dant befits to the bodies and souls of men, will universally prevail. This ubject the 
Kciciety has now pursued for ten years; and the results of its efforts, are presented to 
^ consideration of the community, in the subsequent volume* It is earnestly dcsiieJ 
that a eopy of this vohime may be put into the hands of every Preacher, Law}-er, Phv- 
•ieiaii, Magistrate, Officer of Government, Secretary of a Temperance Socictv, Teat Ja- 
W of youth, and educated young man, throoghoat the United Stales^ aad ihroughoul 
the workt. 

The principles, foots, and reasoninn contained in this volume, liave special rcforence 
|» Afeohol, in the form of distilled bquor; but they will appl;^ to it, in every other 
form, in proportion to its quantity, the frequency with which it is need, and its power 
Cp produce intoxication ; or derangement of the regular and healthy action of llie Iftunaft 
llyiAem. The volume is divided into Eve parts, caUed Reports. Tliese, howe\-er, are 
«ot so mtR:h Reports of the operations of thto friends of Temperance and their results, 
as Reports of Principles in the Government of God, as illustrated by farts, with regard 
to men, which show, that for them to continue to use ardent spirit us a be^eraze, is a 
violation of his faiws; and will prove, by hs consequences, that, "the way of trans- 
gressors b hard." 

llie frst part shows that it is imaoral to drink such liquor; and tlie second that it , 
fB inuBoral to manufactore, vend, or fomish it, to be drank by others. The third port 
ihows that the making, or continuing of Uws which license men to sell ardent n>irit» 
to be used as a bei«rage, and thus teachinf[ to the cominunity that the drinking ol it is 
rjjriit, and throwing over it the shield of legislative sanction and support, is also intmoro/r 
Tlie fourth part, exhibits those principles of Divine Revelation, wliirh the abuve men- 
Ctbned practices violate ; and the fifth part, shows the manner in which Alcohol, when 
wed tt a beverase, causes death to the bodies and sonls of men. 

Hundreds of thousands of persons of all ages, conditions and employments, in view 
«£ its evils, have ceased to use it ; and so for as they or others can oiscever, have b^i 
gftaUff benifited by the chanj^. Let all do the same, and drunkenness will universally, 
and for ever cease. Pauperism, crime, hickness. insanity, wretchedness, and premature 
death, will, to a great extent, be prevented. Health, virtue and happiness will be ia- 
creaied ; human life be prok>need; the gospel, through grace, be more widely extended^ 
i»d generally embraced ; God oe more higlily honorra, and sotils in greater manben b^ 
MnMMiied, |Miri6ed, and saved. 

Eaoh individual, therefore, into whose hand this volume may oome, b moat respeoc- 
iiU|r and earnestly entreated attentively to peruse it; and if he has not already done it» 
Mnowly to inquire whetbor it b not his duty to renounce for ever the use of intoxicating 
Ariflk. He b also requested to coumuaicatc as extensivdv as poesible the knowledge 
af the focts which the volume contains; and to labor, in allsuitaUe ways, to indflM all 
panoM to csempUiy its principles, by a united and cobsistfenit example. 


The Executive Committee of the American Temperance So- 
ciety, having been permitted, through the kindness of the Ix>r(i, to 
continue their labors in his service, would, as a testimony to his 
goodness, present their Fourth Report. 

In tlie evils which tins Society aims to remove, the connection 
between error in prmciple, and immorality in practice, is strikingly 
exhibited. Less tliau Uiree hundred years ago,* tlie error began to 
prevail in Great Britain, that ardent spiiit, as an article of luxury 
or diet, or as an aid to labor, is useful. The cause of this error 
was, the deceptive feelings of tliose who used it. Being, in its 
nature, a mocker, it deceived Uiem. By disturbing heahhy action 
and inducing disease, it created an unnatural thirst ; the grat]6cation 
of which, like the gratification of the desire of inning in the man 
w1k> sms, causes it to increase ; and the end is death. 

The consequence has been, as stated by a writer in Scotland, 
and as illustrated by facts, " There is reason to believe, that intern- 

ferance has cost ttiat country more lives, demoralized more persons, 
roken more hearts, beggared more families, and sent more souls to 
perdition, than all other vices put together." 

This fatal error, tliat ardent spirit is for men in health useful, did 
not prevail generally among the mass of people in this country, till 
after the American Revolution. In that mighty struggle which gave 
birth to a nation, and in the numerous hardships and dancers to 
which the soldiers were exposed, they were furnished, by ilie 
government, with a portion of tliis poison, under the fatal delusion 
that it would do them good. Tlie conseqtience was, as, under 
similar circumstances, it ever must be, tlie diseased appetite which 
thb poison creates, was formed by great numbers ; was carried out 
by them, at the close of tlie war, into tlie community ; and was ex- 
tended through the country. 

At the close of the first half century of our national existence, 
this diseased appetite had become so prevalent as to denrand, annu* 
aSy, for its gratification, more than sixty million gallons of liquid 
fire. And while it cost the consumers more than thirty miuion 

* AfiriEtrDit, A. 


dolIarSi it caused more than three fourths of all the pauperism, 
crimes, and wretchedness of the community. It also greatly in- 
creased die number, frequency, and violence of diseases ; and, 
according to the testimony of tlie most intelligent and judicious 
physicians, occasioned annually the loss of more than tliirty thousand 
lives. The loss of property, occasioned by tlie consumption of 
ardent spirit, amounted, in forty years, to a greater sum than the 
value of all the houses and lands in die United States, forty years 
ago. The use of it caused a destrucdon — and, there is reason lo 
fear, for both worlds— of more dian half a million of men. 

Though no exact account had been taken in tin's country, it was 
known that it had destroyed the reason of a great poilioii of all the 
maniacs in the land ; and had lessened the reason, as well as weak- 
ened the bodies, blunted the moral suscep'tibilities, and hardened 
the hearts of all who had freely used it. 

Of seven hundred and eigluy-one maniacs in two hospitals i:i 
Great Britain, three hundred and ninety-two were made such by 
intemperance.* And had the inquiry been as carefully made in this 
country, die residt might have been substantially the same. The 
free use of this sumulant had, in many cases, caused a predisposiuon 
to insanity, not only in those who used it, but in their cliildretu 
and children's children. A tendency to this disease, and man)* 
others occasioned by strong drink, had become hereditary, and 
was transmitted from generation to generadon. A diminution of 
size and stature, a decrease of bodily and mental surength, a feeble- 
ness of vision, and a premature old age, told of a disease that had 
seized on the vitals, and was consuming die enei^gies of life. The 
use of this liquid was causing a general deterioration of body and 
mind, and was threatening to roll its curses, in broader and deeper 
streams, over all future generadons. 

Yet, notwithstanding this, such was the nature of this poison, 
and such its power to deceive diose who used it, that the oj union 
was ahnost universal, that the use of it was salutary, and to laboring 
men neediiil. 

Trotter, who had as good an opportunity and was as well able 
to judge as any man, had indeed said, " Tliat of all the evils of 
human life, no cause of disease had so wide a range, or so large a 
share, as the use of spirituous liquors ; and that more dian half of all 
the sudden deaths were occasioned by them ;" — and Aitinan had 
declared, *' That art never made so fatal a present to mankind 
as the invention of distilling them.'' 

Willan had said, '' That die use of these liquors, ui large cities* 
produced more diseases than confined air, unwholesome exhala- 
tions, and the combined influence of all other evils ;" — and Paris, 

* Arrsiioii, B. 

FOURTH RCPORT. — 1831. 3 

**Tbat tbe art of distillation must be regarded as the greatest 
curse ever inflicted on human nature ; and tliat ai'dent spirits i)roduce 
more than half of all clironical ditseases.'' 

Danvin had testified, '^ That when chronical diseases arise froni 
tlie use of ardent spirit, they are liable to become hereditary, even 
to the third generation ; and if tlie cause is conunued, to increase 
till the family becomes extincu'' 

Frank had declared, "That the use of tliese liquors ought to be 
eniii-ely dispensed with, on account of their tendency, even when 
taken hi small doses, to induce disease, premature old age, and 
deatli ;" — and Cheyne had stigmatized them, as being " most like 
Oi)ium in their nature and operation, and most like arsenic in their 
deleterious and ])oisonous effects. " 

Mosely had said, from his own observation, having resided in the 
West Indies, " Tliat persons who drink nothing but cold water, or 
make it their principal dnnk, are but litde affected by tropical cH- 
mates ; that they undergo the greatest fatigue without inconvenience, 
and ai*e not so subject as others to dangeix>us diseases ;" — and Bell, 
^* Tliat mm, when used even moderately, always duninishes the 
Mrength, renders men more susceptible of disease, and unfits them 
fjr any service in which vigor and activity are required ; and that 
we might as well throw oil into a house, the roof of which was on 
fire, in order to prevent the flames fit)m extending to tlie inside, as 
to jx)ur ardent spirits into the stomach, to lessen the effect of a 
hot .-tun upon the skin." 

Miniro had declared, "That a man had no more need of ardent 
spirit llian a cow, or a horse ;" — and Kirk, " That fifteen out of 
iwent}' cases of liver complaint were occasioned by the use of it ; 
and that men who had always been considered temperate had, 
by using it, shortened life more Uian twenty years." He had also 
^iven it as his opinion, that the regular and respectable use of tins 
poison kills more men than dnmkenness itselL Barkhausen had 
testified, " That he had known persons affected even with delirium 
tremens, who had never been intoxicated in their whole lives." 

Rush had maintained, *' That men in all kinds of business would 
be better without the use of spirituous liquors ; and that there are 
but one or two cases in which they can be used without essential 
injury ;" — and Chapman, " That the evils of using them are so 
great, that die emptying of Pandora's box was but die type of what 
has been experienced by the diffusion of these liquors among the 
human species !" 

Others had given a similar testimony, and denounced the use of 
tliem altogether, except in case of necessity. But, with many 
who professed to adopt this rule, the difficulty was, the necessity, 
in their esdmation, came every day. The consequence was, if 
tliey and their children did not become drunkards, they raised no 


barrier to lliat tide of diiinkenness which was sweeping tlirough tlie 

Judge Hale, after twenty years' obser\'ation and experience, had 
declared, '*That if all the murders, and manslaughters, and 
burglaries, and robberies, and riots, and tumults, tlie adulteries, forni- 
cations, ra[)es, and other great enormities, which had been commit- 
ted within that time, were divided into five parts, four of them 
would be found to have been the result of intemperance." 

The Sherift' of London and Middlesex had said, " Tliat the evil 
which lies at the root of all other evils, is that, especially, of drink- 
ine ardent spirit ; iluit he had long been in tlie habit of hearing 
criminals refer all their misery to this, so that he had ceased to ask 
the cause of their ruin, so universally was it effected by spirituous 
liquors." And Mr. Poinder, in an examination before the Commit- 
tee of the House of Commons, had testified, " That from facts, that 
had fallen under his own observation, he was persuaded that, in all 
trials for murder, witli very few, if any exceptions, it would ap- 
pear, on investigation, that the criminal had, in the first instance?, de- 
livered up his mind to the brutalizing effects of spirituous liquors.'* 
And similar was the testimony from others. 

John Wesley had declared, and published to the world, " Thai 
the men who traffic in ardent spirit, and sell to all who will buy, are 
poisoners general; that they murder his majesty's sul)jerts by 
wholesale; neither does their eye pity or spare. And what," said 
he, " is their gain ? Is it not tlie blood of tliese men ? Who would 
env)' their large estates, and sumptuous palaces? A curse is in tlic 
mfdst of them. The ctirse of God is on their gardens, their walks, 
their groves 5 a fire that bums to die nethermost hell. Blood, 
blood, is there ; the foundation, the floor, the walls, the roof, art- 
stained with blood. And canst thou hope, O man of bk)od, thoui^li 
thou art clothed in scarlet, and fine linen, and farest sumptuous!} 
every day, canst thou hope to deliver down the fields of blood to the 
third generation ? Not so — there is a God in heaven ; therefore thy 
name shall be rooted out. Like as those whom thou hast destroyed, 
both body and soul, tliy memorial shall perish widi thee." 

The Friends had prohibited their members from engaging in the 
traffic in ardent spirit, and discountenanced the use of it as an 

Yet such was the power of ardent spirit to blind the understand- 
ing, sear the conscience, and harden the heart, that, notwithstanding 
these, and other similar testimonies from physicians, jurists and 
divines, many were engaged in the traflic ; some who professed to 
be Christians, who had covenanted to do good, and good only, as 
ihey had opportunity, to all, were making, and, for the sake of gain, 
were fiirnishing to all who would purchase, that which tended to niin 
them, and their children after them, for both workls. And so do- 

FOU&TH BEfORT, 1831. 5 

ceived were the community, that it was generally thought to be. 
proper. It was licensed by tlie government, and sanctioned bjr 
Christian churches. Some who were officers in these churches, 
and who profess to be ministers of tlie gospel, were actively en- 
gaged in lumishuig that which tended, witli its whole influence, to, 
prevent tlie prepress of the gospel, and to perpetuate spiritual death 
to all future generations. 

But a great change has been commenced ; and one which, in 
tlie rapidity and extent of its progress, has no parallel in tlie history 
of man. Already is it spoken of, by tlie wise and the good in du^ 
and other countj;ies, as one of the wonders of the world. 

" The great discover)''," says a European writer, " has at length 
come fortli like tlie light of a new day, that the temperate memben 
of society are the chief agents in promoting and perpetuating 
drunkenness. On whose mind this greot truth first rose, is noC 
known. Whoever he was, whether humble or great, peace to fab 
memory. He has done more for tlie world than he who enriched 
it with tlie knowledge of a new continent ; and posterity, to tlie re- 
motest generation, shall walk in the light which he has throwqi 
around them. Had it not been for him, Americans and Europeani 
might have continued to countenance the moderate ordinary use of 
a substance, whose most moderate ordinary use is temptation and 
danger ; and, amidst a flood of prejudice and temptation, urged on- 
ward by themselves, they would have made rules against drunken- 
ness, like ropes of sand, to be burst and buried by the coming wave« 
Temperance Societies," he says, " have not only made America trulj 
the tiew world, but in a few montlis they have produced an un- 
paralleled change in many districts of the United Kingdom.'* 

And says another writer, " Temperance Societies have arben on 
our darkness like the cheering star of hope. They now flash across, 
our Ek^tem hemisphere with the bright and beauteous radiance of 
the bow of promise." , 

And says another writer, " It would be an act of ingratitudei 
towardi our American friends, were we in any degree to throw into 
the shade the obligations under which we lie to them for having 
originated this noble cause. If the names of Washington ana 
others are deservedly dear to them for their stnis;sles in the cause 
ef freedom, there are other names which wiu descend to tha 
latest posterity, as die deliverers of their country from a Uiraldom 
more dreadful by iar than that of any foreign yoke." 

" The American Temperance Society," says a writer of our owi^ 
country, " has accomplislied more good than any other ever formed, 
in ilie same space of time. The precipice over which we were 
falling has been described, tlie alarm has been sounded, and we 
are not lost. Heaven has decreed that we shall not be lost. Goil 
has said to America, as he did of old to ancient Sodom, ^ I will savflt 



you, if ten righteous, sober men can be found.' They ha^e been 
(bund, and we are redeemed." 

And says another, " The greatest improvement of modem times 
consists in the discovery tliat alcohol, as a beverage, is poison for 
the mind, as well as the body ; and the greatest invention of our 
day is, that of constructing those moral machines, called Tempe- 
rance Societies. They as far exceed steam-engines, railways, 
cotton-spinning machines, &ic. as the mind is superior to matter ; 
and the bodies and souls of mankind, are of more consequence tl:an 
money, and merchandise. We hope, therefore, that the time will 
soon arrive, when all the inhabitants of the United States will com- 
pose a Temperance Society ; of which every man, woman and 
child, who has arrived at years of discretion, will be a member." 

Multitudes now believe, that tliey cannot continue even to use 
ardent spirit, without the comjnission of known and aggi-avated sin ; 
or furnish it for others, without being accessory to the ruin, temporal 
and eternal, of their fellow men. Hundreds of ministei-s of the gos- 

Eel, thousands and tens of thousands of professed Christians, and 
undreds of thousands of distinguished and philanthropic men, have 
become convinced, that the traffic in ardent spirit, as an article of 
luxury or diet, is inconsistent with the Christian religion, and ought 
to be abandoned tliroughout the world. 

When great changes take place in tlie natural or moral world, 
many are anxious to know the cause; and the means by which 
those changes were effected. This b now the case with regard to 
*the Temperance Reformation. Numerous inquiries have l)een 
hiade, during the past year, in this and other countries, witli regard 
to the ongin of the American Temperance Society ; and die rea- 
sons which led its friends to adopt abstinence from the use of ardent 
spirit J as the first grand principle of their operations. 

These inquiries the Committee are disposed to answer ; both as 
a testinK)nv to the divine goodness, and an encouragement to aU 
who are disposed, in dependence on divine aid, and in the use of 
suitable means, to attempt to do all for tlie benefit of man which 
needs to be done. 

About seventeen years ago, a communication was made by a 
member of this Committee, on the evib of using intoxicating liquors 
at funerals ; and reasons were presented, why this practice, which had 
become common in some parts of the country, should be done 
away. One reason was, the tendency of this practice to prevent 
the benefit that might otherwise be derived from providences, and 
the religious exercises of funeral occasions. The effect showed 
that such labors are not in vain in the Lord. The practice de- 
clined, and was soon, in a great measure, done away. 

Not long after, ^je made another communication on the evils of 
fiirnishing ardent spirit as an article of entertainment, espcciaUy to 


POCJRTll R£POBT. — 1831. 

ininislers of the gos^iel ; a practice which was also common, and was 
diought by many to be a suitable expression of respect and kind- 
ness toward llie ministerial oflice. Tlie effect of this also was 
strongly marked ; and some pei'sons from that time adopted the 
plan of not using ardent spirit on any occasion. The benefits of 
Abstinence were striking; facts were collected, and arrangements 
made for a more extended exhibition of this subject. Men were 
found who had been led by their own reflections, m view of the evil 
which it occasions, to renounce the use of this poison ; and others 
who had never used it. Yet, as a body, they enjoyed better heakli 
than tliose who continued to use it, were more uniform and consist- 
ent in their deportment, and more ready for every good word and 

In 1822, a teamster, paitially intoxicated, by using what some 
persons, for less, probably, than twenty-five cents, had given him, fell 
under the wheels of his wagon, and was ciiislied to death. Anoth- 
er man, tending a coal-pit, became partially intoxicated, fell asleep 
on some straw, and was burnt to death. These e\'ents occasioned 
the delivery of two discourses, viz. one on the wretchedness of in- 
temperate men, and another on the diity of preventing sober men 
torn becoming intemperate ; Uiat, when the present race of drunk- 
ards sliould be removed, the whole land might be free. The means 
of doing this, tlie sure means, and the only means, were shown tb 
be, ahstinetice from the use of intoxicating liquors. Tliis was 
shown, by facts, to be both practicable and expedient, and was urged 
OS the indispensable duty of all men ; a duty which tliey owed 
to God, to themselves, their children, their country, and Ae 

This doctrine appeared to many to be strange ; excited great at- 
tention, occasioned much conversation, and, through the blessing of 
the Lord, produced great results. It was again and again enforced. 
A conviction of the duty of abstinence was fastened on many con- 
sciences ; and it became evident from facts, that this doctrine is 
adapted to commend itself to every man's conscience in the sight 
of God. 

A man, for instance, distinguished for sobriety and influence, said, 
*^ When I first heard the doctrine of abstinence, I did not believe it. 
I was sorry to hear it. I thought it was going so much too far, that 
k would only do hurt. I was opposed to intemperance as much as any 
one, but I thought that the temperate use of ardent spirit was, (or 
men who labor, in hot weather, necessary. I did not believe that 
men could work without. My father used it; though I recollect, 
when I was about fourteen years old, two gallons would carr}' hira 
and his workmen through all tlie business of the season ; and when 
I left him at twenty-one, it took twelve or fifteen gallons to do the 
same work. However, I began in the same way, and continued, 


dll I heard tlial sermon. And 1 then thought, that iJic man who 
could say, that all men, in all kinds of business, would be better witli- 
out the use of ardent spirit, did not understand the subject. How- 
ever, I thought of it as I went home — ^I tliought of it the next day — 
it kept in my mind ; and, seeing its awful effects among the j)oor, I 
said to myself, If it is true that men can live without, and would be 
belter without, it would be a great improvement, and would save 
property, character, life and soul, to a great amount. So I resolved 
to know whether it is tme or not. I resolved, that I would not 
use any myself for three months. I said nothing, however, to others, 
lest they should think I was becoming wild ; but before the close of 
three montlis, I began to suspect that it is true. I certainly fdt belter 
than before ; and I resolved to try it three months more. At the 
end of six months, I was as perfectly satisfied as I ever was of any 
thing, that the idea which I had, and which most men have, that 
the use of spirit does good, is a delusion. O," said he, " it is one of 
tlie greatest delusions under which sober men ever were. I after- 
wards mentioned it to my workmen, and we agreed that we would 
not use any for a year. And now, for almost two years, we have 
not used a drop ; and we are all persuaded, that w^e are vastly bet- 
ter without it.'' 

Others tried it, and came to the same result. All who made the 
experiment were satisfied that men in all kinds of business are bet- 
ter without it. 

And the question arose. Who know^s, should the subject be pre- 
sented kindly and plainly throughout the United States — ^be illus- 
Irated by facts, and pressed on the conscience — but that it n^ay, 
through the divine blessing, change the habits of the nation ? Who 
knows, but that our children, and children's children, may be raised 
tip fi'ee from this abomination, to be instnimental in perpetuating 
the blessings of fi-ee institutions — to be themselves made free by 
the Son of God — and to spread the light and glory of that freedom 
round the globe ? 

In 1826, the present Corresponding Secretary wrote the Tract 
No. 176 of the American Tract Society's series, entitled "The 
WELI/-CONDUCTED Farm," exhibiting the result of an experiment 
made by an original member of this Committee, upon an extensive 
fiuming establishment, in the county of Worcester, Mass. This 
tract was the same year printed, and circulated extensively through 
the country. 

The following are some of the advantages of abstinence, which 
were shown to have resulted to the workmen, viz. They had a 
better appetite for food, and were more nourished by it, than be- 
fore. They had greater vigor of body and mind ; they performed 
more labor, with greater ease, and were free from many of the 
diseases to which they were before accustomed. They acctimu- 


lated more property, were more happy, and were more usefiil to 
themselves and others. 

The following were some of the advantages of abstinence which 
were shown to have resulted to their employer : — ^Tiie men did 
more work, and in a better manner. It was easier to have a place 
for every thing, and to have every tiling in its place. The walls 
and fences were kept in good repair without direction from the 
owner. The cattle did not, as before, break in and destroy the 
crops. Tlie farm was more productive, and the fruits were gath- 
ered in better season. The tools were kept in better order ; the 
bams exhibited greater neatness ; the cattle and horses were more 
kind — and showed, in various ways, the benefits of abstinence from 
strong drink. The men were more respectful and uniform in their 
deportment ; were more contented with their living ; more desirous 
of being present at morning and evening family devotion ; were more 
attentii'e at public worship on the Sabbath, and were more interest- 
^A in the welfare of all around them. 

It was then shown that, should all the people of the United 
States adopt die plan of abstinence from the use of ardent spirits, 
the following would be some of tlie beneficial results, viz. 

They would enjoy better health, be able to accomplish more 
business, and live to a greater age. None of them would ever be- 
come intempemte ; and as soon as the present drunkards should be 
dead, intemperance would be done away.* They would save a yasi 
amount of property ; remove one of the principal causes of pauper- 
ism and crime, disease, insanity and death ; one of the greatest 
dangers to our free institutions, and one of the mightiest obstructions 
to the efficacy of the gospel, and all the means of grace ; and 
would greatly increase the prospect of their happiness and use- 
fiihiess, and that of their children, for both worlds .f 

The same year, die following senlunents were delivered by John 
Ware, M. D., before the Massachusetts Society for the Suppression 

of Intemperance4 

" It is an impression almost universal among the laboring classes, 
that ardent spirits, if not absolutely necessary, are, at least, of great 
use and importance, as a support during labor ; and that, moderateljr 
used, they are a salutary, or, at least, an innocent stimulus. But no 
impression can be more unfounded, no opinion more fatally false, 
than that which attributes to spirituous liquors any power of promot- 
i'.ig bodily strength, or supporting the system under labor or fatigue. 
Elxperience has in all quartei*s most abundantly proved tlie contrary. 
None labor so constantly, so cheerfully and witli so little exhaus- 
bon, as those who endrely abstain ; none endure so well hardships 
and exposure, the inclemency of weather, and the vicissitude of 

* This, and all tinular statements are made on the supposition thai the/ do aoC 
fobstitote or use aleohol in any other form. 

I APPB0OIZ, C. t Appsjtdii, D. 


Similar testimonies began to mnltiply. The evils of using, aiid 
t!)e benefits of abstaining from ardent spirit, became more and more 
conspicuous ; and also tlie necessity, as well as the encouragement, 
lr> make more systematic, general and persevering efforts on the 
subject. Individuals not only abstained, but, in some cases, agreed 
together, that they would not use or furnish to others that destruc- 
tive posion. But there was no system, no plan of operation, to 
cause such a union to become universal ; and it was evident that, 
unless something more universal, efficacious and persevering should 
be done, our country would be ruined ; the gospel would never have 
its legitimate influence over the human mind, and the reign of dark- 
ness and sin would be perpetuated to the end of time. l\^st efforts,' 
tliough they had on some spots, and in some cases, done good, 
had not struck at the root of the evil. Their object was, to regu- 
late the use of ardent spirits, not to abolisli it. Those who made 
tliem admitted, and most of them practised, the fundamental error, 
that men in health might, without injury, and, of course, without 
sin, use the poison, if they did not use too much. This was the 
cnj^e with members of Societies for the Suppression of Intem- 
perance. Thus, while they only retarded the growth, or clipped off 
a few of the top twigs of this poisonous tree, the roots were con- 
stantly nourished, and daily struck deeper and deeper. While the 
friends of temperance were reforming one old drunkard, their own 
habits, if followed, would make a hundred new ones. They were, 
indeed, sounding the alarm, but were treading in the footsteps of 
the lost ; denouncing intemperance, and encouraging the use of 
, strong drink ; bewailing the effect, and perpetuating the cause ; 
warmng men not to be dmnken, and urging them to drink. Many 
were enraged, almost to madness, at those who represented the 
ase of ardent spirit to be a sin ; and, though they had followed a 

Promising son to the drunkard's grave, and were expecting soon to 
>llow another, and another, they would denounce as enthusiasts, and 
treat as enemies, diose who urged them not to drink. 

Tlie husband, who had lost his wife by intemperance, would, for 
the sake of money, furnish that which killed her to all who would 
purchase, and even give it, as a token of kindness, to his nearest 
urtends. The wife, who had seen her husband die by this poison, 
would use it herself, and give it daily to her only son. 

And it was perfectly evident that, unless a new movement could 
be started, on a new plan, and one which should be commensurate, 
in place and time, with the evil, — one which should strike it at the 
root, and exterminate it, — drunkenness could never be done away. 
The people would never become " all righteous," nor the day of 
nnillenniai glory ever break on the world. 

A meeting of a few individuals was therefore called, to consdder 
(he following question, viz. 

TOURTU B£POBT. — 1831. tl 

^' JfOiot aAaU be done to banish intewverance from the United 
States T' 

After prayer for divine guidance, and consultation on the $ui^ 
ject, the result was, a determination to attempt the fonnatioo of an 
American Temperance Society, whose grand principle should 
be, abstinence from strong drink; and its object, by light and lortL 
to change the habits of the nation, with regard to the U9a oi 
intoxicating liquors. Some of the reasons of this determiaatioa 

1. Ardent spirit, which is one of the principal means of drunks 
enness, is not needful, and the use of it is, to men in health, alwajs 

2. It is adapted to form intemperate appetites ; and while k b 
continued, the evils of intempei*ance can never be done away. 

3. The use of this liauor is causing a general deterioration of 
body and mind ; which, it the cause is contmued, will continue to 

4. To remove the evils, we must remove the cause ; and to 
remove the cause, efibrts must be commensurate with the evil, and 
be continued till it is eradicated. 

5. We never know what we can do by wise, united, and powe- 
vering efforts, m a good cause, till we try. 

6. If we do not try to remove the evils of intemperance, we 
cannot free ourselves from the guilt of its effects. 

A correspondence was therefore opened, and a meeting of meii| 
of various Christian denominations, nolden in Boston, January 10, 

Hon. George Odiome was called to the chair, and Rev. Willitm 
Jenks, D. D., chosen clerk. 

The meeting was opened with prayer by the Rev. Timothy 
Merritt, of the Methodist Ep'iscopal church ; and after consuha- 
tk>n, the foUowing resolutions were introduced by Jeremiah tivarti, 
Esq., Corresponding Secretary of the American Board of Commb- 
sbners for Foreign IVIissions, and adopted, viz. 

"1. Resolved f That it is expedient that more systematic axid 
more vigorous eSoria be made by the Christian public to restrain and 
prevent the intemperate use of intoxicating liquors. 

'' 2. That an individual of acknowledged talents, piety, industiy 
and sound judgment, should be selected and employed as a ponna- 
nent agent, to spend his time, and use his best exertions tor ihe 
suppression and prevention of the intemperate use of intoxicating 

A committee was then appointed to prepare a constitution, and 
the meeting was adjourned to February 13th, 1826. 

At the adyoumed meeting, a Constitution was presented and 
adopted, and the following persons were chosen bv the members of 
tbe meetiiig, at the commenc>ement, to compose tne Sodety, m. 



Rev. Leonard Woods, D. D. ; Rev. William Jenks, D. D. ; Rev. 
Justin Edwards ; Rev. Warren Fay ; Rev. Bemamin B. Wisner ; 
Rev. Francis Wayland ; Rev. Timothy Merritt ; Hon. Marcus Mor- 
ton ; Hon. Samuel Hubbard ; Hon. William Reed ; Hon. Georce 
Odiome ; John Tappan, Esq. ; William Ropes, Esq. ; James r. 
Chaplin, M. D. ; S. V. S. Wilder, Esq. ; and Enoch Hale, M. D. 

The Hon. Heman Lincoln, of tlie Baptist church, then ofiered 
the following resolution, which was unanimously adopted, viz. 

. " Resolved J That the gentlemen composing this meeting pledge 
themselves to the American Society for the Promotion of Temper- 
ance, that they will use all their exertions in carrying into effect 
the benevolent plans of the Society." 

The Society tlien held its first meeting, and chose the following 
officers, viz. 

Hon. Marcus Morton, President ; Hon. Samuel Hubbard, Vice- 
President ; William Ropes, Esq., Treasurer ; John Tappan, Esq., 

Executive Committee — Rev. Leonard Woods, D. D. ; Rev. Jus- 
tin Edwards ; John Tappan, Esq. ; Hon. George Odiome, and S. V. 
S. Wilder, Esq. 

On the 12tn of March succeeding, the Society met, and chose 
eighty-four men, from tlie Northern, and Middle States, as addi- 
tional members of the Society. 

The Executive Committee then presented, through the press, the 
ibllowing address to the public : — 

" In view of the transactions above mentioned, and in accordance 
with the Constitution of The American Society tor the Promo- 
tion or Temperance, the Executive Conmiittee solicit the atten- 
tion of the Christian community to a few remarks relative to the 
iipportant subject here presented before them. 

" The evils resulting from an improper use of intoxicating liquors 
bave become so extensive and desolating, as to call for the . im- 
mediate, vigorous and persevering effoits of every philanthropist, 
patriot, and Christian. The number of lives annually destroyea by 
this vice, in our own country, is thought lo be more than thirty 
thousand ; and the number of persons who are diseased, distressed 
and impoverished by it, to be more tlian two hundred thousand. 
Many of them are not only useless, but a burden and a nuisance to 

" These liquors, it is calculated, cost the inhabitants of tliis country 
annually more than forty millions of dollars ; and the pauperism 
occasioned by the improper use of them, (taking the common- 
wealth of Massachusetts as an example,) costs them upwards of 
twelve millions; making an annual expense of more than 6fty 
niiKioDS of dollars. 

^Oat often hundred and stxty-onecasesoTcriniiiidproseeutioM 

founTtt liEi'Oii'r* — 183L 13 

itt Uie year 1820, before the Court of Sessions in the chy of New 
York, more tlmn eight hundred are stated to have been connected 
with intemperance. And so it is in all our prmcipal cities. Mtvre 
than three quarters of the crimes committed in the countir aro 
probably occasioned by this hateful vice. And if we aad to 
these the loss of time which it occasions, the loss of business, 
the loss of improvement, the loss of ch^cter, and the loss of 
happiness for time and for eternity, tlie evil swells to an bver- 
wlielming magnitude. The guilt and wretchedness resulting from 
it sur))ass all finite conception. Scarcely any thing has a more 

Cowerful and fatal efficacy to weaken, pollute, and debase the 
uman nrind. It palsies every effort for improvement, hinders the 
success of the gospel, and prevents the progress of the kingdom of 
Christ. It destroys, by hundreds and thousands, both the bodies 
and souls of men ; cutting them off from the possibility of enjoy- 
ment, and plunging them mto endless darkness and wo. 

" No sooner is a person brought under the power of intoxicating 
liquors, than he seems to be proof against the influence of aU tlie 
means of reformation. If, at any time, the truth gains access to his 
mind, and impresses his heait, by a few draughts of this fatal 
poison, the impression is almost sure to be efiaced. Hence tlie 
notorious and alarming fact, that a person addicted to this vice is 
seldom renewed in the temper of his mind, or even reformed as to 
hb outward character. If a single instance of the kind occurs, it 
is so uncommon, that it quickly becomes the subject of remark 
through a neighborhood, and ofien over a large extent of cmmtry, 
and lor years is mentioned as an extraordinary event. Most 
persons given to intempei-ance, proceed from one degree of 
wickedness to another, till, having been often reproved, and 
hardened their necks, they brine: sudden and remediless destruction 
upon themselves. And they ilesJiroy not only themselves, but p 
multitude of others. The intemperance of a father has extended 
to three, four, five, and even to seven of his children. The in- 
temperance of a family has extended its contagion through a 
neighborhood, and its baleful effects have been felt by numerous 
individuals and families. Many persons, in all classes of societ}', 
have been destroyed by tliis vice ; and no one is free from dan- 
ger. A father has no security that his children will not die 
drunkards; and no security that the evil will not be extended, 
through them, to future generations. And with the continuance 
of die present feelings and habits of the community, there is no 
prospect that the evil will be lessened, and no possibuity that it will 
DC (Kme away. All persons, especially the young, must contmue 
to be exposed. Dangers meet them in the street ; overtake them 
in bunness ; follow them to their dwellings ; attend them in the 
private btenriew, and in the social circle, and assail them wherever 


they go; and without a change in the sentiments and practices 
of tlie community, the evil roust continue to increase, till the 
animating prospects of this great and mighty republic are darkened, 
its precious institutions ruined, and thousands and millions of its 
populadon borne on a current of liquid fire to a world of wo. 

*< The AiraRicAN Societt for the Promotion of Temper- 
ance have, therefore, after deliberate and devout attention to the 
subject, resolved, in the strength of the Lord, and with a view to 
the account which they must render to him for the influence they 
exert in the world, to make a vigorous, united, and persevering 
eflbrt to produce a change of public sentiment and practice ^ith 
legard to the use of intoxicating liquors. 

" For this purpose, they deem it of primary importance that tliey 
should obtain an adequate fund for the support ot a man of suitable 

Sialifications, in the office of Secretary, who shall devote himself to 
e service of the Society, and, in the various ways pointed out in 
the Constitution, labor to promote its object. 

" In attempting to procure this fund, the Committee cheerfully 
make their appeal to men of known and expansive benevolence, 
who are blessed with property, and are firiends to Him, who was 
rich, yet, for our sakes, became poor, that we, tlirough his poverty, 
might be rich,— 4uid request them, from love to Him and to their 
fellow men, to take into serious consideration the magnitude of the 
evil which tliis Society aims to pi*event, and the immeasurable good 
which it aims to secure, and to furnish the necessary means, if a 
man of the right character may be wholly and permanently devoted 
to this object, with the aid which he may receive from good men, 
throughout the country, the Committee are confident that, with the 
divine blessing, a system of general and powerful cooperation may 
be formed, and that a change may in a short time be efTected, 
which will save an incalculable amount of poperty, and vast multi- 
tudes of valuable lives — a change which will be connected with the 
highest prosperity of our country, and with the eternal salvation 
of millions ot our feUow men. 

" And may God Almighty crown with glorious success this and 
every other effi>rt to do good, so that Chrisdan morality, and piety, 
and happiness, may universally prevail. 


J.EDWARDS, / ExtcMtk^ 

G. ODIORNk. C ^•«'»*«««- 
S. V. S. WILDER, / 
•• Boston, March, 1826." 

On the 1 6th of January , Rev. Calvin Chapin, D. D., ofWethersfield, 
Conn., commenced the publication of a series of thirty-three num- 
bers, in the Connecticut Observer, entided " The Intallible An- 
TiDOiE." His motto was, '^ Entirt abitinencefrom ardent spirits is 

rOCRTH REPORT. 1831. 1ft 

the only certain preventive of intemperance.^' This was str'ikingly 
illustrated in the various numbers, and strongly urged upon all as 
an indispensable duty. He had himself, as had a number of 
others, practised it for many years, and urged it as the duty of all 

In April, 1826, the National Philanthropist, a weekly paper, de- 
voted to the cause of temperance, was established, in Boston, by 
the Rev. William Collier. Its motto was, " Temperate drinking is 
the downhill road to intemperance ^ This paper has been con- 
tinued, and, with some inf)drficatio!is, is now published by Messra. 
Goodell and Crandall, in New Yoi-k. It is an able and efficient pa- 
per, and, under its successive editors, has been a valuable auxiliary 
to the cause. 

In September of the same year, an association of more than fifty 
heads of families, and mo^e than one hundred and fifty young men, 
was formed in Andover, Mass., on the plan of abstinence, witli the 
following constitution, viz. 

" Believing tliat the use of iiitoxicating liquors is, for persons in 
healtli, not only unnecessary, but hurtful ; that it is the cause of 
forming intemperate appetites and habits ; and that, while it is con- 
tinued, the evils of intemperance can never be prevented, — 

" Therefore, we, the subscribers, for the purpose of promoting our 
own welfare, and that of the community, agree that we will abstain 
from tlic use of distilled spirits, except as a medicine in case of bod- 
ily infirmity ; that we will not allow the use of them in our fami- 
lies, nor provide them for the entertainment of our friends, or for 
persons in our employment ; and diat, in all suitable ways, we will 
discountenance tlie use of them in the community. 

Andovett Mcua., Sept., 1826.*' 

In January, 1827, the present Corresponding Secretary visited Bos- 
ton, and commenced an effort to obtain means for the support of a per- 
manent agent. At the first meeting, although the evening was ex- 
ceedingly stormy, the amount subscribed was more than $3500* 
At the second meeting, the amount subscribed was more than 
^1200; and at the third meedng, more than j(700. h\ Salem, 
Newburyport, Andover, and Northampton, were obtained upwards 
of $2000 more. 

As the pastoral duties of the Secretary did not permit of his con- 
tinuing his agency, the Committee appointed the Rev. Nathaniel 
Hewit, of Fairfield, Conn., who was known to have preached and 
acted successfully on this subject, who spent twenty weeks in the 
service of the Society. He visited various places in Massachusetts, 
Khoda Island, Connecticut, New York, and Pennsylvania ; preach- 
ed on the subject, addressed public bodies, and in various ways 
promoted successfully the great and good cause. 


In September of the same year, the present Secretary was again 
appointed to an agency of three months, and visited various places 
in Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. 

The prospect continued to brighten, and the evidence to increase 
that the work was of God. Numbers were found who had been led, 
within a few years, from their own reflections, without concert, in 
view of what they saw, to the conclusion, that tliey could not con- 
tinue to use ardent spirit, or to furnish it for tlie use of others, with- 
out ihe commission of sin. These were evidences which God had 
prepared, when the duty of abstinence was preached, to rise up 
and say, " We have felt it ;" and when tlie utility of abstinence 
was exhibited, to say, " It is true ; we have tried it, and found it 
so." This was said by men in various kinds of business, and in 
all conditions of life, and it gave a powerful impulse to the cause. 
" I wish," said an old man, as he rose at the close of a temperance 
meeting, " to say to tlie people, before they go away, that all which 
they have heard with regard to the utility of abstinence from ardent 
spirit is true. I know it is true. I have tried it. More tlian a 
hundred tons of hay I have galliered this summer off my own fai*m, 
and not a man in my employment has used a drop. I never got 
through the business of a season before without having some of my 
men sick. In the hot days of haying and harvesting, one was taken 
off a day, another a week, and so on. But this summer, not a man 
has lost a meal of victuals during the season. They have not 
broken the tools, as they used to ; tliey have not Quarrelled among 
themselves, as they used to ; and I finished the business of the sea- 
son much sooner than my neighbors who kept on in the old way, 
and much better than ever before. Oli ! it is a great improvement." 

In the course of the year, were published Kittrec^e s Fu*st Address, 
Dr. Mussey's Address before the Medical Convention of New 
Hampshire, Mr. Palfrey's Sermons, and Dr. Beecher's Sennons on 
the Nature, Signs, Evils, and Remedy of Intemperance ; and they 
were all powemil auxiliaries to the cause.* 

To show the state of the public mind at this period, we present 
a few extracts from the publications of that year. 

The Massachusetts Society for the Suppression of Intemperance, 
in their Annual Report, Nov., 1827, say, " It is becoming unfashion- 
able to drink ardent spirits in decent company ; and it is no longer 
considered a necessary mark of hospitality to offer them. People 
are beginning to yield to the con\iction that they are injurious to 
health, even when used in moderation. It is presumed that the im- 

* Dr. Beecher's Sennons were preached the year before, at Litchfield, Conn. 
This fact, howerer, was not knoi;^ n to those who formed the American Temper* 
ance Society, thus showing that different minds, in distant places, without ooa* 
cert, were taking substanUoUy the same views of this great subjecLf 

f ArP£]iDii, £. 

rOURTH REPORT.— 1831. 17 

provement whicli has begun will go on, and they wiU be at len^i 
universally banished. It seems now to be generally admitted oy 
those who have had an op|)oitunity for observation, or have made 
themselves acquainted with the various facts, which have been col* 
lected with regard to intemperance, that we are to attribute much of 
the prevalence of immoderate drinking to erroneous opinions and prac* 
tices of societ}', with regard to moderate drinking. No man probably 
ever became at once a drunkard. Drunkards have all once l>ecn 
moderate drinkers, and have only gradually and insensibly become 
immoderate drinkers. It would seem, then, that there must be some- 
thing wrong in this habit of moderate drinking, since it leads, in so 
large a proportion of cases, to so depk)rable a result." 

They also passed the following resolutions, viz : — 

" 1. Resolved, That, in the opinion of this meeting, there is suf- 
ficient evidence that ardent spirits are not necessary as a refresh- 
ment or a support to the strength during labor, but, on the contrary, 
are absolutely injurious to the health ; that to the general moderate 
use of them is to be chiefly attributed the prevalent habit of in- 
temperance; and that entire abstinence from their use, except 
when prescribed as medicines, be recommended to all classes of 

" 2. Resolved, That it be recommended to ship-owners, masters 
of vessels, farmers, mechanics, proprietors and superintendents of 
manufacturing establishments, and aU others having the care of 
young persons when first entering upon laborious occupations, to 
endeavor to induce those under their charge to form the habit of 
labor without any use of ardent spirits. 

" 3. Resolved, That it be recommended to all having the charge 
of the education of the young, to endeavor to produce upon their 
minds a strong impression of the dangerous tendency of even a 
moderate use of ardent spirits." 

The conviction had now become extensive, that the use of ardent 
spirit is wrong. Many had come to the conclusion, that no man in 
health, who understands its nature and efTects, can continue to use 
it as an article of luxury or diet, or to traffic in it, without guilt. 

Kittredge,in his Address, said, " Ardent spirits are said to be usefiil 
and necessary. It Is false. It is nothing but the ajpology that tlie 
love of them renders for their use. * There are only two cases in 
which, Dr. Rush says, they can be administered witliout injury ; 
and those are cases of persons likely to perish, and where substi- 
tutes may be applied of equal effect. What rational man would use 
them for the sake of these two possible cases ? As well might he 
introduce rattlesnakes among his children, because tlieir oil is 
glDod in diseases with which they may possibly be afflicted. What! 
drink none } Yes — ^I say. Drink none. One gallon for tliis town is 



just four quarts too much. In addition to the miseries of debt and 
poverty, which they entail upon a community, tliey are tlie parent 
of one half the dbeases that prevail, and one half the crimes that 
are committed. It is ardent spirits that fill our poor-houses and 
our jails ; our penitentiaries, mad-houses, and state prisons. It is ar- 
dent spirits that furnish victims for the gallows. Tl>ey are the 
greatest curse tliat God ever inflicted on the world, and may well be 
called the seven vials of his wrath. They are more destructive 'u\ 
their consequences than war, plague, pestilence or fambe, yea, than 
all combined. They are slow in their maich, hut sure in llieir grasp. 
They seize not only on the natural, but the moral man. They con- 
sign the body to the tomb, and the soul to hell. But have not ar- 
dent spirits one good quality, one redeeming virtue ? None, I say, 
none. There is nothing, not even the shadow of a virtue, to se- 
cure them from universal and everlasting execration. The parent 
should instil into his children a hatred of ardent spirits as much as 
he does of falsehood and theft. He should no more suffer his chil- 
dren to drink a little, than he does to lie a little, and to steal a little. 
No longer use that which is the source of infinite mischief, w^iihout 
one redeeming benefit ; which has entailed upon you, upon your 
children, and upon society, woes unnumbered and unutterable. 
Banish it from your houses. It can be done. You have only to 
will, and it is effected. Use it not at home. Let it never be found 
to pollute your dwellings. Give it not to your friends or your 
workmen. Touch it not yourselves, and suffer not your children 
to touch it And let it be a part of your morning and evening 
prayer, that you and your children may be saved from intemper- 
ance, as much as from famine, from sickness and deatli." 

Dr. Beecher, in hb Sermons, said, " The traffic in ardent spirits 
is wrong, and should be abandoned as a great national evil. The 
amount of suffering and mortality, inseparable from the commerce 
in ardent spirits, renders diem an unlawful article of trade. The 
commerce in ardent spirits, w-hich produces no good, and produces 
a certain and an immense amount of evil, must be regarded as an 
unlawful commerce, and ought, upon every principle of humanity, 
patriotism, conscience, and religion, to be abandoned and pro- 
scribed. It seems to be a manifest violation of the command, * Thou 
shalt love thy neighbor as thyself,' and of various other evan- 
gelical precepts. 

" No man can act in the spirit of impartial love to his neighbor, 
who, for his own personal emolument, inflicts on him great and ir- 
reparable evil ; for love worketli no ill to his neighbor. Love will 
not bum a neighbor's house, or poison . his food, or blast his reputa- 
tion, or destroy his soul. But the commerce in ardent spirits does 
all this inevitably and often. Property, reputation,, health, life and 
salvation fall before it. 

'^ POtmTH REPORT. — 1831. J9 

**The direct infliction of what is done iodirerdv*, would subject a 
aian to the ignominy of a public execution." * » « ♦ 

** It is scarcety a palliadon of this evil, that no man is destroyed 
maliciously, or with any direct intent to kill ; for the certainty of 
«vil is as great as if waters were poisoned which some persons 
would surely drink, or as if a man should fire in the dark 'jpon 
masses of human beings, where it must be certain that death wouW 
be the consequence to some." « ♦ * « 

** Can it be denied that tlie commerce in ardent spirits makes a 
fearful havoc of property, morals and life ? Does it not shed blood 
as really as the sword, and more bbod than is shed by war ? In 
this point, none are better witnesses tlian physicians, and, according 
to tlieir testimony, intemperance is one of the greatest destroyers 
of virtue, healdi and life. ♦ ♦ * ♦ 

" The consideration, that those, to wlK)se injury we are accessory 
by the sale of ardent spirits, are desltDyed also by the perversion 
of their own fi-ee agency — and that the evil is silent, and slow-paced" 
in its march^-doubtless subtracts, in no small degree, from the keen 
Bense of accountability and crime, which would attend tlie admmis- 
tration of arsenic, or tne taking of life by the pistol, or the daggei^— 
«s does also the consideration that although we may withhold the 
cup, yet, from some other source, the deleterious potion will be 

*' But all this alters not the case. He who deliberately assists bis 
neighbor to destroy his life, is not guiltless because his neighbor is a 
free agent and is also guilty ; and he is accessory to the crime, though 
twenty other persons might fiave been ready to conmiit the same sin if 
be had not done it. Who tvould sell arsenic to his neighbor, to destroy 
himself, because he could obtain it elsewhere ? Who would sell 
a dagger for the known purpose of assassination, because, if it 
were refused, it could be purchased in another place? We are 
accountable for our own wrong-domg, and liable to punishment 
at the hand of God, as really as if it had been certain tbat no one 
would have done the deed, if we did not. 

^* The ungodUniess m time, and the everlasting ruin in eternity, in- 
separable from the conmierce in ardent spirit, proscribe it as an 
nuawfiil article of traffic. 

** Who can estimate the hatred of God, of his word and worship, 
and of his people, which it occasions? or number the oaths and 
blasphemies it causes to be uttered ? or the violations of the Sabbath ? 
die impurities and indecencies, violence and wrong-doin^, which 
it originates ? How many thousands does it detain every Sabbath- 
day ttom the house of Grod-^utting them off from the means of 
grace, and hardening diem against their efficacy ! How broad is the 
road which intemperance alone opens to hell, and how thronged 
with travelers J" ♦ * « ♦ 


'' Here is an article of commerce spread over the land, whose 
effect Ls evil only, and that continually, and which increases an 
hundred-fold the energies of human depravity, and the hopeless 
victims of future punisiiment. 

^' Drunkenness is a sin which excludes from heaven. The coid- 
merce in ardent spirits, therefore, productive only of evil in time, fits 
ibr destruction, and turns into hell, multitudes which no man can 

" I am aware that, in the din of business, and the eager thirst for 

Sin, the conseouences of our conduct upon our views, and the 
:ure destiny oi our fellow men, are not apt to be realized, or to 
modifv our course. 

'' But has not God connected with all lawful avocations the welfare 
of tlie life diat now is, and of that which is to come ? And can we 
lawfully amass property by a course of trade which fills tlie land 
with beggars, and widows, ^d orphans, and crimes ; which peoples 
the grave-yard with premature mortalitv, and the world of wd with 
the victims of despair ? Could all the forms of evil produced in the 
land by intemperance come upon us in one horrid array, it would 
appall the nation, and put an end to the trafiSc in aitlent spirits. 
U in every dwelling buut by blood, tlie stone from the wall should 
utter all the cries which the bloody traffic extorts, and the beam 
out of the timber should echo them back, who would build such 
a house ? — and who would dwell in it ? What if, in every part of 
tlie dwelling, from the cellar upward, through all the hails and 
chajubei-s, babblings, and contentions, and voices, and groans, and 
shrieks, and waitings, were heard, day and night? What if tlie cold 
blood oozed out, and stood in drops upon the walls, and, by preter- 
natural art, all the ghasdy skulls and bones of the victims destroyed 
by intemperance, should stand upon tlie walls, in horrid sculpture 
widiin and without the building — who would rear such a building? 
What if, at eventide, and at midnight, the airy forms of men destroy- 
ed by intemperance, were dimly seen haunting the distilleries and 
stores, where they received their bane — following the track of the 
ship engaged in the commerce — walking upon the waves— flitting 
athwart the deck — sitting upon the rigging — and sending up from 
die hold within, and from the waves without, groans, and loud 
laments, and wailings! Who would attend ^uch stores? Who 
would labor in such distilleries? Who would navigate such 
ships ? 

** Oh ! were the sky over our heads one great whispering galleiy, 
bringing down about us all the lamentation and wo which intemperance 
creates, and the firm earth one sonorous medium of sound, bringing 
up around us, from beneath, the wailings of the damned, wiiom the 
commeice in ardent spirits had sent thither; — these tremendous 
realities, assailing our sense, would invigorate our conscience, and 

TOUBTH REPORT. 1831. 31 

pve decision to our purpose of reformation. But tliese evils are as 
real as if the stone did cry out of the wall, and the beam answered 
it ; as real as if, day and night, wailings were heard in every part 
of the dwelling, and blood and skeletons were seen upon every 
wall I as real as if the ghostly forms of departed victims flittea 
about the ship as she passed over the billows, and showed them- 
selves nightly about stores and distilleries, and, with unearthly 
voices, screamed in our ears their loud lament. They are as real as' 
if the sky over our heads collected and brought down about us 
all the notes of sorrow in the land ; and the firm earth should 
open a passage for the wailings of despair to come up fixxB 

Tne Massachusetts Medical Society passed resolutions in favor 
of absdnence, and gave it as their opinion, that the best drink ibr 
man is water. 

The Medical Society of the Western District of New Hampshire 
declared, that spirituous drinks have no tendency to protect the 
system from diseases, but expose it the more. The New Hamp- 
shire Medical Society did the same, and gave it as their opinion, 
that distilled spirits are not essentially necessary in a sin^e disease. 
They resolved that they would abstain from the use of them them- 
selves, and discourage the use of them by others. 

The President of the Society, in his address delivered June, 1827, 
said, *' Does a healthy laboring man need alcohol ? No more than 
he needs arsenic, corrosive sublimate, or opium. It has been proved 
a thousand times, that more labor can be accomplished in a month, 
or a year, under the influence of simple nourishing food, and un- 
stimidating drink, than through the aid of alcohol.'' ♦ « « 

" From a commercial friend in Massachusetts I have lately re- 
ceived the following information. * I visited,' says he, * four or 
five years since, in New Jersey, an iron foundery belonging to Mr. 
Wood, of Philadelphia. I think there were thirty or forty men era- 
pk>yed in the establishment, and all they drank was pure spring 
water. I saw them often while lading out the liot metal, and sweating 
at every pore, take a mug, run to the spring, and drink very freely 
of the water. I inquired if they did not feel any ill ef!bcts front 
drinking so much cold water. They answered, JVo. The furnace 
went into blast in April, and continued till October. All those 
eippfeyed liad the best of health during the whole season, and re- 
turned to tlieir friends in the autunm with better health and fuller 
purses than they ever had before. 

" * A vessel belongii^ to my^ neighbor went from this place to 
South America, and from thence to India. No spirit was allowed to 
the crew during the whole voyage. They all arrived home in goe^ 
health. One of ray own captains kept grog from his men tbe 
irbole of an India voyage ; they all came home in fine health. For 


tny crews In hot climates, I direct spruce beer, made with tl)e oil 
or essence of spruce, and molasses and water. I shipped two 
crews hisl week ior long voyages in hot climates, and named to the 
men that we should not allow diem grog. There was not a single 
objection made to signing the shipping papers. It is in the power 
of eveiy ship owner lo prevent the use of ardent spirit on boaird his 
vessels, by sending out a few barrels of molasses, and a few dozen 
bottles of tlie essence of spmce, for beer.' 

" To the foregoing suggestion it may be proper to add, that, for 
laboi ing men in hot weather, sweetened water, sometimes with the 
addition of ginger, is a most salutary drink ; so also is a mixture of 
milk and water. 

" The principle of life is aflbrded to every individual in such quan- 
tity, or hi suf h manner, as to admit of the living actions being car- 
ried on under the most favorable circumstances only for a limited 
period ; and as no human power or skill can increase this principle 
one jot or tittle, so neither can the actions of life be urged beyond 
tlie standard of sound iieallh (leaving casualties out of tlie question^ 
without necessarily shortening it. And tliis shoitening of life will 
he for minutes, or months, or years, according to the degree and 
continuance of tlie excitement beyond the natural and uniiorm rate 
of healthy action. 

" This vital principle has been likened, not altogether inaptly, to 
oil in a lamp, which is capable of sustaining flame only for a reitaiii 
length of time. If the wick be raised higher dian necessary to 
produce a fidl and clear light, a part of the oil goes off in smoke, 
and the whole is sooner consumed." 

Many of the ecclesiastical bodies m the Nonliem and Middle 
States passed resolutions in favor of abstinence ; and recommended 
to all the churches and congregations under their care, to cooperate 
with the friends of the American Temperance Society in extending 
its principles and operations throughout the land. The members 
of several churches resolved entirely to abstain from the use of ar- 
dent spirit themselves, being persuaded that the gpspel required it, 
and to use their influence to lead all others to do the same. The 
yotith in various colleges, and tlie citizens in numerous towns, 
united in Temperance Societies, on the plan of abstinence from the 
tise of this poison ; and the impression was rapidly extending, that 
no man could continue, as an article of luxury or diet, to use it, or 
be accessory to the use of it by others, without the commission of 
sin, and, in proportion to the light which he might liave on the 
subject, the accumulation of tremendous and ever-growing guflt. 

ilie facts which had been developed sliowed that the use of 
tilts article is not needful, not salutar}% but is uniformly hurtful ; 
that it caused more than three fourths of the pauperism, crimes, 
and wretchedness of the community ^ greatly increased the number. 

rOUETH EEPORT 1831. 93 

frequency, and violence of diseases ; destroyed the reason oTinttl^'' 
titudes ; and brought down greater, and still greater multitudes to iui 
untimely ^ve. They sliowed, conclusively, that it tended, wkh 
a mighty mfluence, to obstruct the progress of the gospel, to htiider 
the e/iioacy of all Uie means which God has provided for the moral ' 
and spiritual illummation and purification of men, and thus to nAi' 
them forever. And die prospect was, that, should suitable meaaii 
be used, and the whole community be made acquainted with the' 
bets, the conviction of this truth, unless prevented by avarice or 
appetite, would, with the divine blessing, become universal. 

in November, 1827, the Committee reappointed Rev. Na- 
thaniel Hewit to an agency for three years. And, having beeii 
dismissed from his pastoral care for that purpose, he accepted * 
the appointment, and entered upon its dudes January 1, 1828. 

In May of the same year, they appointed Rev. Joshua Leavkl ' 
to an agency for four months. A commission was also given to 
Mr. Daniel C. AxteU, to labor as an agent in the western parts of 
the state of New York. His salary and traveling expenses were 
paid by a benevolent individual in that part of the state. 

Rev. Dr. Woodbridge, of Hadley, Mass., at the request of die 
Hampshire County Temperance Society, performed an agency 
through most of tfaie towns in that county. Other individuals per- 
formed voluntary agencies in their own towns and 4istricts. At 
the close of the year 1828, there were formed and reported 13 ^ 
Temperance Societies in Maine, 23 in New Hampshire, 7 in Ver- 
nMHit, 39 in Massachusetts, 2 in Rhode Island, 33 in Connecticut,' ' 
78 in New York, 6 in New Jersey, 7 in Pennsylvania, 1 in Del-* 
aware, 1 in Maryland, 5 in Virginia, 2 in North Carolina, 1 in ' 
South Carolina, 1 in Kentucky, 1 m diio, and 2 in Indiana. Oth- 
ers had been formed in different parts of the country, which had 
not been reported. State Societies had been fonned in New 
Hampshire, Vermont, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Illinois. A So- 
ciety had also been formed in Lower Canada ; and it is supposed' 
that there were not less tlian thirty thousand persons who had 
agreed hot to use ardent spirits. 

In Belebertown, Mass., the quantity used in 1825 was adf^ 
about one fimrdi as much as in 1824. In Plymouth, New Hanip- 
shire, the etiHt of ardent spirits was not one sixteenth part as 
mucli as in 1826. Similar changes had been effected in (Ak&t 

Restrfotions of abstinence had been passed by more than 90 
nufitury companies, by the officers of 4 regiments, b^ 10 med- 
ical societies, and a great portion of all the ecclesiastical bodies _ 
ia the eountry. The lawyers of 3 counties had voted to abstiii^" 
from ardent spirits,* and the members of the House of Ref- 

* ArriiiDii, F. 


reseotatives of New Hampshire, not to use them doring die 
sion of the Legislature^ 

A number of distilleries bad been stopped, and more than s 

; iiuodred merchants had renounced the traffic ; vessels were sent 
to foreign ports without carrying tlie poison.; and the impressioD 

. continued to extend, that no person, acquainted with the subject, 
could continue to use or to traffic in ardent spirit without the 
guilt of blood. 

Tbe language used at the annual meetings, to which thousands 

of the wisest and best hearts in the land responded, was, 

. ^' There is no longer any doubt of the part which the Christian 

. . should act. He is imperiously called upon, by the principles of hb 
religion, to abandon all connection, of whatever kind, with the m-* 
toxicating cup. Every glass he drinks is a warrant for his neighbor 
to do the like } and intemperance Is sure to follow the use of ardent 
spirits. There is nothing on eartli that can prevent it ; and as k>ng 
as human nature remains the same, this will continue to be the 

. case. No man can theretore encourage that use ; no roan ctm ad-* 
minister the poison, without being responsible for the consequences. 
^ The trader knows that every barrel he purchases will spread sorrow 
^nd grief wherever it is carried. There is a moral certainty, that 
every gallon that is carried into tlie country, will help to keep alive 
that baneful disease, which rages with a fury that knows no re-^ 
straint, and with a force that cannot be resisted. Every man, 

. therefore, who carries it into the country, is direcdy concerned in 
nroducing diat mass of pauperism, disease, and crime, whidi results 
jirom intemperance. He supplies the fuel that keeps alive the 
flame, and ne is the incendiary who spreads that liquid fire which 
, involves the peace and happiness of the domestic circle, the promise 
of youth, and the hopes of old aee, in one general ruin. 

** The vending of ieirdent spirits cannot be carried on without 
guilt. Every groe-shop exhibits scenes that religbn cannot wittiess 
' without horror. Here every evil passbn is fed ! Here every base 
propen^ty is nourished ! Here is kept the food of dmnkenaess, 
and hither resort all those miserable victims of the disease wba 
would rather die of it than be cured ! Here is found the fcisoa dial 
vitiates the taste of the temperate, and prepares them to supplv the 
places of those who die of tliis plague ! Here the temperate orink, 
and here the temperate learn to be di*unkard». All the drunk* 
ards in the country are brought up at these stores. They are tbe 
schools of intemperance, a^id as lone as they continue the traffic in 
ardent spirits, they will continue to be the poison of the kmd. As 
long as they furnish the supply of ardent spirits called for, they will 
continue to send forth tlirougfi the towns m which they are found, 
a pestilence, laying waste ever}' noble and manly feeling of the 
imman bearti and every lovely trait in the human character, b 

fOUlKTH ll£PORT.«-«-183L 3f 

not this 80? Where were the drunkards of our village formed, but 
at those places where ardent spirits are sdd ? Where is the origin 
of all that poverty and crime which are traced to intemperance, but 
at these Aceldamas of human blood ? Where can the wife and the 
mother find the cause of that fountain of tears which thev are coD" 
strained to shed, but at these fountams of ardent spints ? And 
can the Christian cany on this traffic ? Can be supply the lava 
which scorches tlie land, and be innocent ? Does he find nothing 
in that benien religion which he professes, to forbid it ? Can he be 
the agent of intemperance, the commissary of the drunkard, and 
feel no remorse? I know die vender tells you he is not an- 
sweraBle for the consequences ; that he frowns on intemperance, 
and withholds the cup from the drunkard. But this is not so* 
Does not the vender Know tlie effects of ardent spirits ? Does he 
not know the consequences which they will assuredly produce ? 
Does he not know that of those who drink, many vnH be drunken ? 
And can he supply the cause, and detach himself from the eflect? 
Can he hurl firebrands through your city, and witness the confla- 
gration, and claim exemption fit>m blame ? Can he spread the 
contagion among your families, and, when he hears the dying groan 
and sees the funeral, tell you that he is innocent ? Yet the vender 
of ardent spirits does all this. He ^reads the intoxicating caose ; 
he sees the drunken effect ; he hears the drunken curse ; he wit- 
nesses the drunken revel ; he is surrounded with it; he is producing 
it ; and yet teUs you that he b innocent ! Wonderful fatuity ! But 
he knows the responsibility is so great that he shrinks fitxn 
acknowledging it.. He sees the guilt and the wo, and shudders at 
the thought of bemg its cause. And well he may ; but he cannot 
escape. As long as he furnishes the means of drOnkenness to 
others, he is a partaker of the crime. And he should be so held 
in public opinion. He should be held directly responsible for the 
conseciuences of his acts, and the same odium which attaches to 
the nnncipal should attach to all accessories. But he tells you 
he frowns on intemperance. So, perhaps, he does. After produ- 
cing it, he frowns on the wretch that he has made drunken, and 
abhors his own offiqpring. But every retaQer should remember that 
the drunkards with whom he is surrounded are his own children 
and apprentices, and that they afford a living exhibition of the char- 
acter ot his own deeds. When he looks upon them, ragged, filthy 
and debased — ^when he hears the noon-day curse and the midnight 
broil, he should say, 'Here is my work ; this is what I have done. 
It is my trade to make such men. I have spent my life in it.' And 
if he is a Christian, and duly appreciates his guilt, he will raise his 
hands to Heaven, and before God declare that he will make no 
more such. 

''But the vender teDs you again that he withholds the cup 



from the drunkard. So, perhaps, he may. He will iumish the cup 
till the wretch is made drunken, and then refuse him tiU he is sober 
^again. But this is too late ; this refusal comes when it can do 
little or no good. The crime is already perpetrated. The guik is 
ab*eady incurred, and in vain does the vender attempt to escape. 
But it is not true, that he withholds the cup from the drunkard. 
Every retailer does sell to the drunkard, and, however well mean- 
mg he may be, he cannot carry on this trade without contributing 
to the support of intemperance. And this traffic should be 
abandoned by the Christian public. Conscience should be aDowed 
d triumph over interest and custom, and the merchandise of spirits 
;ihouid be classed with the merchandise of blood. No Christian 
should contam'mate his hands and his soul with this most destructive 
and demoralizing commerce. And I am happy to say, that many 
merchants have lately viewed this as they ought, and forsaken 
the trade, as being a curse revolting to the feelings of patriotism and 
Christianity. They have given a noble example of the triumph of 
principle, and one that deserves the universal approbation of the 
Christian public. 

*' But tlie retailer is not alone. He is but a subaltern in that 
mighty army of the agents of intemperance which is scattered 
through the land. He is the immediate instrument of the ruin 
which spirituous liquors occasion, but the wholesale dealer, although 
one grade above him, is equally a partaker of the guilt. He sup* 
plies the numerous streams which issue through the land, laying 
waste every thing in their course. Could the vender learn the 
history of a single hogshead of this liquid ; could every drop return 
to him, and give a faithfiil account of the effects it liad produced, — 
he would shudder at the narration. Could he collect before him, 
and be enabled to see, the cri^ie, the disease and death, the poverty 
and distress, to count the tears and hear the groans, which every 
cask of spirits occasions, he would revolt with horror from the trade. 
But he may conceive it. Let him learn the history of intem- 
perance, and then let him reflect diat he is constantly engaged in 
sjsreading its horrors ; diat he is supplying from day to day the 
hquid fire that is scattered by an army of retailers through the land, 
scorching and destroying every thing within its reach, and he will 
be constrained to pronounce it an unchristian occupatk)n. And let 
the distiller remember, that he stands at the bead of the stream, and 
lets loose the flood-gates to deluge and destroy ; that his occupation 
is to poison the land, and that the more he does, the more wretched 
is the world ; and he will not find one single consolation to cheer 
and support him." ♦ ♦ ♦ 

'' Does the Christian pray for the spread of his religion, and is he 
at the same time engaged in the spread of intemperance ? Does 
lie pray for the reformatkm of the world, and, while his prayers are 

rOUBTH REPORT. 1831. 27 

ascending to heaven, is he spreading the plague, that poisons the 
heart, and renders mankind incapable of reformation ? is he sup- 
porting the missionary In foreign lands, from funds which he has 
collected as the wages of drunkenness ? And does he believe the 
God of heaven will smile on the labors of him who is supported by 
food taken from the moutlis of the children of the intemperate, for 
the drink that destroys them ? While he is attempting to teach tlie 
heathen the way to heaven, is he binding his own countrymen in 
chains strong as the bands of death, and leading them ui tlie road 
to hell ? Is he training them to practices and habits which will as 
surely bar them from the reaUns of bliss as tliough no redemption 
had been provided for them ? 

" I venerate the Christian's character, and whenever I find him 
acting in consistency with the principles of die eospel, I do indeed 
regard him as the salt of the earth. But I Jear on this subject 
there b an awful inconsistency in the conduct of some. I believe 
all connection with spirituous liquors, in the present state of society, 
to be sinful. Since the way, and the only way, to banish intemper- 
ance from the earth, has been pointed out, it is the Christian's duty 
to adopt tliat course, whatever may be the sacrifice, and to disclaim 
all connection between rum and religion. 

" They cannot agree. Every feeling that the former inspires is 
hostile to the latter ; and if there be any thin^ on earth that can 
eradicate piety from the heart, it is the use of ardent sp'u-its. Its 
inspiration is unholy and impure ; and I call upon the Christian to 
abstain, not only for his own sake, but for the sake of the worid, 
for the sake of the exaniple, as tlie means, and the only means, of 
effecting a reformation of mankind from intemperance. I believe 
the time is coming when not only the drunkard but the drinker will 
be excluded from the church of our God — ^when the gambler, tlie 
slave dealer, and the rum dealer, will be classed together. And I 
care not how soon that time arrives. I would pray for it as devout- 
ly as for the millennium. And when it comes, as come it will, it 
should be celebrated by the united band of philanthropists, patriots^ 
and Christians throughout the world, as a great and most glorious 

lu several cases, the efforts for the promotion of temperance 
were followed by remarkable success of tlie gospel, and numbers 
were led hopefully to embrace the Savior ; and the connection 
br-gan strikingly to appear between these efforts and the salvation 
of men: 

In 1829, the Committee established a weekly paper, called 
The Journal of Humahity, to be the organ of their communica- 
tion with the public, and appointed Rev. Edward W. Hooker^ 
editor and associate general agent. The present Correspond- 
ing Secretary was also reappointed as general ageat, and thft 


following persons as local agents, viz. Rev. Asa Mead for 
Maine, Rev. Andrew Rankin for New Hannpshire, Rev. Daniel 
O. Morton for Vermont, and Rev. Talcott Bates for Connecti- 
cut. Rev. Messrs. Coggin, Barbour, Mann, Shepherd, Clark, 
Bond, and Woodbury, were also appointed, each as an agent for 
a county in Massachusetts. Otlier agents were employed by 
State Societies ; and benevolent individuals performed voluntary 
agencies in various parts of the country. 

At the close of the year 1829, there had been formed, oh the 
plan of abstinence, and reported, more than 1000 Societies, em- 
bracing more than 100,000 members. Eleven of them were 
State Societies. Of those known to the Committee, 62 were in 
Maine, 46 in New Hampshire, 56 in Vermont, 169 in Massachu- 
setts, 3 in Rhode Island, 133 in Connecticut, 300 in New York, 
21 in New Jersey, 53 in Pennsylvania, 1 in Delaware, 6 in Mary- 
land, 52 in Virginia, 15 in North Carolina, 10 in South Carolina, 
14 in Georgia, 8 in Alabama, 30 in Ohio, 9 in Kentucky, 5 in 
Tennessee, 4 in Mississippi, 13 in Indiana, I in Illinois, 3 in 
Michigan, and 1 in Missouri. Societies were also formed in 
Upper and Lower Canada, in Nova Scotia, and in New Brunswick. 

More than 50 distilleries had been stopped, more than 400 
merchants had renounced the traffic, and more than 1200 drunk- 
ards had ceased to use the drunkard's drink. Pi^rsons, Y^^'ho, a 
few years before, were vagabonds about the street, were now 
sober, respectable men, providuig comfortably, by their labor, for 
their wives and their children. 

In a number of towns, ardent spirit was not sold, and, in sev- 
eral cases, not even kept at the public houses. And in some 
places, no person who was acquainted witli the subject, and yet 
continued to use distiUed liquor, as an article of luxury or diet, or 
to traffic in it, was viewed as a proper person for admission to a 
Christian church. The business was viewed as an immorality, in 
which no person could continue, and yet give credible evidence 
of being a good man. 

The guilt of aiding and abetting in this work of death, became 
more and more obvious ; and the number rapidly increased, who 
saw that the effect of enlightened Christian principle would be» 
to banish this awful immorality from the globe. And the ben- 
efits which would result, from such a change, to the property, 
character, health, reason, lives and souls of men, became more 
and more apparent. 

In one town in Vermont, individuals, by abstaining from ardent 
spirit, saved, in one year, more than $8000. In the state of 
New Hampshire, they saved, in the same way, more than 
$100,000. In Lyme, New Hampshire, in which had been .sold 
annually about 6000 gallons, the quantity sold that year was onljr 

FOURTH REPORT. — 1831* 39 

600 gallons. The bill of mortality, which had, (or six years, upon 
an average, been annually 24^ was reduced, for two years, to 17^. 
In 1826, the year before the formation of the Temperance So- 
ciety, the number of deaths under 40 years of age 'was 15; 
in 1828, only 9. 

Had every town in the United States pursued a similar course, 
that is, used but one tenth part the usual quantity of ardent 
spirits, and had it been followed by a similar result, the number 
of deaths, that year, would have been lessened more than 70,000.* 

In a number of towns, the Holy Spirit followed, with his life-giv- 
ing power, the ethrts for the promotion of temperance, and 
hundreds, under his gracious influence, hopefully embraced the 

In one town in Massachusetts, a temperance discourse was 
delivered near the close of 1827. Numbers renounced the use 
of ardent spirit, and conducted all their business without it. 
Many were anxious to form a Temperance Society ; but some, 
among the aged and influential, thought that they could not do 
without a little, and no society was formed, till tlie young men, 
impatient at the delay of their fathers, called a meeting, and 
formed a Society among themselves. They resolved to have 
stated meetings, collect information, and spread it tlirough the 
town. At the first meeting, many were solemn, and at the second, 
anxious for their salvation ; a prayer was offered, and the Holy 
Spirit descended upon tliem : the anxiety increased, became 
general, and extended through the town ; and more than 200, it 
is believed, have passed from death unto life. Ten of those young 
men are now preparing for the gospel ministry ; and, should their 
lives be spared, and dieir talents consecrated to the Redeemer, 
they may be instrumental in preparing many for an exceed- 
ing and eternal weight of glory. And, could we trace the influ- 
ence of that single Temperance Society, in all its various con- 
nections, bearings, and consequences, upon the temporal and eter^ 
nal interests oi men, the vision would be transporting. And 
when the Committee saw these Societies rising, and extending 
their benign influences not merely over one, but over a thousand 
towns, and promising to extend them through the whole land, and 
to all future ages, they could not but thank God, and take 

This year was also rendered memorable, and will be marked 
as an era in the history of Europe, from its having been the 
OQOimencement of the Temperance Reformation in the old world. 

* h the CoDoecticitt State Prison, with an average of 190 connctf , more tkan 90 of 
mfnm mre iK>toiioaf^ iai#upjienae before tbey caron tlMre, not one of wbmaym 
jMfti^iXBd to takie a 4rqp of intoxicaiuiff liquor aAer.he. eniered the w^Jln of Uie pnaoa, 
min WMi mo dentil Ibr'KflMiktK awi but one death ftr ahno' ^. 


A meeting was holden, in July, at Belfast, in Ireland, to deViMi 
ways and means for preventing the profanation of the Sabbath ; 
and, in order to this, for preventmg, on that day, the sale and use 
of spirituous liquors. It was found, as it ever will be, impossible 
to prevent the one, without first preventing the other. The use 
of ardent spirit will, in all countries, and all ages, cause tlie 
profanation of the Sabbath, and all its abominations. To remove 
the effect, therefore, they undertook to remove the cause. And 
this they attempted to do in the old way, by the force of civil law. 
But a certain individual (Rev. John Edgar, professor of divin- 
ity in the college at Belfast) expressed his dissent from tliat 
mode of attempting to accomplish the object, and his desire to 
employ moral means only, in attempting to effect moral refor- 

He was therefore appointed to prepare an appeal to the public 
on this subject. While engaged in this preparation, he learned, 
for the first time, by a friend from America (Rev. Mr. Penny, 
of Rochester, New York), the nature, means and success of the 
Temperance Reformation in the United States. Eagerly seizing 
on its grand principles, and the grand principle of all moral refor- 
mation, viz. t^oluntary abstinence from doing evily as an essential 
pre-reqvisite to doing well ; and voluntary associations^ exhibiting 
this principle in practice, as the grand means of effecting it ; he 
embodied his thoughts, and published them b the Belfast papers, 
on the Hill of August, 1829. This was the first appeal on 
this subject to the Christians of Europe ; and was followed by 
results similar to those which had been witnessed io the United 
States. The first Temperance Society in the old world, on the 
plan of abstinence, was formed by Rev. George Carre, of New 
Ross, in Ireland. Special pains were taken to furnish them with 
the Journal of Humanity and other temperance publications 
from this country, and before the close of the year, they had 
numerous Temperance Societies in Ireland and Scotland, em- 
bracing more than 14,000 members. The subject had been 
taken up in England, and bid fair to extend through the king- 
dom. More than 65,000 temperance publications had issued 
from the press, and were in a course of rapid and extensive 
circulation. Persons were employed to go from house to house, 
and distribute them, and make known to the people the benefits 
that would resuh to them and their children, for both worlds, from 
the Temperance Reformation. 

Thus had the subject, at this period, taken deep root on two con- 
tinents ; and the proroect was increasing, that, should Providence 
continue to smile, and temperate men to do tlieir duty, it would 
hold on its way, till there should not be a drunkard on the dobe. 

In the earty part of 1830, Rev. Mr. Hewit visited the Middle 

FOURTH RRPORT. 1831. 8l 

mhA Southern States. He was received with kindness, heard with 
attention, and was insirumental in awakening new interest in tiint 

Eart of the country. In March, he returned, and continued his 
ibors in New England, tiH within three months of tlie close of 
his engagement. Having been invited to take charge of a church 
in Bridgeport, Connecticut, and believing it to be his duty to ac- 
cept the invitation, he resigned his laborious and successful agen- 
cy, Sept. 30th, 1830. And while the Committee would grate- 
fully acknowledge the kindness of the Lord in his preservation and 
success, they would affectionately sympathize with him in his 
recent domestic affliction,* and express tlieir earnest hope that 
both mercies and trials may be overruled for his greater useful- 
ness on earth, and his more distinguished glory in heaven. 

Rev. Edward W. Hooker, associate general agent, and editor 
of the Journal of Huhianity, after die judicious and able di^ 
charge of its duties till tlie paper was established, and had taken 
strong hold on the interests of the community, resigned his connec- 
tion with the Society 5 and Mr. E. C. Tracy was ap|)ointed editor 
in his stead. This paper still continues to be a powerful auxil- 
iary in the great and good cause. It is read with deep interest, 
by intelligent and philanthropic men, in this and other countries ; 
and should its circulation be extended so as to render its publicaliou 
permanent, it would accomplish unspeakable good to our countr}' 
and to the world. And the Committee would earnestly request the 
friends of the object, as extensively as practicable, to promote its 

Other papers, and periodical publications, have exerted a power- 
ful influence, and rendered valuable aid to the cause ; and it is de- 
sirable that such publications should be circulated extensively 
throughout the country. 

Rev. Wm. Kinher, a Baptist clergyman in Illinois, has been 
appointed to labor for one year, as asent, in that state ; and the 
American Tract Society has made a donation of temperance tractai 
to be distributed by our agents, in that extended and interesting 
part of our country. 

The Corresponding Secretary, since his reappointment, August 
27th, 1839, has continued uninterruptedly his labors in the service 
of the Society. He has visited vai'ious parts of the British 
province of New Brunswick, and the states of Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennr 
sylvaoia, Delaware, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. He 
has traveled more than 6,400 miles, and preached and addressed 
public bodies three hundred and eighty-six times. He has assisted 
in the formation, and attended the anniversaries, of numerous Tern- 

* Mrs. Rebecca HewH, wife of Rev. Nathaaie) Hewit, died at Bridgeport. Conn., 
deepf^ iMMotad, Jan. id, 1831. 



perance Societies ; written a number of articles for publication ; ccm- 
ducted die coirespondence ; and superintended the general concerns 
of the Society. 

At the request of a number of gentlemen, he, in January, 1831, 
vrsited the District of Columbia, and addressed the citizens of 
Washington, Georgetown, and Alexandria. Three Temperance 
Societies had been formed, and ten others were formed, during 
his visit, embracing more than one thousand members. At the 
request of individusus of both houses of Congress, he addressed the 
members of that body, in the capitol, on the subject. The at- 
tendants were numerous, and the interest manifested wvls highly 
auspicious. From all parts of the country, members of Congress 
testified that a great change had been effected, and one in tlie 
highest degree salutary to adl the social, civil, and religious inter- 
ests of the community. 

A member from one of the Southern States, and from a district 
in which it had been customary for candidates for office to bril)e 
the electors with spirituous liquors, declared, " that so great had 
been the change of public sentiment, that, should any man now pur- 
sue a similar course, that, of itself, would defeat his election."* 

Another member from one of tlie Western States, declared, 
" that the change in his part of the country had been wonderful ; 
and that he considered the object of the Temperance Society as 
one of the most important, ana its operations as among the most 
useful, of any in the world. The children — the children," said he, 
" to all future generations, will experience the benefit. Any publi- 
cations on this subject, which you may wish to send into my dis- 
trict, I will cheerfuUy forward." 

Similar was the testimony of others, and their readiness to cir- 
culate information on the subject. 

There is no object, said they, of more importance than this, to 
the welfare of the country. 

From a number of the principal boarding-houses in the city of 
Washington, ardent spirit was excluded ; and many of the mem- 
bers of Congress used none during the session. 

The President of the United States gave it as his opniion, that, 
through an extensive region of countr\' where he had ti*aveled, the 
quantity used had been diminished more than half. 

The Secretary of War stated, that, of more than one thousand 
desertions from the army, during the last year, nearly all were oc- 
casioned by drinking. 

From January 1st, 1823, to December 31st, 1829, the number 
of desertions was 5,669 ; upon an average, more than eight hun- 
dred ; nearly one seventh part of tlie whole army (which consists 

* Appkvdii, G. 

rOURTH REPORT. 1831. ^ 

of about six thousand) every year. Tlie loss to tlie country by 
desertions in these seven years, exclusive of the expenses of con- 
vening courts-martial, and several otlier items, was $471,263; or 
about $70 to a man ; and during six yiears, ending December 31st, 
1 828, the number of soldiers tried by courts-martial, was 7,068. 
In 6ve years, ending December 3 1st, 1827, there were 5,582 ; be- 
ing nearly one to each individual in the army, during one term of 
enlistment. And a great majority of the whole r^suhed from the use 
of ardent spirit. And if to this vVe add the cost of the liquor, the 
expenses ol a great increase of sickness, and numerous premature 
deaths, the loss, fi-om the use of this poison, in tlie army, the whole 
tendency of which is to injure the soldier, and unfit him for tlie de- 
fence 01 his country, must have been ver}' great.* 

A distinguished officer of the army declared, " Nearly all the trouble 
we have with the men arises fiom «irinking." And in a letter 
which our Secretary lately received from him, he says, " Since 1 
last wrote you, I have visited a militaiy post ; and, on looking over the 
sick list, with the acting surgeon and liospital steward at my el- 
bow, to tell me the cause of eacli man's sickness, I was assured 
that, out of forty-six cases, the diseases of more than forty bad 
their origin in intemperance. Probably more than five sixths of 
all military offences tried before our courts-martial, result Irom in- 
temperance." The same officer gave it as his opinion, that, since 
ijis acquaintance with the army, which has been for many yeai"s, 
more than three fourths of the deatlis among tlie soldiers were oc- 
casioned by ardent spirits. And he says, " The Secretary of War 
has, in my opinion, done incalculable good to the amiy, by with- 
holding the whiskey part of tlie rations. We want now a few tem- 
perance preachers to visit from post to post, and bring the subject 
of temperance before the troops ; form Societies ; furnish them with 
addresses, essays, and periodicals ; and I doubt not diat a happy- 
reformation would be witnessed in the army;" 

And his anticipations seem to be justified by facts. In a num- 
ber of cases, Tempci*ahce Societies have been formed at various 
inilitary posts, and with the most cheering results. 

From one of them, a correspondent writes, " Ardent spirit had 
been, as was customary, dealt out to the soldiers. The con- 
sequence was, the majority were in a state of degi"adation, and 
were going tlie broad road to ruin, as fast as the wheels of timei 
and the ruinous consequences of irregular living, would carry them. 
About one fourth, on an average, were unable to do duty on ac- 
count of drunkenness 3 which caused sickness, punishments, and 
descrtbns, not a few. In consequence of the visits and e&rts of 
individuals, a change lias taken place, so great, that the officers 

* ArpcvDii, H. 


cheerfully acknowlcMlge, that the Lord halh clone it. One hundred 
iuid sixty -nine, out of two hundred and ten Si^ldiers, sit^aed a petition to 
have no ardent spirit brought to tlie garrison. The petition was 
fj;ranted. With dieir grog-money, they have purchased a library ol 
more than five hundred volmncs ; and it is now a shame for any 
man to drink or be drunken. The Sabbath is spent in reading; 
itiid attending public worship. The Sabbath school is taught 
by the ofiicers and others, and conducted in an orderly and a useful 

The regulation above referred to, adopted by the war depart- 
ment, together with the remarks upon it of a gentkman connected 
with the army, and of distinguished medical gentlemen, wilt be 
iound in the Appendix ;* and should sudors and all others be pro- 
hibited from furnishing ardent spirits, and the troops from pur- 
chasing them, the result to the ai*my and to the country would be 
in the highest degree salutary. It would prevent a great portion of 
all the desertions and courts-martial; ol sickness and premature 
deaths ; and would save annually more than half a million of 

Tlie use of aitlent spiiit has done more than every thing else tc 
deteriorate the character of the soldier, and unfit him for the de- 
I'cnt e of his country. And so long as the cause is continued, 
whether it ii kept in operation by ilie government or by individu- 
als, uie effect can never be done away. 

Tiie Secretary of the Navy also expressed his conviction, tl:at 
tlie use which is made of ardent spirit is one of the greatest curses ; 
and declared his intention to recomniend a change with regard to 
Jie r.avy. A distinguished officer gave it as his opinion, that nine 
tenths of all the difticulties which the cflicers have with d:e men 
arise from ardent spirits ; and expressed bis strong conviction, 
fitMn what he had witnessed on board Ias own ship, and otliers^ 
which had made the experiment, of the practicability and great utili- 
ty of entire abstinence througiiout tlie navy. He said, *' If Con- 
gress would pass a law, prohibiting the use of ardent spirit in the 
navy, and giving to the men the value of it in money, there would 
be no difficulty ; and it would be one of the greatest blessincs that 
could be conferred upon thera." There is now a provision that all 
who will voluntarily relinquish it, shall be allowed six cents per 
ration, as a subsutute. But what is needed 'is, that the government 
should cease to furnish it for any. 

On board the United States sloop of war Falmouth, in her late 
( niise, seventy of the men abstained entirely from the use of ardent 
spirit ; and between forty and fifty on board the Brandy wine ; and 
tii^y were among tlie most healthy, cheerful and orderly in tlie 

* AFrKJIDlX» I. 

rOURTU REfORTw — 1831. 33 

ship. " During the cruise," said the chaplain, '^ I never knew a 
complaint against one of them ; and the total disuse of spirit is in- 
creasing in the navy generally. The inquiry, ^ Can seamen advan- 
tageously and comfortably dispense with spirituous liquors, while at 
sea ? is satisfactorily answered, by a cloud of witnesses. Both in 
our navy and in our merchant ship, the question is at rest.*' A 
later communication, from the Mediterranean squadron, states, 
" That, out of the whole ship's company of the frigate Brandywine, 
amounting to four hundred and eighty-six souls, only one hundred 
and sixty men drew their grog." 

Since January 1st, 1830, more than one hundred and fifty ves- 
sels have sailed from the port of Boston, which do not carry ardent 
^irit ; and it is believed, that there are now afloat on the ocean, 
more thaa four hundred of this description. The longest and most 
difficult voyages are made without it; and greatly to the health, 
comfort and safety of the men. Of seven hundred sailors, who 
have called for a supply of books, at one office, more than two 
hundred abstain fix)m tne use of spirituous liquors ; and should this 
course be adopted by all seafaring men, it would prevent, accord- 
ing to the opinion of experienced navigators, more than half of all 
the shipwrecks on the ocean. 

A captain, who had just arrived from Ekuope, said to our Secre- 
tary, '* I took seven men from a wreck just before my arrival, in a 
state of almost utter starvation. When wrecked, they took a keg 
of whidcey, but never thought of victuals ; and had it not been for 
a timely discovery, they must all have perished. And tljis habit 
of drinking is the cause of a great portion of all the shipwrecks. 
The moment sailors become frightened, they begin to drink, soon 
despair, give up all for lost, and drink till they are hst. Had they 
held on, and not touched the poison, they bad out-rode the storm, 
and been safe." 

So say the facts. A vessel, htely coming from Virginia to New 
York, with a number of passengers on board, was overtaken with a 
storm, which raged with ereat violence, and ccmtinued a long time. 
All the sailors on board who drank ardent spirit, from intemperance, 
fatigue, or despair, gave up, and ceased to labor. But one man on 
board drank no ardent spirit ; and although he, with the rest, had 
bufieted the storm, he took the hehn, and stood for hours after the 
others had ceased to make exertion ; and the whole crew were saved. 
Had it not been for him, long before the storm abated, they had all 
probably been at the bottom of the ocean. 

Said a distinguished navigator, " The great day of accotmt will 
bear terrible witness, when the sea shall give up the dead that are 
b it, of the vast aiid unsuspected extent of the sacrifice of life 
among seamen, firom shipwrecks, and other catastrophes oocasoned 
by drunkenness. One aistressfiil instance, anoong the numben that 


will hereafter be brought to light, occurred within my own ol 
lion. A collier brig was stranded on the York coast ; and I bad 
occasion to assist in the interesting, but distressing service of rescu-* 
ing a part of the crew by drawing them up a vertical cli^ two or 
three hundred feet in altitude, by means of a deep-sea lead-line, the 
only rope that could be procured. The first two men who caught 
hold of this slender line, were hauled safely up the frightful clSf; 
but the next, after being drawn to a considerable height, slipped his 
hold, and he fell ; and with the fourth and last, who ventured upon 
this only chance of life, the rope gave way, and he also was plunged 
mto foaming breakers beneath. Immediately afterwards, the vessel 
broke up, and the remnant of the ill-fated crew, with the exception 
of two, who were washed mto a cavern in tlie cliff, perished before 
our eyes. But what was the cause of this heart-rending event ? 
Was It stress of weather, or bewildering foe, or unavoidable acci- 
dent ? No ; — it arose entirely from the want oi sobriety ; every sailor, 
to a man, be'ine in a state of mtoxication. The vessel, hut a few boors 
before, had sailed from Sunderland ; the men beins drunk, a boj, 
unacquainted with the coast, was intrusted with the helm. He ran 
the brig upon Whitby Rock, and one half of the miserable, dissi- 
pated crew awoke to consciousness in eternity ! To this solitary 
mstance I might add many ; but this must suffice, both as to illus- 
tration and proof of the terrible consequences of btemperance at 

Numerous other cases, and fixxn all parts of the world, mieht be 
mentioned, illustrative of the same truth ; and, should the use of spirit- 
uoiK liquors be done away, the risk of property on the ocean and 
the rate of insurance might be lessened probably m<nre tlian halfJ 
And it b hoped that the time is not distant, when no merchant will 
saSer tUs gitmd cause d" immorality, disease, and death, temporal 
and eternal, to be found on board his vessel ; and when it shall not 
be used, as an article of luxury or diet, or sold by any sober man, 
eq)ecially by any Christian, in our land. 

Nor will the prevention of the loss of prcmerty, in that case, be 
ccmfined to the ocean. The Hon. Wflliam Cranch, chief judge of 
the District of Columbia, who is extensively known as a candid and 
accurate reporter of principles and facts, in an Address which he 
delivered before the Washington and Alexandria Tennperance 
Societies, estimates the loss annually in the United States, nom the 
use of ardent spirits, at not less than $94,425,000.'*^ In tbb esti« 
mate, he has taken no account of what is lost hy shipwrecks, sick- 
ness, and in various other ways. But even this sum wotdd, in thirty 
years, amount to more than the value of all the houses, lands and 
slaves in the United States. These were estimated, in 1815, at 


rotTarn ]ibpobt.-«1831« ST 

1,771,312,908. And if Uie value of them haa since increased 
I proportion to the increase of population, it would now be 
12|5 19,009,222. And the loss to the consumers of ardent spirits, 
id to the community, in thirty years, would, according to the fore- 
xng estimate, be $2,832,750,000, which is 1^313,740,778 more 
lan the value of all the houses and land in the United States ; thus 
diibiting to the world the awful spectacle of a people losing, by the 
ie of strong drink, in thirty years, $313,740,778 more than the 
due of their whole country. And all for what ? To gratify an 
rtificial and destructive appetite, which men do not need, and 
luch they bad better be without ; which God does not give them, 
lit which they, by their own voluntary and wicked conduct, form. 
And if the crimes, wluch are prosecuted annually in the United 
tales, are only one fifth as many, in proportmn to the population, 
! in the citv of New Yoik, and should they not increase with the 
icfease of population, they would, in thirty years, amount to 
,800,000 ; more than 1,000,000 of which must, accordii^ to the 
admony of judges and jurists, be attributed to the use of ardent 
>irits. And of the 7,200 murders which will, shouki the present 
imtier not increase, in that time be committed, more than 6000 
r them must be attributed to the same cause. And of all the 
eaths which will in that time take place, in the United States, 
lore than 900,000 must be consklered, according to the testimony 
r the most distinguished physicians, as occasbned bv strong drink. 
kf if we take the number who are killed by it in Philadelphia, as 
ated by a committee of the College of Phy^cians, as the average 
toportion, beuig in that city seven hundred in a year, it would 
take nK>re than 1,500,000. In one place, of only 6000 inhab- 
ants, the chief magistrate, being himself an eminent physician, in- 
tmed our Secretary, that twenty-eight in that place were killed by 
rong drink in one year. Tliis would make, m thirty years, eight 
imdired and forty. And if eight hundred and forty would be killed 
I a population of 6000, how man^ would be killed, in that time, 
noog 12,000,000? The proporucMi would be 1,680,000: while 
le use of this poison, without affording the least benefit, would 
peady increase the diseases, lessen the reason, and diminish the 
ippiness of all who used it ; and, u{)on an average, would shorten 
iQflr lives probably at least five years. And if drunkards, upon an 
rarage, sliorten life only ten years, and temperate drinkers five, 
id mere are only four sober drmkers to one drunkard, it would 
a bss in the United States, in thirty years, of 32,400,000 
of human probation and of active usefulness ; in a world, too, 
1 wAich every noble and benevolent deed might model the charac- 
sr, and tcU on the destinies of men, for eternity. Amazing loss ! 
Lnd when we con^der the efiect of this poison, in deteriorating the 
haracter, bfinding the understanding, searing the cooaoiencev and 


hardeoing the heart ; when we see it tend to hinder the success of 
the gospel, and prevent the efficacy of all the means of grace ; and 
to perpetuate and accumulate its deleterious influence over all 
future generations of men, — the evils become overwhelming. 

And yet, by abstaining irom their cause, these evils may be doue 
away ; without injury to any, and greatly to the benefit of all. And 
as more than a thousand among the most intelligent physicians on 
the globe, have certified, that men in health do not need ardent 
spirit, and cannot, without injury, use it ; and as the correctness of 
this opinion is proved abundantly by facts, in the experience of 
hundreds of thousands of all ages and conditions, and in aU kinds 
of busmess, — the conviction is extending and deepening, and tend- 
ing to become universal, that no person can continue to use it, or 
be accessory to the use of it by odiers, witliout, if acquainted with 
the subject, the accumulation of awful and overwhelming guilt. 

This conviction is manifqsted by the increasing numbers who 
are voluntarily withdrawing fix)m alj connection with this abomina- 
tion, and pledging themselves to use all suitable means to persuade 
all others to do the same. 

Fifteen Temperance Societies, on the plan of abstinence, were, 
the past year, formed in the ci^ of Baltimore, embracing more 
than 2000 members. A State Society was also formed in Mary- 
land, in Delaware, and in seven other states. Eleven had been 
formed before, making, in all, at the present time, eighteen State 
Societies. There is one in each state, except Maine, Rhode 
Island,* Alabama, Louisiana, Illinois, and Missouri. And it is 
hoped, that a State Society will soon be formed in every state in 
the Union. And should each State Society, as is earnestly desired 
by this Society, employ an agent, and take the direction of this 
cause within their own limits, and temperate men do their duty, a 
Temperance Society may soon be formed in every county, town 
and village in the country. 

On the first of May, 1831, there were reported 140 Societies 
in Maine, 96 in New Hampshire, 132 in Vermont, 209 in Massa- 
chusetts, 21 in Rhode Island, 202 in Connecticut, 727 bi New 
York, 61 in New Jersey, 124 in Pennsylvania, 6 in Delaware, 38 in 
Maryland, 10 in the District of Columbia, 113 in Virginia, 31 m 
Nortli Carolina, 16 in South Carolina, 60 in Georgia, 1 in Florida, 
10 in Alabama, 19 in Mississippi, 3 in Louisiana, 15 in Tennessee, 
23 in Kentucky, 104 in Ohio, 25 in Indiana, 12 in Illinois, 4 in 
Missouri, and 13 in Michigan Territory ; making, in all, more than 
2200, and embracing more than 1 70,000 members. These members 
have been constantly increasing, and have, in many cases, been 

* A State Society has since been formed in Rhode Iiltnd, making at thcMrafl- 
•nt time, 19 State SocieUea. 

rOURTH REPORT. — 1831, 39 

more than doubled since they were n^ported. There are also 
numerous Societies which have been formed, and some of Uiein 
embracing large disti'icts of country, not contained in the above list, 
and (rom which no returns have been received. The number be- 
longing to Societies which are not reported, in the state of New 
York, are supposed, by the Committee of the State Society, to 
amount to more than '30,000. In other states from which die 
returns have been less general and complete, tlie number, in pro- 
portion, is still greater. In Kentucky, in which but 23 have been 
reported to us, containiiig only about I GOO members, a correspond- 
ent writes, tliat tliey have, in his opinion, nearly 100 Societies, and 
not much short of 15,000 membere. So it may be in other states; 
and from the best information which has been obtained, the Com- 
mittee conclude tliat there are now formed, in the United States, on 
the plan of abstinence from the use of ardent spirit, more than 
3000 Tetnperance Societies, containing more than 300,000 mem- 

From the influence of these Societies, and other causes, 300,000 
more may have adopted the plan of not using it^ or furnisiiing it 
fo;* the use of othei*s. Connected with diese, 600,000 of children 
and pei-sons in their emj)loyment, -and under dieir control, may 
be as many more. And thus 1,200,000 may already have beon 
brought under the influence, and may now be experiencing the 
benefit, of the Temperance Reformation. Among these, should 
they continue to refrain from intoxicating drink, there will never be 
a drunkard : whereas, had they continued m habits which prevailed 
five years ago, 50,000 of them might have come to tlie drunkard's 

So diat, sliould this i-eform now be merely stationary, and make 
no further progress, it may have saved 50,000 froni the drunkard's 
d.x)m ; and how many it would save of their cliildren, and children's 
children, none but God can determine. 

In one case, as our Secretary was informed, a father adopted 
the plan of using a little ardent spirit every day. He was never 
intoxicateil, and never thought to be in the least intemper;ate. 
He only took a little, a very little, because he thought that it did 
him good. For the same reason, his children took a little, daily ; 
and so did their children. And now, no less tiian 40 of his de- 
scendants are drunkards, or in the drunkard's grave. 

Another man adopted a different plan ; he would not use ardent 
s|^l; he would not purchase it; nor would he suffer it to enter 
ms house. He taught his children to treat it as a poison, a mortal 
poison ; and they, taught their children. And now, there is not a 
druidcard among them ; nor has one of his descendants ever 
oome to the drunkard's grave. Lon^, long may it be, before any 
one ever shall. And when the long hnes of descendants of these 


two men, tlirough all future ages, shall rise up before them, and 
before the universe, in the blazing Dght of eternity, who can es- 
timate the difTerence of results, of tlie different courses adopted 
and pursued by their progenitors ? None but He, who seeih tlie 
end irom the beginning, and to whom tliey have both now gone to 
render tlieir account. 

If such may be the difference of result from a single indi\adual 
adopting the plan of abstinence, from what it might have been, had 
he adopted the plan of moderate drinking, and in two generations, 
who can estimate die difference, from the plan of abstinence having 
been adopted by 1,200,000, — 50,000 of whom might have been 
drunkards, and 1,150,000 habitual drinkers,—- down through all 
future generations to the end of the world-^and onward to eternity ? 
And here let it not be forgotten, that more dian 3000 of those who 
now abstain, actually were drunkards ; who, should they continue 
their present course, will have been saved with a great salva- 
tion. And this might have been the case with more llian 6000 
others, who are drunkards still. They ceased to use stiong drink 
for a time, and were sober men. Sucli they nn'ght have been now ; 
and not only sober men, but respectable men, a comfort and a 
blessing to all around them ; had not some sober drinker, or some 
retailer, — whose name, were it to number the evils which he l:ias oc- 
casioned, would be Legion, for tliey are many,^-eniiced them to 
go back, and perish. 

To a respectable stranger, in a province of a neighboring kingdom, 
our Secretary handed a temperance tract, and said, " Sir, tlie man 
who wrote that tract was once a drunkaid." ** And so," said the 
stranger, with tearful emotion, " was the man who now holds it." 
But he is not a drunkard now. No ; he adopted the plan of absti- 
nence ; has since, it is believed, chosen that good part which shall 
not be taken from him ; and is shedding on a wide circle of ac- 

?uaintance the lifegiving and purifying influence of a consistent 
/hristian example. He is a warm advocate, and active promoter 
of the temperance cause ; and through his influence, ana that of 
others, there is reason to hope that it will spread tlirough the 

A respectable merchant, in one of our principal cities, said, " 1 
shall have reason to remember the Temperance Cause as long as 1 
live. Had it not been for that, I, before now, should have been 
a drunkard." On relating this fact to a merclmnt, in another city, 
" And so," said he, " should I. I was on the brink of ruin ; but it 
saved me.'* And the grace of God came in, and he, it is believed, 
was doubly saved. " Yes," said he, with grateful emphasb, as he 
kx>ked on his wife and children, ^^ and I will give a hundred doUan 
a year, to spread the Temperance Reformation through the 

rOURTH REPORT. — 183L 41 

And who, that has a hundred dollars of the Lord's property, and 
can, consistently with duty, will not give it, to spread the Temper- 
ance Reform throughout our country, and throughout the world ? 
In what possible way can that amount, annually, fix>ni one hundred 
men, to whom the Lord has committed property, with the inscrip- 
tion " Occupy till I come," do more good to the temporal and eter- 
nal mterests of men ? 

Suppose the American Temperance Society has, within the last 
five years, expended $10,000, and other Sociedes and individuals 
have expended, in this cause, as much more ; in what way did 
$20,000 ever do more good ? In what way was $20,000 ever 
more productive in the accumulation of propeit}' ? or, what is bettei, 
in the saving of property, character, health, reason, lives and souls 
of men ? 

In the county of Baltimore, in Maryland, out of 1134 paupers, 
admitted to the alms-house from May, 1829, to May, 1830, 1059 
were brought there by mtemperance ; viz. of temperate adults, 24 ; 
of adults whose habits were not known, 24 ; children of temperate 
parents, 13 ; children of parents whose habits were not known, 14 ; 
children of intemperate parents, 115; and intemperate adults, 944 : 
total of temperate adults, and persons whose habits were not known, 
and their children, 75 ; and oi intemperate adults and their children, 

In the county of Cumberland, Pennsylvania, of 50 paupers, 48 
were made such by intemperance. And in the county of Oneida, 
New York, out of 253, 246 were made paupers in the same way. 

" According to a Report of the superintendents of the Wash- 
ington county (N. Y.) poor-house, out of 322 persons received intc 
that house since its establishment, 290 were sent there in conse- 
quence of their own intemperance, or tliat of others. 

"According to a statement made by Col. Hoffinan, nineteen 
twentieths of the inmates of the Montgomery county (N. Y.) poor- 
house, owe their situation to intemperance." 

And the superintendent of the Albany alms-house states, that, 
were it not for the use of strong drink, that establishment would be 
tenaiitless. And substantially so it would be throughout this coun- 
try ; and in proportion as the Temperance Reform has prevailed, 
alms-houses have become tenantless, and crimes been done away. 

The solicitor general, at the sitting of the Supreme Court, in 
the county of Hampden, Massachusetts, remarked, that he found 
but one indictment for crime in the county of Worcester ; but one 
in the county of Hampshire ; and but three in the county of Hamp- 
den ; and that, in all parts of the state, the indictments for crimes 
had surprisingly diminished within two years. And he could 
ascribe this change in favor of virtue and good order, to no other 
cause than the influence of Temperance Societies, and the great 


change, which they had been the means of eflbcting with regard to 
the use of strong drink. 

" The keeper of the Ogdensburg (N. Y.) jaU states, that iet>tn 
eighths of the criminals, and three fourths o( tlie debtors, imprisoned 
tiiere, are intemperate persons. 

"Of the first 690 children sent to tlie New York house of 
refuge after its establishment, 401 were known to be children of 
intemperate parents. 

" In two districts in Upper Canada, 38 out of 44 inquests hehl 
by the coroners, were, in cases of death, caused by intemperance. 

" The keeper of tlie Ohio penitentiary, in his Repot to the Leg- 
islature of that state, Dec. 1829, says, that, of tlie 134 prisoners 
under his care, 36 only claimed to be temperate men. 

" The sheriff of Washington county, Pa., stated, last year, that, 
out of 24 committals, 21 were caused by intemperance. 

" In Litchfield county, Ct., the proportion of criminals who are 
intemperate, is 35 out of 39." 

" My belief is," says the chairman of the Committee of the New 
York State Society, "' that this state has saved, during the last year, 
in the lessened use of ardent spirits, $6,250,000. And it is entirely 
past all calculation to estimate the great increase of wealth to the 
state in labor, more usefully and more vigorously applied to every 
department of industry. And since rum has been dismissed, and 
the mind has recovered its healtliful tone, the Spirit of tlie Lord 
has a power, and has been at work, in various parts of this state, 
in a wonderful manner ; and all appear to agree, now, that the too 
common use of aidcnt spirits has been one great cause of apadiy 
on religbus subjects." 

The Committee of the New York State Society estimate the 
saving, in the cost of spirits alone, at $2,000,000 the last year. 
" But," they say, ** our greatest gains from the Temperance Refor- 
mation are not to be estimated in dollars. They are manifest 
in our improved morals, and in the fresh vigor which is infused into 
every branch of industry. They are manifest in llie unexampled 
prosperity which pervades our state, and which all candid observem 
agree in ascribing so largely to tlie arrest of the desolating tide of 
intemperance. They are manifest, the Christian is sure, in the 
unprecedented attention to religion in all parts of the state ; ibr 
our greatest enemy to the work of the Holy Spirit on the minds of 
men, is more than half conquered."* 

Equally conspicuous and salutary is the effect on the health of 
the communi^. Said a distinguished physician in Massachusetts, 
'' Since our people have given up the use of ardent spirits, the 
amount of siclaiess has been diminished about halA And 1 have 

*Appbiij>», K. ^ 

irOURTH RfiPORT. — 1831. 43 

W> doubt, should the people of the United Stales renounce t!ie use 
of spirituous liquors, nearly half the diseases of the country woulJ 
be prevented." 

And said another eminent physician, after forty years' extensive 
practice and observation, "I have no doubt that half the men, every 
year, who die of fevers, might recover, had it not been for the use 
of spirituous liquors. No one but a physician knows iiow power- 
fully all inflammatory diseases are increased, even by what Ls called 
temperate drinking ; or how fatally the best remedies in the world 
are counteracted by the same cause. I have seen men who were 
never intoxicated, down twenty days with a fever, who, had it not 
been for the use of ardent spirit, probably would not have been 
confined to the hotise a day. And I have often seen men stretched 
on a bed of fever, who, to all human appearance, might be raised up 
as well as not, were it not for that state of the system, which daily 
temperate drinking produces ; who now, in spite of all that can be 
done, sink down and die." And the decrease in the bills of moi^ 
tality, among those who have renounced the use of strong drink, 
exhibits evidence, that, should this course be adopted by all, the 
number of deaths annually in the country, would be lessened more 
Ihan 50,000. 

And facts, so far as they have been developed, as well as the 
nature of the case, give reason to believe, that the same amount of 
moral means, employed for human benefit, would mote than double 
their influence and their benefits over the minds and hearts of men* 
The special attention which is now manifested to the great interests 
of the soul, and of eternity, under the influence of the Divine Spirit, 
in fourteen coHeges, and more than five hundred towns, in which 
the eflfects of the Temperance Reformation have been most cotv- 
spicuous, speaks with a voice that will be heard, and heeded by 
toe friends of God throughout the earth. 

Men who have given up the waters of death, have, in great num- 
bers, imder the means which God has appointed and blessed for 
that purpose, passed from death unto life.* Many more have 
been saved from becoming drunkards, and from the drunkard^ 

From a town of about 2000 inhabitants, a correspondent writes, 
** We have not a drunkard in the place, except those that were 
such when our Temperance Society was formed, four years ago. 
Not a new drunkard has since been made." Yet, had the people 
of that town continued in the habits which prevailed five years ago, 
and iiimished new drunkards, in proportion to their population, 
they had made, in four years, not less than 24 new drunkards. 
And if 24 have been saved from becoming drunkards, among 2000 

* Apfbrdii, L. 


inhabitants, how many may have been saved among 12,000,000? 
The proportion would be 144,000. But it may be said, that 
the Temperance Reformation has not prevailed through the countr)', 
as it has tlirough that town. This is true. Let us, dierefore, take 
another propoition. In that town are not over 700 members of the 
Temperance Society ; and if 24 have been saved from becoming 
drunkards, by 700 members of the Temperance Society, and such 
as act wiili them, how many have been saved by 300,000, and 
those who act with them? The proportion would be 10,285. 
An<l the Committee know of no reason to believe that this is more 
than tlie real number, who, in four years, have been saved from 
becoming drunkards. And if lo these we add the 3,000 who were 
drunkards, and who now do not use the drunkard's drink, we have 
13,285 sober men, who would otherwise have been drunkards. 
And the prospect of their comfort and usefulness in this life, and 
their salvation in eternity, is increased, should they continue to 
abstain, a hundred fold. 

And let the Temperance Reformation become as general, and 
as efiicacious throughout the country, as it has been in that town, 
and it might save, in 30 years, 1 ,080,000 from the drimkard's life, 
the drunkard's death, and the dmnkard's eternity. 

It might save, also, multitudes of their children, and children's 
children, through all future ages, from being swept, by diat 
burning currciit, to "the lake of fire, which is the second 

And $10,000 a year, judiciously applied, and attended, as past 
efforts have been, by the blessing of the Most High, might render 
the temperance efforts as efficacious, throughout our countr)', as 
ihey have been in that town. In what way, then, the Committee 
would ask again, can that amount of property be annually expended 
lo greater advantage to the temporal and eternal interests of men ? 

3000 drunkards already reclaimed ; 10,285 sober men kept from 
becoming drunkards; 1,200,000 abstaining from the drunkard's 
drink, 50,000 of whom, had they continued to use it, might have 
become drunkards; and as many more of their children in eve- 
ry future generation; the quantity used by 11,000,000 more 
greatly diminished, and the pauperism, crimes, sickness, insanity 
and death diminished in proportion ; one of the mighuest obstruc- 
tions to the efficacy of the gospel and all the means of grace re- 
moved, and those means rendered proportionably more emcacious, 
b the moral and spiritual illumination and purification of men ^ — 
and all for how much? $20,000; which, if divided amone tlie 
drunkards reclaimed and the sober men, who in five years have been 
saved fi-om becoming drunkards, would amount to $1,50 to a man; 
or, if divided among the 1,200,000, who abstain from the use of 
ardent spirit, would be less dian two cents to an individual ; while 

FOURTH K£PORT« 1831. 45 

the loss to the country by desertions from the army, of the men who 
used strong drink, was, in tiie same space of time, more than ^50 , 
to a man : or more than $342,188, exclusive of the expenses of the 
courts-mailial to ti*y them. Is it not chea|)er, then, to induce men 
to renounce the use of strong drink, than it is to furnish it, and 
then take care of them ? 

Facts justify the belief, that should 100 men give 100 dollars 
annually to promote this cause, they may be instrumental in annually 
saving ten thousand lives, and ten million dollars ; and may exert 
an inauence in the highest degree salutary to the social, civil, luid 
religious interests of men ; which shall be felt in its efTects to all 
future generations, and sliall tell, in accents of glory, upon tlie 
destinies of millions to eternity. 

in one town in Maine, containing a population of about 1000, 
a Temperance Society was formed about four years ago. Before 
the fonnation of that Society, the quantity of ardent spirit sold was 
10,000 gallons a year ; and tliere were 17 retailers licensed to sell it. 
Now, there aie none ; and not more than 200 gallons are used in . 
tlie town. Before, diere were 53 diiinkards ; and now, there are 
but 29. 24 have ceased to use strong drink, and are at present 
completely reformed. Should an equal number, in proportion to 
the population tliroughout the United States, be induced to adopt 
tlie same course, which, by the use of suitable means, may be done, 
it would amount to 288,000. Yes, 288,000, who are now drunk- 
ards, may be led to abandon the use of that which intoxicates, and 
who, should they continue to abstain, will have been saved from 
an awful and overwhelming ruin. 

But to accom))llsh this, means must be used. Men must not be 
licensed to poison and destroy their fellow men. No sober man, 
especially no professed Christian, must be willing, for the sake of 
money, thus to become accessory to their temporal and etei-nal 
ruin. If they are, numbers, who refrain for a time, will afterwards 
gp back and perish ; and the guilt of blood will rest on them, 

" Not an individual," writes a correspondent from a town in 
Massachusetts, " who was an habitual dmnkard when our Temper- 
ance Society was organized, has been permanently reformed. Num- 
bers broke off the use of ardent spirit, for a time, and some even 
joined the Temperance Society. But they have all gone back^ 
every one." 

What was the reason ? Some, who were not dmnkards, and 
some, too, who professed to be good men, and who had covenanted, 
before Heaven and earth, to do good, and good only, as they had 
opportunity, to all men, for a mere pittance of that which will per- 
lah with tlie using, if it does not eat the soul like fire, would furnish 
these men with the drunkard's drink ; and dius, knowingly, become 
accessory to tlie drunkard's ruin. 


From a town in Connecticut a gentleman states, ** We succeedetl 
in forming a large Temperance Society. Several of the drunkards 
ceused to use spirituous lifjuoi-s. They appeared like new men^and, 
ch ! their laniilies appeared to be in a new world. The change 
was wonderful. But tliey have, almost all, gone back. And we 
Ciinnot help it, so long as one of our deacons will sell rutn. They 
say, ' If it is not wrong for the deacon to seD it, it is not wrong for 
its to buy it. He tliinks diat a little does good, and so do we.^ 
And thus they go down to ruin. And, oh ! their families, their 

wretched families ! ^but we cannot help them, so bng as the 

deacon will sell rum." 

No ; if deacons, and church meinbei-s, and sober men, will con- 
tinue, for llie sake of money, to seUrum, and make drunkards, and 
thus become their tempters and destroyers, good men, and the 
tiends of Immanily, cannot help it. Nor can lliey, but to a small 
cxtt^nt, furiiish relief to tlieir wretched families. Thoiigh they go 
with an angel's kindness and with an angel's freeness pour it out 
upon tlieii* — the deacon, or the church member, or some other 
retailer of |)auperism, crime, sickness, insanity and death, for 25 
cents will throw that whole family, for days, into all the agonies, the 
heart-rending, heart-breaking agonies, ol having a drunken and an 
infuriated maniac for a husband and a father. Yes, for 25 cents^ 
he will hear the scream of ilie children, and see them run away 
and hide, and hear the groans of her who cannot get away ; and 
though slie comes, when the stonn is over, and beseeches him, 
with tears, not lo sell her htisband the madman's poison, for she 
and her cJiildren — and her tongue falters as she says children — 
cannot endure it ; yet, for 25 cenlSj he will sell it yet again and 
again,— ^ill, as was the case in one instance, the husband and the 
father went home from die deacon's store, and, under the influence 
of what the deacon had given him, murdered his wife. She wiB 
never again beseech him, for her children's sake, and the Savior's 
sake, not to sell her husband rum. No ; slie will not complain,, 
nor will ?he beseech him any more. But his own children may da 
both. One of them, on hearing of this murder, and the circum- 
stances, said, " Father, do you not think, that, in the day of judg- 
ment, you will have to answer for tliat murder ?'* And must not 
conscience, when awakened, echo, " Murder ! — Murder /" Why f 
Did he murder that woman } No ; but he gave her husband that 
which excited him to do it ; when he knew, from the testinxmy of 
jiidges and jurists, that it caused more than three fourdis of all the 
murders in the United States. And why did be do it.^ For 
money. How much } A sum so great that a man could not with* 
stand it ? No ; for less than 25 cents. Yes, for less than 25 cents 
those children were made orphans ; and their father, when our 
ftj^eui passed tlirough that part of the country, was in prison ta bit 

FOURTH KeroRT. — 1831. 47 

tried for his life, for murdering their mother. And all his excuse 
was, he was excited to do it by what he received from tlie deacon 
No wonder his child should beseech him to give up the traffic^ 
and warn him, with tears, that, if he did not do it, he would be, ai 
the day of judgment, stained with the guilt of blood. 

It is an established principle of law, for the violation of wfaicl^ 
men have been hanged, that the accessory and the principal, in 
the commission of crime, are both guilty. If this principle is 
correct, and applies to divine as well as human law, and the 
drunkard cannot enter heaven, what will be the condition of hiin 
who is accessonr to tlie making of drunkards ? who iiimLshes the 
materials, and, for the sake of gain, sends them out, to all who will 
purchase them, when he knows the nature and effects of this eni« 
ployment ? Can he enter heaven ? 

The Committee do not ask these questions concerning those who 
were engaged in this traffic when its nature and effects were not 
kno\vn, and when it was supposed to be consistent with tlie Chris- 
tian religion ; but only concerning those, who, since its nature and 
consequences are known, and known to be ruinous to the temporal 
and eternal interests of men, still continue it. And they do not 
make such inquiries concerning them, but with the kindest feelings^, 
both toward them and the community. 

But when it is known that more than two murders in a week« 
upon an average, are committed in the United States, through the 
influence of ardent spirit, and that more than 500 persons in a 
week are killed by the use of it, they cannot but present this sub- 
ject, kindly and plainly, to the consideration of all sober men. 

Said a man, who, in those days of iniorance which have now 

fone by, was engaged in this traffic, " I have no more doubt thai 
have kUled a hundred men, than if I had taken a gun and shot 
them, and saw ever)*^ one of them fall dead at my feet." 

Said another merchant, as he read a temperance tract, which our 
Secretary handed him, — and the tears rolled plentifully down his 
cheeks, — ^^ I never thoudit of it. I have been sellins ardent spirit 
for many years. I don t know about thb making ourunkards. 1 
am pretty much like the hearers of Paul, almost persuaded ;** 
meaning diat he was almost persuaded to abandon the traffic as an 
immoral, and a wicked, destructive business. He went to a tem- 
perance meeting — ^the first he had ever attended— and then to 
another ; and said he, " It is now settled. I will never purchase 
any more ardent spirit to sell. I could make several nundired 
dollars a year by the sale of it ; but what would that be ? Should . 
I continue to scatter the estates of my neighbors, make wives 
widows, and children orphans, I should expect ray own chQdrep 
would become orphans, and their wives be widows, as God visits 
the iniquities of the fathers upon the children to the third and 

48 AMETIUCAN tE3l]>£RANCr£ ft^ClKXT* 

fourth generation.* If you will take soioe money, and send me a 
parcel of those little books — I know all tlie merchants for a hundred 
miles up the river — they have, many of them, purchased their niro 
of me, — I will take a journey, and get them to give up the traffic.* 
The little books have been sent to him, and the result of bis labors 
eternity will disclose. As he was returning from the temperance 
meeting, he met one of hts old customers, who had come neaii^ 
a hundred miles to purchase goods, of which rum had always 
formed a part. And ire said to him, who had also been at the 
temperance meeting, ** What do you think of it ?" " What P* said 
he ; ''I think that the man who will continue to seU rum, is worse 
than a drunkard. The dnmkard k31s himself^ and ruins his family ^ 
but the man who sells rum, makes drunkards by htmdreds. And 
though I intended, when I left home, to buy it, I have condiided 
to purchase the rest of my goods, and leave the rum behind.'^ 
And why shoidd he not leave it behind ? Is it not certain that the 
injury which the use of it would occasion to others, would be 
greater than the benefit of the avails to him ? And has any one a 
right to benefit himself by the destruction of his fellow men ? 

There is a great principle of the divine gorremment, which is 
brought to view in the Scriptures, and which applies strongly 
to this case. If an Israelite had a beast which was dangerous, 
but the owner did not know it, and that beast kiRed a man, tlie 
beast, by divine direction, must be slain ; his flesh must not be 
eaten; the owner must lose the whole, as a testimony to tlie 
sacredness of hnmnn life; and as a wammg to all, not to do any 
thing, or connive at any thing, which should tend to destroy it. 
But as the owner did not know that his beast was dangerous^ he wa9 
not otherwise to be punished. 

But if it had been testified to the owner, that the beast was dan- 
gerous, and he did not keep him in, but suffered hhn to go abroad, 
and he killed a nran, both the beast and his owner were, by God'» 
direction, to be put to death. The man wad held responsible for 
the mischief which the beast might do. 

Although we are not required^ or permitted, now, to execute ih» 
law, as they were when God himsell was Judge, yet the reason of 
this law remains. It is founded in justice, is etexiial^ and the sfiA 
of it will be enforced at the divine tribunal. 

There was a time when the dangerous and destmctive qualiue^ 
of ardent spirits were not generafly known to the owners. Tboueb 
they killed hundreds and thousands, the owners would not, by the 
tlbore rlile, be held responsible. But now they are known, rhy- 
aicians of the first eminence, and in great numbers, with a unanimity 
almost unparalleled, have testified that ardent spirit is dangerous 
and destructive ; that men in health cannot use it without injury ; 

* ArrBHPffs, M.r 

rOUBTH REPORT.— 183h 40 

that it Induces and aggravates disease, impairs reason, and shortens 
life^ and that muhitudes are killed by it every year.* 

Jurists, too, of distinguished character, and judges, in great num- 
bers, have testified, that this liquor occasions a great majority of 
all the crimes which are committed. One says^ ** Of eleven niur^ 
ders commitied^ all, except one, were occasioned by strong drink." 
Another says, " Of eleven murders committed, all were occasioned 
by intemperance." Another says, " Of twenty murders examined 
by me, all were occasioned by spirituous liquors." And another 
says, '^ Of more than two hundred murders committed in tlie United 
States in a year, nearly all have their origin in drinkmg." 

These facts, and many others, which might be multiplied to an 
almost indefinite extent, are now known ; and they are known to 
the owners of ardent spirit. It is known, too, that hundreds of 
thousands have ceased to use this liquor, and that their heahh and 
comfort, and those of their families, have been greatly improved ; 
that the amoimt and severity of sickness have lessened, and the 
number of paupers, crimes and deaths been diminished. It is 
known that, while men continue to use this liquor, intemperance 
can never be prevented, and its evils never be done away. It is 
known, too, that it tends, when used even moderately, to hinder the 
efficacy of the gospel and prevent the salvation of men, and thus 
to ruin them, not ior time only, but for eternity. All this is known, 
and known to the owners of ardent spirit. And if they, notwith* 
standing this, not only suffer it to eo abroad, but sell it to all who 
will buy ; send it out, and spread it through the community ; let 
them know, let it be told, and let it echo through creation, that they, 
by Jehovah, will be held responsible, at Ills tribunal, for its effects. 
To the pauperism, crimes, and wretchedness, the sickness, insanity, 
and deaths, whbh it occasions, and to the ruin, temporal and eter- 
nal, they are knowingly and voluntarily accessory. And of all 
the obstructions which the friends of temperance now meet with, 
which stand in the way, and hinder the pix)gress of that mighty 
movement which God has awakened, and which takes hold on the 
destinies of unborn millions for eternity, these men, — yes, tiie men 
who traffic in ardent spirit, — ^present the greatest. 

And if this movement is ever to stop, and that deluge of fire 
again roll, unobstructed, through the length and breadth of this land, 
MOfchin^ and withering, consuming and annihilating, all that is fair, 
and k>veTy, and excellent, and glorious in possession and in prospect, 
these men — the men who continue to traffic in ardent spirit — are 
to bear a vast and ever-growing portion of the odium, the guilt, and 
the retribution, of this tremendous ruin. They not only sm them- 
selves, but they tempt others to sin. They stand at the fountain of 
death, and open streams which may roll onwards, after they are 
dead, and sweep multitudes to tlie worid of wo. 
6 * Arrsiioix, N. 



But we do not believe, and we shall not admit, till we behold it, 
that this mighty movement, which God has conmienced, and hith- 
erto carried forward with a rapidity, and to an extent, altt^ether 
unexampled in the history of man, and which is now spoken of, in 
both hemispheres, as one of the wonders of the world, is ever to 
stop, till the use of ardent spirit, and the traffic in it, as an article 
of luxury or diet, is abandoned by every good man in our country. 
We cannot believe, that any good man, or any man that expects to 
render an account for the influence which he exerts on the world, 
when he sees what he is do'uig, will consent, for the sake of money, 
to be actively instrumental in destroying the bodies and souls of 
men. We cannot believe that, for the sake of money, good men 
will consent, when they know what they do, to deal out the cause 
of pauperism and crime, sickness, insanity and death ; to raise a 
barrier against the influences of the Holy Spirit, and help the 
great adversary to people the world of wo. Even should human 
governments continue to license such a business, we cannot believe 
that good men, or any men who regard the welfare of their 
fellow men, will continue to consent to take out such a Ikrense, or 
to use it, for all the wealth of the world. That light and love 
which have already led more than 1 ,000,000 to give up the use of 
ardent spirit, and more than 3000, who were engaged in tlie traffic, 
to renounce it, will, we trust, if kindly, universally and perseveringly 
diffused, and attended, as they have been, by tlie mighty power of 
Him who worketh all in aU, lead all sood men to do the same. 

More than 1000 distilleries have already been stopped ; and the 
owners of many would not again open them for the wealth of cre- 
ation. In one town, in which were 16 of these fountains of death, 
there are now but 3; and those, it b believed, furnish a less 
Quantity of the poison, destroy a less number of lives, and ruin 
fewer souls than they did when the whole were in operation. One 
brass-founder states, that he lias bought 30 stills, and sold but one 
[n many towns, this destroyer is not even sold. Amons more tlian 
100,000 people, none, except keepers of public houses, have license 
to sell it; and from more than 100 public houses it b excluded. 
The owners will not consent, for the sake of money, to poison even 
the traveler ; and he finds, often to hb amazement, that he can be 
received cheerfully, treated politely, and refreshed abundantly, by 
those who furnish nothing adapted to destroy him. And why, 
should tliese and similar facts be made known to all, and the Holy 
Spirit incline them to do their duty, may we not expect thb to be 
the case, throughout our land, and throughout the world. 

Many churches, nowj do not believe that any man among them, 
while he continues, for the sake of money, to ruin his fellow raeoy 
by.fumbhing them with ardent spirit, can give credible evidence 
that he is a good man. And why, should the true light continue to 

FOURTH REPORT. 1831. 51 

shine, and become universal, must not this be tlie conviction of aU. 
Some churches have expressed this by vote, and tlius assisted to 
awaken public attention, and correct public sentijnent, on this sub- 

{'ect. Others, that act upon it, do not think it needful to express 
)y vote their conviction, that the man, among them, who does thb, 
cannot give credible evidence that he is a good man, any more than 
they do, tfiat the man who keeps a gambling house, a house of ill fame, 
or who engages in the slave-trade, cannot, while he continues this, 
give credible evidence that he is a good man. The thing sj^eaks for 
Itself. It is, in their view, an immorality ; and they treat it as an 

During the past year, a number of publications, on this subject, 
have been issued from the press. 

.\ benevolent individual offered a premium of $260 for the best 
essay on the following questions, viz. : — " Is it consistent with a 
profession of the Christian religion, fur persons to use, as an article 
of luxury or oflioing, distilled liquors, or to traffic in them? And 
is it consistent with duty for the churches of Chiist to admit those 
as members who continue to do this ?'* 

More than 40 manuscnpts were presented ; and some from most 
of the iNoithem and Middle States. Only one attempted to su|)- 
port the affirmative of the above questions. The one to which the 
premium was awarded, was written by Rev. Moses Stuart, Associate 
Professor of Sacred Literature, in the Theological Senn'nary, 
Andover, Massachusetts. It has since been published. Two 
others on the same subject, one by Rev. Austin Dickinson of New 
York, and one by Rev. Joseph niu^-ey of Connecticut, have also 
been published ; and they are all now receiving an extensive circu- 
lation. Others, it is expected, will soon be published ; and it is hoped 
that the attention of all philanthropists and Christians will be di- 
rected to this subject, till no professed friend of God or man shall 
be found engaged in this nefarious traffic in our land.* Then will 
the light of the moon be as the light of the sun, the light of the sun 
be seven fold, and the light of truth and love, beaming with celes- 
tial radiance, will eclipse them. 

Nor will its benign and heavenly influence be confined to this 
country ; but will shine with equal, and perhaps with greater bright- 
ness, on the inhabitants of other lands. In Ireland, and Scotland, 
and England, the cause is extending witli a rapidity which aston- 
ishes even its most active promotei*s. The British government has 
ceased to furnish ardent spirit, or wine, to their armies throtighout 
the provinces ; and allow a penny a day, as a substitute, to every 
soldier. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, in a debate on petitions 
6om the friends of tenlperance, declared, in Parliament, that, 
M far firom government desiring to promote the consumption of 

*ArpEKOii, O. 


spirits, they would rather see the people refrain from them alto* 

From Switzerland application has been made for our Cpnstitu- 
tion, Reports, and all the temperance publications of this country. 

Tlie Secretaiy of the Royal Patriotic Society of Sweden, in a 
letter dated Stockholm, 28th of May, 1830, says, "By foreign 
joumab received here, it apj)ears that Temperaqce Societies have 
been formed in the Free States of North America. Tlie results ob- 
tained by those Societies, if the accounts we have received be not 
exaggerated, are so surprising, that they have attracted the particu- 
lar notice of the Royal Swedish Patriotic Society, and created a 
desire of becoming acquainted with their organization and mode 
of proceeding. It is for this purpose that, in my capacity of Secre- 
tary of the said Society, I have to solicit your procuring and com- 
municating all the information in your power to obtain respect- 
ing the Nortli American Temperance Societies, which, it is said, 
publish a Journal, giving an account of tlieir proceedings and pro- 
gressive attainments. Should this publication contain information 
applicable to other nations, as well as America, sufficiently inter- 
esting to be subscribed for by the Royal Society, you will oblige 
us by sending what has been published, the expense of which 
shall be satisfied." 

The Journal of Humanity, and various other temperance publica- 
tions, have been sent to the Royal Patriotic Society ; and from later 
communicadons, it appears that Temperance Societies have already 
been formed at Stockholm, Grottenburgh and Tonkioping, are ex- 
erting a powerful influence, and, it is expected, will extend thix)ugh 
the country. 

Tliey have also been formed in great numbers, and are now 
exerting a mighty influence,*in the islands of die South Sea. Nu- 
merous villages, whose inhabitants, a few years ago, were, as a 
body, for days, intoxicated together, have now not an individual 
in them who uses any thing that intoxicates. 

The traffic is denounced as immoral, and prohibited under severe 
penalties, by the government. For selling a single botde of 
rum, a man was fined $200, because the sale of this poison tended 
so strongly to ruin his fellow men. And may we not hope, that 
the time is approaching, when the traffic will be viewed and treated 
as a notorious and destructive immorality, over the whole earth. 
In the island of Oahu is a Society ot more dian 1000 mem- 
bers, aU of whom engage not to use or to traffic in ardent spirits, 
or in any way to furnish them for the use of others. 

Measures have also been taken to form Temperance Societies in 
Africa ; and there is reason to expect, that their influence will soon 
be felt in every country on the globe ; that, wherever the gospel 

*Appikdix, p. 

rOUBTM REPORT. — 1831. 68 

goes, and exerts its legitimate influence over the mind of man, ab- 
stinence from all whicn intoxicates, and thas wars against the soul, 
will be its sure and invariable attendant. The Hottentot and 
the Hindoo, the Greenlander and Tahitian, will unite with the 
inhabitants of the Emerald Isle, the Caledonian, European, Asiatic, 
African and American of every name, in ceasing to do evil. Then, 
under the means of God's appointment, will they learn to do well. 
The word of the Lord, unobstnicted, will run very swiftly ; and, 
pouring with double energy its mighty, all-pervading influence upon 
the whole mass of minds, will be like the rain and the snow that 
come down from heaven, and water the earth, and cause it to bring 
forth and bud. The frost and the snows of six thousand winters 
will be forever dissolved ; and the spring-time of millennial beauty, 
and the autumnal fruit of millennial glory, open upon tlie world. 

But, in order to this, a number of things must be avoided ; and a 
number of other things must be done. 

1 . Men must not adopt the opinion, that the Temperance Refor- 
mation is already accomplished ; or that it is so far accomplished, that 
it will go forward of itself; or that any one may now be excused 
from great and persevering eflbrts. There is a tendency with many 
to conclude that the work is already accomplished ; or that so much 
is done, that it will now go forward to its completion of itself; 
and that its friends may be excused from further eflfort. But as 
well might a man who nad undertaken to sail around the globe, and 
had gone a few miles with a prosperous gale, conclude that the 
voyage was accomplished, or tliat so much was accomplished, and 
he was now going so finely, that wind, and tide, and gi-avitadon 
would of diemselves accomplish the work, and that he might be 
excused from further eflbit, as for a man to adopt this opinion with 
regard to the Temperance Reformation. It is die very opinion 
which the drunkard, who means to continue such, propagates ; and, 
so far as it prevails, it is fatal. The work is not accomplislied till 
there is not a drunkard in our land ; and not a sober man, much 
less a Christian, to make his children drunkards. 

The work accomplished ! In the city of Boston, with only 
about 60,000 inhabitants, there were, the last year, 690 persons 
licensed by the government to sell diis poison.* If each has 
only 10 customers a day, it would make 6,900 who daily use 
it. And if each spends only 10 cents a day, it would amount to 
$261,950 a year. 

In the four cities of Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Bal- 
timore, containing only about 500,000 inhabitants, more than 
6,000 persons are licensed by the government to sell ardent spirit, 
and thus to be accessory to the ruin of their fellow men. If they have 

* More than 1 to every 22 men, oyer 21 yean of a|re, make it tiieir biuiiui 
to indiiee men to buy. 



daily 10 customers each, and they each spend foi this poison only 10 
cents, it would be more than J6,000 a day, or more than $2,196,000 
a year. More than 6,000 men — more uian one in 20 of all the men 
over 21 years of age — are, for a little money, licensed to cany on a 
Irade which is proved, by a vast accumulation of facts, to be among 
the greatest curses which have come upon the human family ; wliicii 
has caused a loss \o the people of the United States of more than 
$90,000,000 a year; and brought down more than 30,000 persona 
to an untimely grave. And this is continued, after it is proved, by 
the experience of more than a million of persons, that mci>, in all 
kinds of business, ai*e better without the use of it ; and those who 
profess to be good men are furnishing it to all who will purchase, 
and thus assisting to perpetuate diis miglity ruin down to tlie end 
of the world. 

No ; the work Is not done ! It is only begun. Enough has 
been done to show that it is practicable ; that it ought to be done ; 
and, if temperate men and women do their duty, it will be done. 

But, in the language of a distinguished civilian, " Every thing, 
now, with regard to temperance, turns on perseverance.^^ Its friends 
have adopted the right plan, — kind moral influence, the influence 
of facts, brought home to the bosoms of the people, and enforced 
by tlieir responsibilities to God ; and the retribution, not of time 
only, but eternity. " 1 have just returned,'* said the man referred 
to, " from a long journey ; and I did not suppose, two years ago, tliat 
it was in die power of all the world to produce the change, with 
regard to the use of strong drink, which I have witnessed on this 
journey. And I am now perfectly satisfied, that, if we hold on, the 
cause will be triumphant. Bur every thing titrns on perse- 

So say the facts. Wherever sober men do their duty, the cause 
advances. With opposition, or without it, the cause advances. 
Tlie efforts of friends and foes seem to help it onward. But where 
sober men adopt die opinion, Uiat Uiey have done enough, that the 
work is accomplished ; or diat so much is done, that it will now go 
forward of itself 5 or that oihere will carry it on widiout them, — ^ihe 
caa^ recedes, death advances, and extending destruction follows. 

2. Men must not be afraid or ashamed to adopt the plan of entire 
abstinence from the use of ardent spirit, and from all instnimentality 
in the furnishing of it for the use of others. Nor must they refiise 
to let this be known, and to unite with others, in making vigorous 
and persevering eflbrts, till all are persuaded to do the same. 

And one of the most unexceptionable and eflicacious modes of 
doing this, is, by united and visible example, embodied and ex- 
hibited in the formation, and active, persevering operation of Tem- 
perance Societies ; composed of all, ooth male and female, who do 
not use ardent spirit. 

VOUBTU REPORT. 183). 55 

Some are ready to say, •* Why should we unite with others ? If 
me only abstain, that b enough." And others contend, thai they 
can do more good by not uniting in any Society ; and ask, " What 
is the benefit of Temperance Societies?'* 

When oiHT fathers and mothers could not drink tea without its 
ooming with a litde paltry tax upon it, which would endanger the 
wel&re of their children, the men of '76, and the women too, said, 
**We will not use it." Toml abstinence was the doctrine which 
went, like an electric sliock, tlirough tlie land. And not only so, 
but they said that they would aj^ree together not to buy, sell, or use 
die detestable thing.* Tliey did. The eftect was felt across <he 
Adantic. It b felt throughout this land, down to this day. It vnM 
be felt in every land, to the end of time. What was the benefit 'of 
that visible organized union ? Union is strength. And organized, 
viable unk)n, is consolidated, permanent, ever-growing strength. 

When armies of oppression were jx>ured in to desolate our coun- 
try, had our fathers said, " We will abstain from it ; we will not 
6ght in their armies; ftor will we have any visible, organized union 
among ourselves to oppose them, but will act single-lianded, each 
one ill his own way ;" they had taken the very course which their 
enemies had wished. No drunkards advocate the formation and 
active operation of Temperance Societies. And firom this fact, 
the friends of temperance ought to learn much. Twenty men^ 
united by visible agreement, will ordinarily exert greater moral in- 
fluence on the community, tlian a hundred men, with no visible 
organized union. And of all the means which God has blessed, to 
carry forward this great work, Temperance Societies are among the 
most efficacious. 

The Committee, therefore, cannot look upon the efforts of th^ 
chancellor of the state of New York, and his associates, for the 
formation of a Temperance Society, in each school district of 
the greatest state in the Union, but with peculiar deliglit. Tem- 
perance Sociedes in 9063 schools, embracing 500,000 childreD. 
will exert an influence that will be felt round the globe, and will 
tell on the destinies of men to endless ages. Some, who are 
afraid, and have reason to be, of a sound moral influence, may 
apprehend danger fix)m such combinations 5 but the Committee 
can see in them only unmingled benefits. And, should they be- 
oome universal throughout oiir country, our country will be saved. 
Three millions of children, abstaining from that fleshlv lust, which 
wars against the body and the soul, and against all the social, 
dvil, and religious interests of men ; and educated, as they may be, 
and brought, tlirough grace, under the influence of that "law 
whiek b perfect, converting the soul, sure, making wise the simple, 
vnd which b true and righteous altogether,"— con never be enslath 

* Afpiitdix, Q. 


td : nor can they submit to the degradation of making efforts for 
the enslavirig of others. That spirit which cries, " Glory to God 
in the lu2;hesi," breathes, "eood will to men." Its motto is, "As 
ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to tliem.** // 
laiU never enslave, nor be enslaved. The Son of Crod makes it 
free, and it must be free indeed. 

Some i"efnse to join a Temperance Society, because, they say, 
"We are temperate abready." But should a patriot refuse to join 
whh othei*s for the defence of liis country, and give as a reason, "1 
am a patriot already," he would cause his patriotism to be some- 
thing more dian suspected. 

Should a man in apparent health refuse to un?te with others to 
dlrain off a stagnant pond, that was filling a city with pestilence, and 
give as a reason, that he was in health already, lie would give sad 
evidence that his heart, if not his head, ^^as disordered. Were a 
conflagration raging in a city, and should a man refuse to unite vivHa 
others to extinguish the flames because his outi house was not on 
fire, he would be likely to excite little sympathy should Am house 
be burnt. 

Temperance Societies are designed for temperate men. Their 
object is, to keep all sober, wlio are so now ; till all dnmkards, who 
will not reform, are dead, and the world is free. No persons will 
do good, in Temperance Societies, except tliose who do not use 
ardent spirit, and who do not furnish it for the use of others. The 
fact, therefore, that a man entirely abstains himself, and is in no 
way accessory to the use of aident spirit by others, instead of being 
a reason why he should not, is the very reason why he should join 
a Temperance Society. No other men will show by practice the 
utility of this course, which must be adopted by all men, or intem- 
perance will never be done away. On the other hand, let men 
c^ase to use that which intsxicates, and the evil will vanish. And 
tlie way to accomplish this, is, to show, by visible, united example, 
(he practicability and utility of this course. And to do tliis is the 
object of Temperance Societies. And no man can join them, and 
act perseveringly, in accordance with their spirit, witliout douig ex- 
tensive good to his fellow men. And let all sober men do this, and 
Providence will do the rest. Intemperance and all its abominations 
wiU be speedily done away. If new drunkards are not made, b 
one generation, and that a short one, you may seek them, but you 
cannot find them ; they will have gone to their own place, and the 
earth be eased of its burden. 

3. Men who understand the nature and effects of ardent spirit, 
and who, with a knowledge of the subject, enter u|H?n, or continue 
in, the business of furnishing this poison, as an article of hixury 
or diet, to all who will purchase, and thus assist in ])erpetuatinE 
drunkenness, and all its abominations, must be viewed and treateu 

FOURTH REPORT. 1831. 67 

as sharers in the drunkard^s guilt, and as ripening to be partaken 
of the drunkard's plagues. For, in the language of the Conunittee 
of the New York State Temperance Society, who, by their labors 
in this cause, are rendering themselves the benefactors of the woi1d« 
^' Disguise that business as they will, it is still, in its true characteri 
the business of destroying the bodies and souls of men. The vend-- 
er and tlie maker of spirits, in the whole range of them, from the 
pettiest grocer to the most extensive distiller, are fairly chargeable 
not only with supplying tlie appetite for spirits, but with creoHw 
that unnatural appetite ; not only with supplying the drunkard wttn 
the fuel of his vices, but with making tlie drunkard. 

" In reference to the taxes with ^-hich the making and vending 
of spirits loads the community, how unfair towards others is tlie 
occupation of tlie maker and vender of them ! A towni for 
instance, contains one hundred drunkards. The profit of raakmg 
these drunkards, is enjoyed by some half a dozen persons. But 
the burden of these drunkards rests upon the whole town. The 
Executive Committee do not suggest that diere should be such a 
law ; but they ask whetlier there would be one law in the whole 
statute-book, more righteous than that which should require those 
who have tlie profit of making our drunkards to be burdened with 
the support of them." 

Suppose that half the persons in a town use no intoxicating 
liquors, and do not furnish them for the use of others, and are not 
accessory, by example or business;, to tlie making of drunkards ; 
how exceedingly unjust and oppressive, that they should be taxed 
for the support of them ! — that men should be licensed to tempt 
their children to become drunkards ; to excite them to the com-' 
mission of crimes ; and, for the sake of gain, without benefit, and 
gready to the injury of the community, increase the danger of 
their temporal and eternal niin ! What can be more just, than that 
the men who cause such evils, should themselves bear the burden 
of them ? 

And should the men who sell ardent spirit have to bear not onlj 
the burden of supporting all the paupei-s which they make, but 16 
bear the loss of property, the loss of character, the loss of reputatk)B 
and domestic comfort which they occasion ; and to bear also the 
loss of health, the k)ss of reason, the loss of life, and the loss of 
soul, to which they are knowingly and voluntarily instrumental ; 
and all this, in righteousness, as a punbhment for being accessor^ 
to the bringing of these evils upon others ; — ^woukl diey not find their 
burden to be inexpressibly great? and be ready, like anotheti 
when punished justly, to cry, " My punishment is greater than I 
can b^'?" Anc) if die killing of one man justly brought upon its 
aiJthor such fearful and overwhelming retribution, who can beer 
tlie indignation and wrath, tribulation and anguisli, of condnuing to 


be knowingly and voluiiturily accessory to the killing of those hui>- 
dreds of thousands wiio axe bi-ought to an untimely grave by 
ardent spirit ? 

And as the authors and accessories of this mighty ruin li>'e 
under a righteous moral government, by which every thing that is 
now covered will ere long be i*evealed, and which will render to 
every man according to his work, — does not humanity, patriotism, 
conscience, religion, and every thing dear for this life, and the life 
to come, urge them, without delay, whatever it may cost them, to 
abandon this work of death forever? 

" But," says one, " if I do not sell ardent spirit, I must change 
my business." If so, the Committee would say, Change your bu- 
siness ; or it may have been better for you never to have been born. 
You ai'e required to change it, by your own good and that of 
ottiers ; by that law whicli requires you supremely to regard God, 
and to do good, and good only, as you have opportunity, to all men. 

•' But," says another, '• if I should do tliis, I could not support 
my family." But it would be a libel on the character of God to 
suppose, that men cannot live under his government, and support 
tlieir families, without continuing to be, knowingly and voluntarily, 
accessoi7 to the ruin of their fellow men. Nine tenths of all the 
families in tliis country are sup|)orted by other kuids of business ; 
and it is not true tliat the otlier tentli cannot be supported. 

" But, if I do not sell, other people will." It may be true, that 
other people will trafhc in human flesh and blood, if you do not ; 
that they will steal, rob, and commit murder, if you do not. But 
that will not lessen the intensity and awfulness of your retribution, 
if you do. No more will it, if you continue knowingly, by the sale 
of 'ardent spirit, to ruin your fellow men. You may be prevented, 
by this, from seeing its criminality, but you will not be prevented 
from feeling its retribution. This you cannot escape, but by aban- 
doning the bu^ness, and using all suitable means to lead all others 
to do tlie same. 

•Do tiiis, and you escape the guilt of its continuance, and others 
escape its woes. You dry up, so far as you are concerned, the 
grand source of pauperism, crime, and wretchedness ; diminish 
exceedingly the sickness, insanity and death ; remove one of the 
greatest dangers, to which our social, civil and religious institutions 
are exposed ; and one of the mightiest obstructions to the efficacy 
of the gosj)el, and all the means of grace ; you remove tliat which, 
with tliousands and millions, now hinders the influence of that 
overflowing kindness which God has opened upon a guilty world 
through a Savior ; and whfch, if not obstructed and resisted, would 
iUuniinate and purify, cheer, bless and save, from the rising of the 
8tin to the going down of the same, with a holy and an everlasdng 


A. (p. 1.) 

When treated of by medical writers, and arranged acGording to 
its effects on the liuman body, distilled spirit is placed in the aame 
f^iass, and considered under the same relations, with henbane, 
deadly night-shade, tobacco, hemlock, opium, and various other 
poisons ; and, in another point of view, as exerting an influence on 
the human system similar to the condnued action of the oonti^an 
of the plague, typhus fever, and smaU-pox. Discovered at first by 
a Mohammedan alchemist, while torturing the wholesome giAs of § 
beneficent Creator, in search of a universal solvent, by wfaicb to 
extract gold from its hidden recesses, and minutest state of divisioci, 
distilled spirit continued, for centuries, to be employed in their myste- 
rious, and, in general, vaih inventions ; and it was not till more than 
fifty centuries of the world's histor}' had passed away, that the un- 
happy ingenuity of a Spanish physician, first suggested its use as a 
remedy in disease ; nor till several centuries afterwards, that the 
popular taste established it as a remedy in health. How Kterally 
It has since, in innumerable instances, in this latter character, reaiiBad 
the Italian epitaph, '^ I was well ; I would be better ; and here I 
am !" (Gloi. 'temp. Record^ vol. i. p. 18.) 

Till the reign of William and Mary, ale had been the comnKNi 
beverage of the lafooring classes in England. But iio sooner wai 
ardent spirit ingrafted in their habits by an act for the encourage 
ment of distillauon, than its empbyment became so excessii^ as to 
call for legislative interference; and it was not till 1751, ifaat the 
measures of the government were successfiil, in bringing back the 
consumption of ale to its original quantity ; before which, aooording 
to Smoilet, ^' such a shameful degree of profligacy prevailed, that 
the retaflers of thb poisonous compound (gip) set up painted 
boards in public, inviting the people to be drunk for the small 
expense of a penny ; assuring tnem that they might be dead drunk 
for twopence, and have straw to lie on till they recovered, for noth- 
ing.'^ From this time till the removal of the restrictions on the 
sale of gin, in 1827, beer contbued to be again the favorite drink 
of the English workmen ; but immediatelv on the nation being agaiiH 


the second time, exposed, with ail its ale-quaffing habits, to the b'^H, 
diffiisive, and agreeable stimulus of di2>tilled spirit, it fell;— the 
thirst for the new liquor spreading with the rapidity of lightning 
and its consumption increasing, in two years, twelve millKHis oi 
gallons. (Do. vol. ii. p. 4.) 

Distilled spirits began to be prepared on the continent c( Europe, 
on a large scale, in the commencement, and was first mtroduced 
into this country in the latter end, of the 16th century ; and in the 
comparatively short period which has elapsed smce, its coosump' 
tion has extended in the United Kingdom, to about 40,000,000 
gallons per annum. The earliest notice of its application to the 
purposes of ordinary life, which we have seen, is its exhibit ion, as 
a supposed preservative from cold and damp, to the laborers m thp 
Hungarian mines ; and Cambden mentions it as having been adopc- 
ed in 1581, ibr the first time, as a cordial, by the English soldien 
engaged in assisting the Dutch m the Netherlands. And from 
tiiis httie cloud, no bigger than a man's liand, has been evohred 
the mighty mass, which is now suspended over our country, and 
pouring its fiery streams into all the currents of public and domestic 
mtercoiirse. {Do, p. 50.) 

It was not tiU tlie end of the 13th century, that spirits of wine, 
impregnated with certain herbs, was introduced into use as a reme^ 
dy in the treatment of disease. The first ardent spirit known in 
Europe was made from grapes, and sold as a medicine both io 
Italy and Spam. The Genoese afterwards prepared it fix>m grain, 
and sold it m small bottles, at a very high price, under the name of 
aqua vitaf or the water of Kft. Down to the 16tb century, ii 
continued to be kept exclusively by the apothecary, and ifs use 
restricted to medicine. (Jour, of Hum, vol. ii. p. 145.) 

It appears, however, that as early as the reign of Henry VIH., a 
liquor termed aqua vita, supposed to have been brandy, was 
known in Ireland ; it beii^ decreed by that monarch, that there be 
but one maker of aqua vtta in any borough or town. In 1556, 
an act of parliament was passed at Drogheda, against distilling it tt 
all ; it bemg described, m the language of the act, as '* a drink 
nothing profitable to be daily drunken smd used." (Do. p. 149.) 

B. (p. 2.) 

Of 286 persons in the Lunatic Asylum in Dublin, 115 weri 
kncywn to have been deprived of reason by mtemperanoc, and 
there b reason to believe that this was the case also with maivf 

h four years, from 1826 to 1829 inclusive, 495 patients were 
idmitted into the Liverpool Lunatic Asylum ; and 257 of them 
xrere known to have brought on Uieir derangement by drinking ; 
ind this was supposed to have been the case witli many others. 

A distinguished medical gentleman, who has had extensive expe- 
ience widi regard to tliis malady, states, that more than one half, 
md probably diree fourths, of all tlic cases of insanity which have 
:ome under his notice, were occasioned by excessive drinking. Id 
lie Pauper LAinatic Asylum in Middlesex, the number of patients 
ncreased in one year from 825 to between 1100 and 1200; and 
jioncipally by an increase of the use of gin. (Jour. Hum. p. 105.) 

^ The comparative sobriety of the Frencn nation is familiar to 
srery one ; and Dr. Esquirol states the proportion of the insane 
!nxn inebriety, at one of the asylums in Fans, to amount only to 
ibout one thirteenth of the whole ; while Dr. Crawford, of the 
Richmond Lunatic Asylum of Dublin, reports the proportion of the 
Hune description of patients throughout Ireland to be as high as 
Mie half of the total insane. Tltc prod^ious increase of insanity m 
Cjreat Britain — amounting, accordmg to Sir Arthur Haliday, to 
two thirds within tiie last twenty years — may, with great justice, be 
iscribed, in some degree, to the more general use of spirituous 
liquors within that period ; and this view receives siuch confirraa- 
ioD from the melancholy fact, that in ScoUand the proportion b 
b^er than in either England or Wales. In England, it is said to 
imount only to about one insane person in every 1000 of the popu- 
bskm ; in Wales, to one in every 800 ; and in Scotland, to one in 
every 574." {Temp. Rec. No. 2. vol. i. p. 2a) 

Axid why should Uiis not be the case ? " What," says Dr. Kirk, 
^ is the nature of ardent spirits? All of them contain, as their basis, 
ilcc^ol— a narcotic stimulant, possessing properties of the kind 
tint opium does ; which you know to be a poison, — ^with this addi- 
don, tnat it is more immediately iiritating to the tissues of the body 
to which it is applied, than opium is. It mixes with the food and 
juices of the stomacli, and in the act, time after time, injures the 
ooats of that organ. It mixes with the chyle, which is to iorm part 
i»f the mass of nlood, and is carried with it into the circulation — ^ 
Dourses through every vessel, and is exhaled at every pore. You 
leel it pollute the respiration of the drunkard, when he blows his 
nauseous breath upon you. The liquor has been absorbed mto 
die blood, b circidating through the lungs at every respiraUon, is 
exhaled from the numerous vessels containing the circuiting bkxxl 
of these organs. The vessels of the brain, as well as other parts, 
are loaded with it. I dissected a man who died in a state of in- 
toxication after a debauch. The operation was performed a few 
hours after death. In two of the cavities of the brain, the lateral 
ventricles, was found the usual quantity of limpid fluid. .MTheo 



we smelt it, the odor of whiskey was distinctly visible ; and when 
we applied tlie candle to a portion in a spoon, it actually burned 
blue — the lambent blue flame, characteristic of the poison, playing 
on the surface of the spoon for some seconds." (X>r. J&r1f$ 
Addrest to the Leven Temperance Society, p. 6.) 

No wonder it destroys reason. It is a poison in the brain. And 
no wonder that those who take even a little of it, have less reason 
than those who take none ; and that those who take it daily are so 
much more exposed, and their children also, to insanity, than those 
who entirely abstain from it. 

" The love of strong drink," says Dr^ Peirson, " and the proneness 
to mania, are, with respect to each other, interchangeable causes." 

C . (p. 9.) 

Should each individual in our country adopt the same course, 
the following are some of the advantages which would result finom 
it: — 

1. They would enjoy better health, be able to perform more 
labor, and would live to a greater age. 

2. The evils of intemperance would soon be done away ; for all 
who are now intemperate, and continue so, will soon be dead, and 
no others will be found to succeed them. 

3. There will be a saving, every year, of more than thirtymil' 
lions of dollars f which are now expended for ardent spirits. There 
will be a saving of more than two thirds of all the expense of sup- 
porting the poor, which, in Massachusetts alone, would .amount to 
more than $600,000 annually. And there would be a saving of 
all that idleness and dissipation which intemperance occasions, and 
of the expense of more than two thirds of all the criminal prosecu* 
tions in the land. In one of our large cities, in which there were 
1000 prosecutions for crimes, more than 800 of them were found 
to have sprung from the use of ardent spirits. 

4. There would be a saving of a vast portion of sickness ; and 
of the lives, probably, of 30,000 persons every year. 

Liet these four considerations be added together, and traced in 
their various bearings and consequences upon the temporal and 
eternal welfare of men ; and then let each individual say, whether, 
in view of all the evils connected with the practice of taking ardent 
spirit, he can, in the sight of God, be justified in continuing the 
practice. That it is not necessary, has been fully proved. No 
one thinks it to be necessary, except those who use it. And they 
would not think so, if they were not in the habit of using it. Let 
any man leave off entirely the use of ardent spirit, for only ooe 


'ear, and lie wiU find by his own eicperience that it is not necessary 
»r useful. The fathers ol i\t>w F^ngland did not use it, nor did 
heir ciiilciren. They were never, as a body, in the practice of 
aking it. And ^-et ihey enjoyed better health, attained to a larger 
tature, and, with fewer comforts of life, performed more labor, en- 
lured more fatigue, and lived, upon an average, to a greater age, 
ban any generation of theii* descendants who have been in the 
iractice ot' taking spirit. As it was not necessary for the fadiers 
4 iMew tLngland, it is certain that it is not necessary for iheir de- 
cendants, or for any portion of our inhabitants. Hundreds of 
leallhy, active, respectable and useful men, who now do not use it, 
an testify that it is not necessary. And diis will be the testimony 
rf every one who will only relinquish endrely t!.c; use of it. 

It is by the temperate and habitual use of ardent spirit, that in- 
tmptratc appetites are formed. And the temperate use of it can- 
lot be continued, without, in many cases, forming intemperate 
ppetites; and after they are fonned, multitudes will be destroyed 
y their gratiQcation. 

Natural appetites^ such as are implanted in our constitution by 
he Author of nature, do not by their gratification increase in their 
demands. What satisfied them yeai's ago, will satisfy them now. 
Jut artificial appetites, which are formed by the wicked practices 
if men, are constantly increasing in their demands. What satisfied 
bem once, will not satisfy them now. And what satisfies ti)em 
low, will not satisfy them in future. They are constandy crying, 
' Chive, give.^^ And there is not a man, who is in the habitual use 
f ardent spirits, who is not in danger of dying a drunkard. Be- 
bre he is aware, an intem])erale appetite may be formed, the 
;ratification of which may prove his temporal and eternal ruin. 
knd if the practice should not come to this I'esult with regard to 
iimself, it may with regard to his children, and children's children. 
t may with regard to his neighbors and the'u* children. It may 
txtend its baleful influences far and wide, and transmit them, with 
]| their innumerable evils, from generation to generation. 

Can, then, temperate, sober men be clear from gvilt, in continuing 
i practice which is costing annually more than $30,000,000 ; in- 
reasing more than three-fold the poor rates and tlie crimes of the 
ountry ; undennining the health and constitution of its inhabitants ; 
ad cutting off annually 30,000 lives? 

Tliere is tremendous guilt somewhere. And it is a truth which 
Nigbt to press witl) overwhelming force upon tlie mind of every 
ober man, that a portion of this guilt rests upon every one who, 
rith a knowle<ige of facts, continues the totally unnecessary and 
wfidly, pernicious practice of taking ardent spirits. Each indi- 
jdual ought, without delay, in view of eternity, to clear biiiiseU^ 


tnd, neither by precept nor example, ever acain encourage or eveo 
connive at this deadly evil. ( }Vell<onductea Farm^ pp. 9, 10, 11.) 

D. (p. 9.) 

On the 26th of June, 181 1, tlie General Association of Massachu- 
setts appointed Rev. Samuel Worcester, D. D., Rev. Jcdediah 
Morse, D. D., Rev. Abiel Abbot, Rev. Benjamin Wadsworth, 
Reuben D. Mussey, M. D., William Thurston, Esq., Joseph 
Torrey, M. D., anu Jeremiah Evaris, Esq., a committee to coope- 
rate with committees of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
church, and the (Jeneral Association of Connecticut, in devising 
measures which may have an influence in preventing some of tlie 
numerous and thrcatening mischiefs, that are experienced through- 
out our country, from the excessive and intemperate use of spiritu- 
ous liquors. This committee met at different times for consultation, 
corresponded on the subject, and, finally, determined to make an 
effort foi the formation of a State Society for tlie Suppression of 
Intemperance. A sub-committee, consisting of Dr. W^orcester, 
Dr. Torrey and Mr. Wadsworth, was appointed to prepare a Con- 
stitution. After being presented to the whole commiuee, and adopted, 
it was presented, by them, to a more general meeting, in Boston, 
on the 4th of February, 1813. At another meeting at the State 
House, on the 5di, the Constitution was adopted, and a Society 
formed, called The Massachusetts Society for the Suppres- 
sion OF Intemperance. The object, as expressed in the second 
article of the Constitution, was, " To discountenance and suppress 
the too free use of ardent spirit ^ and its kindred vicesy profaneness 
and gaming^ and to encourage and promote temperance and gene- 
ral morality^ 

For a number of years, this Society languished. Some of its 
members, at length, advocated its dissolution ; and others retired from 
it in despair. In the language of the late Hon. Isaac Parker, Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts, in a letter dated 
Boston, 25th May, 1829, "Many, seeing no happy results, after 
many years of effort, have retired from the field in despair. I am one 
of this number ; but I now see, and rejoice in it, that, however des- 
perate the disease, it is at last yielding to the power and skill of the 
great Physician above, dirough the instnimentality of the human 
p-gents he has employed. The National Society, established here 
a few years ago (meaning tlie American Temperance Society), has 
given great deciaon to tlie preexisting Massachusetts Society, and 


loth together, with the aid of country and town associations, and 
influential individuals, have been the secondary causes of working 
the greatest moral change which has ever taken place in this com- 

The Massachusetts Society still continues its operations, and, 
since it has directed its efibrts to the promotion of entire abstinence 
from the use of ardent spirits, has been productive of much good. 

In February, 181.3, the same month in which the Massachusetts 
Society for the Suppression of Intemperance was formed, the Rev. 
Heman Humphrey, of Fairfield, Connecticut, commenced in the 
Panoplist and Missionary Magazine, a periodical published in Bos- 
ton, edited by Jeremiah Evaits, Esq., a series of six numbers, 
on the causes, progress, effects, and remedy of intemperance in the 
United States. In the closins part of diese numbers, he said, " If 
farmers and mechanics would acree not to drink spirits themselves, 
and not to provide them for their workmen ; if, instead of furnish- 
ing liquor, they would give additional compensation to laborers, fur- 
nishing ihem, at the same time, with a generous supply of nutritious 
and palatable drinks, — a very large advance would be made toward 
banishing the fiery products of the distilleries from the field and the 
shop. And this would be no uiconsiderable part of that acneral 
reformation, which is so loudly called for, with regard to the use 
of ardent spirits." 

Though this suggestion was not extensively followed, even by 
those who were laboring for a reformation, yet tlie f&cts which have 
been developed since the formation of the American Temperance 
Society, abundantly prove the correctness and importance of tho 
above remarks. 

E. (p. 16.) 

The following notices have been extensively circulated, both in 
thb country and in Europe. 

" These discourses (Dr. Beecher's on Intemperance) were com- 
posed and delivered at Litchfield, in tlie year 1826. Sir'*" **"** 
time, the American Society for the Promotion of Temperance has 
been formed, and is now (1827) in successful operation.'* 

" Temperance Societies took their origin in America, in the fol- 
kwing manner: — ^The Rev. Dr. Beecher, deeply impressed with 
die evils of dmnkenness, attacked that vice from the pulpit with 
90 much vigor as to engage public attention, and to lead to tlie 
Ibrmatkm of Societies, in many parts of the Union, for its suppres* 

By a reciurreiice to the dates, it will be seen that the impressioa 



made by the above notices is not in accordance with the bcXs. 
Dr. Be^l)er's sermons had no influence in the ronnation of the 
American Temperance Society. It was not then known, by those 
who formed the American Temperance Society, that those serrooos 
had been preached, though, after they were published, in 1827, they 
exerted a powerful and extensive influence m aiding its operations. 

F. (p. 23.) 

*^ It ought to be mentioned, to the honor of the bar of Berkshire, 
that they have, I believe unanimously, entered into a compact 
which they strictly execute, to promote the cause of temperance by 
example and otherwise. They have banished all ardent spirits 
from their houses at home, and their lodgings when at court, mak- 
ing literally no use of them. They have also discaitled the use of 
wine, which, at first, I thought might be carrying die thing too far, 
because extremes generally cause revulsions ; but, uix)n hearing 
their reasons, I am satisfied they are right. They do not object to 
wine, as, of itself, used in rnocferation, hurtful ; but the use of it in 
a great measure dcstro}-s the power of example, and tends much 
to defeat the efieci of any remonstrance they may have occasion 
to make to those who are destroying themselves and families by 
hard drinking. Tlie poor man, when urged to refrain, is apt to 
retort, * Why, if we could aflford to drink wine, as you do, we 
certainly would not drink rum ; but we must have something, as 
well as you ; and rum is the cheapest thing we can get.* it is 
necessary to show such people that there is no need of any stim- 
ulants." [Judge Parker^s letter to J}r, Warren.) 

G. (p. 32.) 

*.«ury GuLse, of Stark coimty, Ohio, was, on the 12th of Octo- 
ber, 1830, elected to the oflice of sheriflT of tlie county. Hn 
election was contested on the ground of his having treated the 
electors with ardent spirits. The following, delivered by Judge 
Hallock, is the decbion of the court .' — 

" The Court here find, that the said Guise, on the 12tb day of 
October, 1830, it being the day of holding the electioD in Stark, 
for sheriff, at the tavern of Henry Husser, in the town of Canion, 
JD said cauAty, did give, by himself and i^nt, to ^iifien eledon 

rOUfiTB &EP0R1. — 1831. — APPENDIX. 71 

ft sakl county, between two and three c^allons of spirituous liquors, to 
wit, whiskey, brandy, and rum, with the intent to procure the 
election of said Guise to the office of sheriff of said county ; he, 
then and there, being a candidate for said office, at said election. 

" Whereupon the Court do now liere adjudge tlie said election of 
said Guise to said office void ; and the office of sheriiS* of said 
county vacant" {Pitts. Her.) 

H. (p. 33.) 

Desertions from the Army in seven 



NunbM. Coft. 

Triad by Coart»«imrUMl> 


668 $58,677 



811 70,398 



803 67,488 



636 54,393 



848 61,344 



820 62,137 



1083 96,826 

Total, 5,669 $471,263 7,058 

{Report of the Secretary of JVar, Feb. 22, 1830.) 

•* Ardent spirit should be discontinued, in the army, as a part of 
the daily rations. I know from obsen^ation and experience, when 
in the command of the troops, the pernicious effects arisine from 
the practice of regulai*, daily issues ot whiskey. If the recruit joins 
the service with an unvitiated taste, which is not un frequently the 
case, the daily privilege and die uniform example soon induce him to 
taste, and then to drink his allowance. The habit being acouired, 
he, too, soon becomes an habitual toper." {Adjutant Gen, Joneses 

*^ The proceedings of courts-martial are alone sufficient to prove 
that the crime of intoxication almost always precedes, and is often 
the inamediate cause of desertion. And I am, moreover, convinced, 
that nxBt of the soldiers, who enter the army as sober men, acquire 
habits of intemperance principally by falhng into the practice of 
drinking their gill, or half gill, of whiskey, every morning. I have 
known sober recruits, who would often throw away their morning 
albwance, but whose constant intercourse witli tipplers would soon 
induce them to taste a Zttrfe, and, in time, a little more, until they 
became habitual drunkards. I am therefore decidedly of opinion, 
that the whiskey part of the ration does, slowly, but surely , lead 
men into liiose intemperate and \icious habits, out of which grow 


desertions and most other crimes. In support of this opinion. 1 
will only advert to one otlier document. It is the subjoined extract 
of a letter from one of the most excellent and exemplary officers of 
tlie army, which contains little or nothing more than the verbal 
statements which I have received upon the same subject, from 
many other meritorious officers." (Jnaj, Gen. Gaines's statement,) 

" I have served extensively as the recorder of regimental courts- 
mai'tial, and do not hesitate to say, that five out of six cases of the 
crimes which are proved before these courts, have resulted from 
intemperance; and nme years' experience in the army has con- 
vinced me, that no inconsiderable proportion of the desertions 
occur in consequence of intemperate drinking, either of the desert- 
ers themselves, or others; I say others, because bad treatment 
from petty officers, while under the influence of ardent spirits, has 
caused many to become disgusted with the service, and finaDy to 

" I have known cases like the following, and think them not un- 
common. A non-commissioned officer, cither inebriated or not, 
oppresses a young soldier. Who complains to his commander ; the 
subject is investigated by him ; and the witnesses upon whom the 
complainant relied to sustain his charge, either from fear of the 
displeasure of their non-commissioned officer, or from being bribed 
to hold their peace, by whiskey, " know nothing." The petty 
officer produces his witnesses, bought with spirits, to exculpate 
himself, and perhaps cast blame upon the complainant. Tlie 
accused, thus cleared, is prompted by revenge to render the situa- 
tion of the soldier as irksome as possible, who, despairing of redress, 
deserts." {Lieut GaUagher*s statement,) 

I. (p. 34.^ 

Letter from ThovMs Sewally M. D., of Washington, to John C. 

Warren, M. D., of Boston. 

WisHiNGToK CiTT, DtcemMtT 89, 1830. 

DXAR 8lR, 

You will rejoice to learn that the cause of temperance, for 
which so much has been accomplished at the North, is extending 
its influence over the South and West. For several weeks pasty 
the Rev. Dr. Edwards, General Agent of die American Temper- 
ance Society, has been with us, and has given a powerful impuL<«e 
to the subject in this District. He has proceeded on the plan of 
addressing tlie different religious congregations, and of forming a 


Temperance Society in each. He has already constituted several 
on this principle. Last Sabbath evening, lie delivered a discourse 
to a large and crowded audience, in the Foundery Chapel m this 
city, — enabracing the head of the War Department, the Major- 
General of the army, and other distinguished citizens and strangers. 
On this occasion, he came forth with an array of facts and argu- 
ments altogetlier overwhelming, to which the audience listened for 
more than an hour with the most intense interest. At the close of 
the discourse, he proix>sed that a Temperance Society should be 
^ formed. A paper was passed through the congregation, and in a 
few moments upwai*ds of one hundred names were enrolled ; and, 
what we regard as highly important, no door was left open for the 
use of ardent spirit as a medicine, — ^no permission to use it when 
indisposed. The following is tlie form of the pledge given : — 
" Believing that the use of ardent spirits is not only needless, but 
hurtful ; that it is the cause of forming intemperate appetites and 
habits ; and that, while it is continued, the evils of intemperance 
cannot be prevented ; we therefore agree that we will not use them, 
that we will not provide them as an article of entertainment, and 
that we will, in all suitable ways, discountenance the use of them in 
the community." 

While we are convinced that there is no case in which ardent 
spirit is indispensable, and for which there is not an adequate sub- 
stitute, we are equally assured, that, so long as there is an exceptioa 
allowed, and men are permitted to use it as a medicine, so long we 
shall have invalids and drinkers among us. Only let our professirm 
take a decided stand upon diis point, and intemperance will soon 
vanish from our country. 

Among other cheenng indications which present themselves, it 
gives me pleasure to be enabled to state, tliat the members of 
Congress generally manifest a deep interest in the cause, and avafl 
themselves of every opportunity to procure such publications on 
the subject as are calculated to impart information or excite to 
action, and are disseminating; these among their constituents. The 
Secretary of War and the Aiajor General of the army appear fully 
sensible of the evils of intemperance, as known to exist among our 
soldiers, and are ready to adopt every suitable measure to eradicate 
it. An order has already been issued for suspending the rations 
of ardent spirit to the soldiers, in order that a fair experiment may 
be made, to ascertain whether its disuse in the army be not practi- 
cable, — an experiment which, I doubt not, will demonstrate the 
utXty of the measure, and constitute a new era in the. history of 
military life. 

Very truly, your friend, 


Dk. WlRRKlf. 


Remarks by Dr. Warren. 

Tlie information contained in Dr. Sewall's letter appears to me 
to be of great importance to the morals and happiness of our coun- 
try. If the heads of departments and membera of Congress take 
an interest in discouraging the use of ardent spirits, the amount of 
misery which will be prevented, must be great beyond caiculatiou. 
— ^The suspension of the rations of spirituous liquors to the army is 
a measure that may be very useful. Its good effects will, 1 fear, 
be much diniinished by the permission to sutlers to sell spirits to 
l?ic soldiery, under permission of an officer. The consequence of 
this arrafigcment will be, that £ome officers will grant tliis permis- 
sion, while others will refuse it ; and in this way discontent will arise, 
and the most vakiablc officers in the army become unpopular and 
obnoxious. — The way seems to be open for a total prohibition ; and 
certainly an order to lliis effect would greatly increase the efficiency 
of the army. The opinion of great bodies of physicians, given in 
the most solemn manner, is unfavorable to the use of spirits ; and 1 
cannot find langJiage strong enough to repeat and impress the fact, 
that these articles do not give sti'englb, but weakness. A momenta- 
ry flush of power may be excited under tlieir first impulse ; but 
this h soon followed by a moral and physical failure of strength, and 
a lor,s of tliat steady, unyielding courage necessary to the support of 
a regular engagement. 

The necessity of using ardent spirits in medicine is extremely 
limited. Now and then a solitary instance presents itself, in which 
there seems to be some reason for preferring alcohol to oilier articles. 
In the greater number of cases of disease requirHig the use of stim- 
ulant li(juids, wine is to be preferred to alcohol ; and the importance 
of this is much less than was tliought a few years since. 

In the year 1827, the Mass. Medical Society passed a resolution 
to discourage the use of alcohol and its preparations in the treatmeot 
of diseases. Since this was done, the use of brandy as a medicine 
has been greatly diminished ; and the spirituous preparations or 
tinctures are almost banished from the prescriptions of th€ physi- 
cian, excepting where the quantity employed is so minute as to be 
of no consideration in regard to its alcoholic properties. A highly 
respectable apothecary stated to me that, since the passage of tKe 
resolution alluded to, the amount of tinctures sold by him had 
diminished in the proportion of five parts out of six. 

The reservation of the use of alcohol for cases of sickness ap* 
pears to be of little importance in a medical way,' and, if it leads tn 
practical abuses such a reservation should not be made. 


Letter fnmi a Gentleman connected tvith the Army. 

Janman 25, 1831. 

The cause of temperance in the army has for a year or two 
past engaged the attention of some of our best and most enlightened 
men in Congress, and many plans have been devised to remedy ao 
evil which all must acknowledge to be great. 

With this intention, perhaps, the Secretary of War has lately 
issued an Order (of which tlie following is the purport) prohibiting 
the regular issues of spirits to the soldiers, to unt : 

1 . Regular issued of spirit are prohibited. 

2. Extra issues of liquor to men on fatigue duty or extra service, 
being established by law, are still continued. 

3. Soldiers are permitted to purchase from the sutler, at the 
^^ discretion of his company commander, a quantity of ardent spirit 
not to exceed two gills daily." 

This order will not answer the desired purposes ; but, on the 
contrary, I fear it will do more evil than good, — and for the follow- 
ing reasons : 

1. Tlie order will have an tmequal operation, because some 
companies in the army will be permitted to purchase from tlie 
sutler two eills, some one gill, daily ; and some none. This dis- 
tinction will tend to create uneasiness and dissatisfaction in the 
miods of those who think themselves not as highly favored as their 

2. This order will not only have an unequal operation as re^rd& 
difierent companies, but also in the same company at di^^rent 
times. The better to illustrate my meaning, I will suppose a case, 
which uot only exists now, but always will exist, so long as we 
have an army : 

There are two companies living together at a military station. 
The commanding officer of one exercises hb '* discretion," and 
permits his men to purchase two gills a day ; while the other com- 
mander will not sufier his men to. buy a drop. Let me ask any 
candid person, if such a state of thmgs b not likely to produce 

I carry my instance still farther, and suppose (what b neither 
impossible nor unlikely) that, after a few months, both these com- 
manders are relieved, and the companies commanded by officers 
having different views and feelings from their predecessors. The 
company, therefore, which, until now, has been temperate, is allowed 
the utmost latitude in drinking, and that which has been indulged 
in the free use of ardent spirit, b now reduced to entire abstinence. 


In the frequent mutations of military command, these eases toM 
occur ; and will they not have a direct and necessary tendency to 
make soldiers dissatisfied with their situation ? And will not de- 
sertions and other crimes grow out of them ? To-day indulged in 
dram-drinking — to-morrow enjoiued total abstmence— and so on 
through the alternations of temperance and ebriety, — will not sol- 
diers feel that they are the helpless objects of capricious tyranny ?— 
And will they not be likely, by open acts of mutiny to resist, or by 
desertion to nee from such an odious and senseless despotiam t 

The evils of drinking — great as they are, and dreadful in civil liie, 
— are still greater in the army. Many acts which, committed by 
citizens, would be trifling and venial, would, if committed by soldiers, 
be of a serious nature, and be \isited with instant and seyere retri- 
bution. Otherwise discipline and subordination would cease. 

A proportion of at least nme tentlis of crimes committed in the 
army can be safely and certainly traced to excessive drinking ; znd 
there is no way, that I can see, of removing this evil entirely, except 
by legalizing temperance. 

Let Congress pass a law prohibiting, under any circumstance*^, 
the issue or sale to the soldier of the smallest quantity of spirits 
Such a law might, and probably would, at first, give uneasiness to 
some confirmed tipplers; but soon it would be cheerfully ac- 
quiesced in, because the law would make no invidious distinctions, 
and all would fare alike. Our army would gradually, though cer- 
tainly, become temperate, and its moral and religious character be so 
far improved as to be an honor as well as safeguard to our country. 

I am, sir, with respect, 

Dr. — your obliged servant. 

J. (p. 36. 

In the city of Washington, there were granted in the last year 
60 tavern licenses, 34 grog-shop licenses, 4 confectionary licenses, 
and 126 ficenses to retail spirits in quantities not less than a pint—- 
making in all 224 licensed houses. If daily sales under these li' 
censes were 1^ gallons each, the quantity thus sold amounts to 
122,528 gallons annually. The population of tlie city, by the late 
census, is not quite 19,000; so those sales will average more titan 
6^ eallons to each person, which is also the average of 33 estimates 
made in various parts of the United States: we may therefore 
safely say that the quantity of ardent spirits consumed in tlie United 
States two years ago, was at least equal to 6 gallons for each per- 


son ; and, as the popuhtion of the United States was, at that time, 
about 12,000,000, the quantity consumed in the United States was 
72,000,000 gallons. 

Having alluded to the number of licenses granted by the city of 
Washington, I cannot forbear to notice the bad policy of making 
the sales of ardent spirits the source of revenue. 

The amount raised annually by ll^c sale of licenses in that city, 
is about six thousand dollai-s. The expense of supporting the 
poor IS about three thousand five hundred dollars, three fourths of 
which are admitted, by the overseers of the poor, to have been 
caused by the use of ardent spirits, and to be a charge upon tho 
amount raised by the sales of tiiose spirits — leaving the net revenue 
from that source 3375 dollars. The quantity of spirits consumed, 
to raise this small revenue, is 122,528 gallons, which cost the con- 
sumers not less than G0,000 dollars, which are worse tlian lost to 
the city, and this is the amount paid by the city to its tax-gatlierers, 
the .retailers of spirits, for collecting the paltry revenue of 3375 
dollars. This amount of loss would probably be doubled if we 
were to add the loss of labor and lives, and the expenses of litiga- 
tion, caused by the use of the ardent spirits sold under the authority 
of those licenses. 

We have estimated the whole quantity consumed in the United 
States at 72,000,000 gallons : — let us for a moment imagine in 
what proportions this quantity is probably distributed among the 
people of the United States. 

The women and children under 16 years of age, according to 
the census of 1810 and of 1820, constitute three fourths of the 
whole population of the United States. 

It can hardly be supposed that any considerable quantity of 
ardent spirits is drunk by the children, and, it is to be hoped, a very 
small proportion by the women. We will suppose, however, that 
the women and children consume one sixth of the whole quantity i 
say 12,000,000 gallons. 

Of the men over 16 years of age, constituting one fourth of the 
whole population, one half, probably, consist of those who wholly 
abstain, and of those who do not drink habitually, and who may 
therefore average half a giU a day ; one eighth of 12,000,000 is 
1,600,000 persons, at halfa gill a day, equal to 8,554,687^ gallons. 

One hall of the residue of the men, being one sixteenth of the 
whole population, equal to 750,000 persons, may be habitual 
temperate drinkers, averaging three half gills a day, amounting to 
12,832,031 J gallons. One half of the remaining men, being ^ 
of the whole popuktion, equal to 375,000 persons, may be regular 
topers, and occasional drunkards, who average 3 gills a day, equal 
to 12,832,031 i gallons. 



9,000,000 . . 
Jl ,500,000 . . 

750,000 . . 

375,000 . . 

consume • 


. 12,000,000 

. 12,832,03ii 
. 12,832,03i| 

11,625,000 . . 
375,000 . , 


. 25,781,250 

12,000,000 . . 



These quantities added make 46,218,750 gallons; which, de- 
ducted from the whole quantity consumed, 72,000,000 gallons, 
will leave 25,781,250 gallons to be divided annually among the 
375,000 remaining men, who will average more than six gills a 
day, and who will, of course, be confirmed drunkards. 

Thb estimate supposes that one in every 16 is an habitual tem- 
perate drinker, and that one in every 32 is a regular tippler and 
occasional drunkard, and that one in 32 also is a confirmed drunk- 

Whether this distribution of the quantity be correct or not, it is 
morally certain that the whole quantity is annually consumed, or 
rather was consumed prior to the year 1828, when the influence 
of the Temperance Societies began to be generally felt 

When we consider that a large portion of the ardent spirits 
consumed is of foreign manufacture, and that much of the domes- 
tic is mingled with the imported liquor, and sold to the consumer 
as foreign, at 1^ or 1^ dollar a gallon — ^that the foreign spirits used 
in taverns is sold at 4 dollars a gallon — and that even the whiskey 
at the dram-shops is retailed at 1 dollar 28 cents to 2 dollars a 
gallon — there can be little doubt that the average price to the 
consumer is at least 66J cents a gallon. 

Seventy-two millions of gallons of ardent spirits, at 66§ cents is 
fortineight millioiis of dollars. 

This amount is annually lost to the country ; as much lost as if 
as many dollars were actually cast into the sea ; for the spirits are 
consumed without the least benefit in return. 

The grain destroyed, the labor of raising the grain, and convert* 
ing it into spirits, the fuel consumed in the manufacture, are all 
lost to the country. 

Although the farmer is paid for his pain, and the distiller for 
his liquor, yet the poor man who buys it, gets no return but pov- 
erty, disease and misery. To him, and to the country, it is worse 
than a total loss. 

The wealth of a country arises from the produce of the soil and 
the labor of the inhabitants. The loss of koor, therefore, is the loss 
of wealth. 


There are, in the United States, 375,000 regular drunkards. 
These, upon an average, do not earn more than two thirds as much 
as if they were sober. 

Here is an annual loss of 100 days' labor of each drunkard^ 
worth, if he were sober, at least 40 cents a day ; making a loss of 
1.5,000,000 of dollars per anniun. 

It is estimated that, of tlie habitual dninkards, one in ten annu- 
ally comes to a premature death, and that tlieir term of life is, upon 
an average, shortened ten yeai*s. Of the 375,000 regular drunk- 
ards, therefore, 37,500 are killed annually by ardent spirits, and 
ten years' labor of each of tliem is lost to the cxjuntry. It is rea- 
sonable to suppose tJ)at each of them, if sober, might have earned, 
upon an average, 50 dolkii-s a year more than the cost of his sup- 
port. The loss of ten years' labor of 37,500 men, at 50 dollars 
per annum, is a loss of 18,750,000 dollars. 

It is admitted, on all han(h, that at least three fourths of tiie 
whole cost of crime in the United States, is chargeable to the use 
of aj'dent spirits. — Mr. Hopl<ins, of New York, who seems to 
have been very cautious in his estimates, has stated in hk communi- 
cation to the Executive Committee of the New York Statd Society 
for the Promotion of Temperance, published in l!ie first annual 
Report of that Society, that the result of his calculation gave a total 
amount o( eis^kt milbon seven thousand doUnrs as the cost of crime 
to tlie United States — three fourths of which, chargeable to intem- 
perance, is six million Jive hundred and twenty-Jive thousand dollars. 

It is ako generally admitted, that three fourths of tlie cost of 
pauf>eusm is chargeable to the same cause. 

Mr. Hopkins, in the same communication, estimates the whole 
annual cost of pauperism in the state of New York, exclusive of the 
city, to be 3,800,000 dollars, the whole of which, he thinks, might 
be fairly charged to intemperance. I, however, take only three 
fourths of it, which is two millions eight hundred andjifty thousand 

To these might be added the expense of those paupers who are 
supported wholly or partially by private and individual charity ; — 
orphan asylums, insane and other hospitals, and houses of refuge 
for juvenile offenders — and the loss of labor of prisoners confined 
for trial, or for punishment by simple imprisonment, or for debt — 
three fourths of all which are properly chareeable to the use of 
ardent spirits. The amount oi private chanty is probably much 
greater than that of public. 

ITie corporation of the city of Washington pays annually, for 
the support of the poor, about three thousatut Jive hundred dollars. 

The population is nineteen thousand, consisting of about three 
thfAisand Jive hundred families ; surely the average amount of private 
charities must be more than one dollar a year for each family. 


We may add, therefore, for thb item, another sum of /ifo aiZIifli 
eiglit hundred and fifty thousand doUan paid by the temperate far 

the intemperate. 

The average number of prisoners in the jail of the couotvof 
Wasliington, committed on criminal prosecudons, is about 30. The 
popuhition of tlie county is nearly thirty thousand. At that rate, 
die average number of criminal prisoners in the United States b 
txotlve thousand; the labor of each of whom, if sober, would be 
worth, upon an average, probably 50 dollars a year, beyond die 
cost of his support, amounting to six hundred thousttnd dollars-^ 
diree fourths of which, chargeable to intemperance, \sfaur hundred 
and Jiffy thousand dollars. 

Let us now put these items together, and count the cost of the 
consumption of ardent spirits in the United States. 

1st — 72,000,000 gallons of ardent spirit, at 66^ cts., 48,000,000 
2d — 1 00 days' labor, of 375,000 djiinkards, lost, at 40 c, 1 5,000,000 
3(1 — 10 years' labor, of 37,500 men, killed by ardent 

spirits, at 50 dollars per annum for each man, 18,750,000 
4th — i of the cost of crime to the United States, . 6,525,000 
5th — I of die cost of pauperism to die United States, 2,850,000 
6th — f of the amount of private charities, .... 2,850,000 
7th — i of 1 year's labor of 1200 prisoners lost, at $50, 450,000 

The annual loss to the country by the use of ar. spirits is 94,425,000 

In this estimate, no account is taken of the loss of the labor of the 
(mupers, prisoners confined for debt, nor of the cost of litigation 
created or excited by the use of ardent spirits, nor the salanes of 
judges, the expenses of jurors, nor of the fees of counsel. 

rfow many paupers must be made by the abstraction of ninety' 
four millions of dollars annually from the small earnings of diat 
class of society upon which the greater part of this loss must fall ! 
And what immense benefit would the mhabitants of this countn' 
derive from ninety-four millions of dollars expended annually for 
their best interest and comfort ! 

An annuity of ninety-four millions would, in twenty years, with 
simple interest only, at six per cent, per annum, upon each year's 
annuity, from die time it became payable to the end of the twenty 
years, amount to 3,064,800,000 dollars. Tlie valuation of all die 
lands, houses and slaves in the United States, in the year 1815, ex- 
clusive of Virginia, South Carolina and Tennessee, who agreed to 
pay their quotas of die direct tax without a valuation, was 

1,479,735,098 45-100 doDars. If we add for 

Virginia, 200,000,000 « 

S. Carolina, 48,862,192 « 

Tennessee, 42,716,618 " the aggregate will be 

1,771,312,908 45-100 « 

rOUKTU REPORT. — 1831. — ^APPRRDIX. 81 

And if we suppose the value to have increased, smce 1815, in pro- 
portion to the population, the present value of all the houses, lands 
and slaves in the United States, is 2,519,009,222 dollars; so 
that the amount annually tost to the country by the use of ardent 
spirits would be more than sufficient to buy up all the houses, lands 
and slaves in the United States once in every 20 years. {Judge 
Cranch^s Address.) 

K. (p. 42.) 

The opinion of the Committee of the New York State Society 
is supported by such facts as the following : — ^A distinguished gen 
tleman from uiat state writes — " The great and good work of the 
Lord goes on in the midst of us ; and the temperance movement, 
like John the Baptist, prepares the way of the Lord. One might 
follow in the wake of this movement, and say, * The kingdom of 
heaven is at hand.' " 

Another gentleman, from another part of the state, writes — " In 
this county, it is notorious that those towns which have been the 
most active in the temperance cause have been the most blessed 
by tJie Holy Spirit. In all the towns in this county, there have 
been revivals ; and, as a general remark, it may be said, that, in 
every town, those neighborhoods which have done the most in the 
promotion of temperance, have been most blessed in religious 
matters. In C , the spirit has seemed to follow the temper- 
ance effort from neighborhood to neighborhood ; and so in other 
places. In short, so manifest is tlie connection between temper- 
ance and revivals of religion, in this county, that we no more 
expect the latter, where the former does not exist, than we expect 
snow in summer. This, of course, is a general remai*k. There 
are, undoubtedly, exceptions." 

L. (p. 43.) 

Tlie connection between the promotion of temperance and the 
special success of the gospel in the salvation of men, appears to be 
confined to no particmar spot, but is common in sJl parts of the 

A gertleman from Vermont writes — " I am more and more con- 
rinced of the importance of the Temperance Reformation, consid- 
ered merely in its bearings on the success of the gospel. A few 



years ago, the churches were withering under an alcoholic curse* 
Memhei*s generally were moderate drinkers, and some immoderate. 
As the sin of intemperance naturally increased, a reformation on 
the principle of total abstinence became indispensable. I have 
known churches and congregations on the brink of a hopeless 
overtlirow, because some leading member or members would 
drink rum. 

" How long the cliurch and congregation under my care 
would have sustained themselves without a Temperance Reform, 1 
cannot tell ; but to me ruin appeared to be near. We were almost 
deluged with liquid fires. Two distilleries, five stores, four taverns, 
all grog-shops, sent abroad their poisonous effluvia. A liitle more than 
two years ago, I determined to have a Temperance Society here, at a 
time when tliere were none in this part of tlie country. I took the 
constitution recommended by the Parent Society, and spent nearly 
three weeks, pleading the cause of temperance from house to 
house. The result was a Temperance Society of 100 members. 
Hardly had we time to forget the struggle and the victory of temper- 
ance, before the Holy Spirit descended, and a revival oi six months* 
continuance rejoiced our souls. The extent of the revival seemed 
to be measured by the success of the Temperance Reform. There 
were in town about 100 hopeful conversions. So far as w^e could 
ascertain facts, and form an opinion, the number of converts dif- 
fered little from tlie number who fiisl broke away from the iron 
bondage of custom, and adopted the principle of abstinence. Those 
families where the parents had enlisted on the side of temperance, 
were more richly blessed with divine influence than others. In- 
deed, tlie revival scarcely prevailed, without the influence of the 
Temperance Reformation. 

" The history of other towns in this vicinity, is similar to ours. In 

B , the Temperance Reformation has been triumphant. Scarcely 

was the Temperance Movement begun when an interesting, revival 
of religion commenced, and the two reformations mutually aided 
and strengthened each other. 

" In A , and H , and W , and C , there are 

revivals of religion of great interest ; bringing into the kingdom, 
not only children and youth, but the aged, and men of influence. 
Tlie revivals have followed directly after the commencement of an 
efficient Temperance Reform. 

" The cause of temperance in M has also been wonderfully 

successful. They have a Temperance Society of nearly 1000 
members. There, also, a heavenly influence has followed in the 
track of temperance, and there is now a glorious revival of religion.*' 

A gentleman fiom Massachusetts writes — "In 1829, a number of 
young men formed themselves into a Temperance Society. A few 
days aiter, tlie revival of religion began to show itself. Within a 

fOtmTH E£P0IIT. — 1831.-*-APPENDIX, 83 

ftiW weeks, most of die young men, who were most active in tlie 
Temperance Society, were rejoicing in liope. The revival has 
added 164 to the church of which I ain pastor, and nearly 40 to 
tlie Baptist church in this place. 91 of tlie 164 are males. 
Our Temperance Society contains neaily 300 members, a large 
proportion of whom are }'oulh. What connection the temperance 
efforts in this place sustained to the revii-al, God only knows ; but I 
cannot but believe that they prepared the way, by removing one of 
the most powerful barriers against religious unpression." 

A distinguished civilian iirom Connecticut writes — " In 1827, 
there were in — — 20 retailers of sjMrits ; in April, 1831, there 
were only six, with a prospect that two of them will soon stop the 
sale, leaving only four in a population of 4000. The diminished 
consumption of spirits is at least equal to the reduction in the num- 
ber of retailers. In H there is no retailer, and nearly all the 

farms and the fisheries are carried on without spirit. The church 
in that place is a Temperance Society ; not a member drinks' 

spirit. In Y s, also, the church is a Temperance Society. 

Four excommunications have taken place since its formation, and 

three of them for intemperance. In K society, tliere were, in 

1827, seven retailers ; there is now only one, with a prospect that he 
will relinquish the sale of spirit in the course of tliis year. The 
number of members in our Temperance Society is about 900. On 
a large majority of the best farms, no liquor is drunk. The opposera 
hare been, kr a year or two, crying out, that a reaction would soon 
come; that the cold water system could not possibly hold out. 
Bin never were we so far from a reaction as at tlie present moment. 
The cause is daily gaining strength ; and new members are obtained 
almost every week. The reformation has also operated to expel 
wine-^rogs (rightly named) almost as entirely as distilled liquors. 
{ thiiiK 1 have not been offered a glass of wine, or spirit, in this 
region, for two years past — a simple and direct result of the Great 

** We arc hoping that God will visit us in the way of his grace, as 
he has other places in our land ; and we trust that tlie Temperance 
Movement wdl prove a preparatory way for a revival of pure reli- 
gion ; as we rejoice to hear it has been in many places." 

Since the above was written, tlie means of grace in that place 
have been attended, in a remarkable manner, with the blessings of 
the Holy Spirit. Numbers are now rejoicing in hope of the glory 
of God, and many more are anxiously inquiring what they shall 
do to be saved. This is also the case with many other towns in the 
vicinity, in which similar efforts had been made for the promotion of 

A gentleman from New Jersey writes, after mentioning the 
effi>rts which have been raade for the promotion of temperance — ^* I 


have also lo communicate to you still more cheering intelligence. 
1 refer to the fruits, by which we know tlie tree to be of God s own 
right hand planting. Immediately after the celebration of the last 
anniversary (preceding which we had made renewed eflforts to 
increase the number of our members), tlie Spirit of God was 
poured upon us in copious efilisions. Nearly 100 have been 
gathered, we trust, into the church of Christ. The patrons of our 
Society have participated largely in the work ; and he who now 
writes you, and has filled the office of Secretary of the Temperance 
Society since its organization, was soon made to feel the claims 
which a God of infinite mercy had upon him, for his love and his 

From Pennsylvania a gentleman writes — " In February, 1829, a 
Temperance Society was formed here ; and during the spring and 
summer, the cause made rapid advances. Temperance was the 
all-engrossing topic. In the ensuing fall, a powerful revival of reli- 
gion commenced in tlie Presbyterian churches under my care ; 
which, in the course of tlie winter, extended to the Baptist churches 
in the neighborhood. About 300 persons have been added to tlie 
communion of the two denominations. Of these a very large 
proportion had previously become members of the Temperance 
Society. It is a remarkable fact, tliat the revival was the most 

Eowerful in those neighborhoods in which the temperance cause 
ad been most triumphant; and scarcely perceptible in those where 
the way had not thus been previously prepared. 

" It was also remarked, that those professors of religion who op- 
posed the progress of temperance, and continued to use the drink 
of drunkards, and the cup of devils, in no instance appeared to 
share in the reviving influences of the Spirit ; while those who had 
been most active in the cause of temperance seemed to share tliose 
influences in the largest measure. I could mention many instances 
of hopeful conversion, in which tlie Temperance Society was the 
first in the chain of means which conducted them to a Savior. 
Multitudes in tliis section of country will bless (Jod to all eternity, 
tfiat such a Society has been established here. A revival of religion 

has succeeded a temperance movement at M , in this county ; 

and another at S , in Virginia. Our Temperance Society^ hsM 

at present about 300 members." 

Many similar testimonies might be given, and fix)m vaiioiis parts 
of the country. 


M. (p. 48.) 

Illustrations of the Truths that God visits the Iniauities of ihi 
Fathers upon the Children; and that the Way of Transgressan 
is hard. 


" Dear Sir — ^Without undertaking to answer the specific ques- 
tions proposed in your letter as Secretaiy of the City Temperance 
Society, I will relate some facts that have come under my own ob- 
servation. I have been engaged in trade and commerce in this 
city upwai-ds of twenty-two yeai-s, and occupied the store I am now 
in during the whole time. Not an individual originally near me Ls 
now to be found, save three flour merchants. In castmg my eyes 
around the neighborhood, and looking back to tlie period above men- 
tioned, I ask. Where are lliey now ? On my left were a father and 
his two sons, grocei's, in prospemus business. The sons went down 
to the grave several years since in poverty, confirmed drunkards. 
On my right was a firm of k>ng and respectable standing, engaged 
in foreign commerce, tlie junior partner of which some years since 
died, confimied in tins habit. Five or six doors above, was cn» , 
holding a highly responsible situation under our State Govemment ; 
at fii*st, he was seen to stop and take a litde gin and water ; soon 
hi: was seen staggering in the street ; presently was laid in the grave, 
a victim to intemperance. On the corner immediately opposite my 
store was a grocer, doing a moderate business. Being addicted to 
drink, in a stale of intoxication he went into tlie upper loft of his 
store at noon-day, put fire to an open keg having powder in it, blew 
ofF the roof of his store, and lumsclf into eternity. One door beyond 
this comer was a father, an officer in one of our churches, a grocer, 
and his two sons : both sons have long since been numbered with 
the dead, through the effects of drink ; a son-in-law of the above 
father, pursuing the same business, following the practice of the 
sons, has come to the same end ; a young man, clerk and succes- 
sor in the same store, has also gone down to the grave fix)m the 
same cause. On the other side of the Slip, a wealthy gi-ocer died, 
leaving a family of several young men, three of virhom, together with 
a sister and her husband, have since died in poverty, confirmed 
drunkards. Next door to this, a junior partner of one of the most 
respectable grocers in this city has long since followed tlie above 
from the same cause, leaving behind him two brothers, compara- 
livelv young in years, but old in this vice, now living on the charity 
of tfceir friends. On looking down the street in fi*ont of my store, 
there were seen three of middle age, grocers, but a few years 
fincc in prosperous business, now numbered with the dead from the 


same cause. In the same squaie iii which I now am, w.'j> an fndf- 
vidual at tJie head of an cxtfjnsive sliipj)ing house, owniiifi; several 
stores, renting from six to ten hundred dollars each a year ; owning 
and occupying a house in Broadway, worth twenty thousand doUars, 
v.'ith a family of several sons and daughters living in affluence. 
From a moderate drinker, he hecame a confirmed dnmkard : his 
j/ropeity is now all gone, his family scattered, and himself a vagabond 
?bout our streets. His next door neighbor, a partner in one of our 
most respectable shipping houses, has gone to his grave, in early life, 
from the same cause, not having had time to spend the large amount 
of his previous earnings. Near me was one in the prime of life, 
and of respectable and pious parentage, liberally educated, cns;aged 
extensively in foreign commerce, and awhile one of our City Coun- 
cil. In the short space of three years, he was a bankrupt, a dnmk- 
ard, and in his grave ! But my heart sickens at the detail, which I 
could extend. 

" Most of tliose mentioned were men with whom I have had 
daily uitercoiuse in the way of business, and, but for thb cause, 
might at this moment, in the ordinarj* course of Providence, have 
been useful members of society." (A^. Y. City Report,) 

W. (p. 49.) 

" But I pass on to notice one state of tlie system produced by 
ardent spirit, too important and interesting to leave unexamined. It 
(3 that |)redisposition to disease and death, which so strongly charac- 
terizes the drunkard in every situation in life. 

It is unquestionably true, that many of the surrounding objects 
in nature, are constantly tending to man's destruction. Tlie excess 
of heat and cold, humidity and dryness, the vfcissitudes of the 
season, noxious exhalations from the earth, the floating atoms in the 
atmosphere, die poisonous vapors from decomposed animal and 
vegetable matter, with many other invisible agents, are exerting 
tlieir deadly influence; and were it not tiiat every part of liis system 
IS endowed with a self-presenting power, a principle of excitabflity, 
or, in other words, a vital principle, the operations of the economy 
would cease, and a dissolution oi his organic structure take place. 
But, Uiis principle being implanted in tlie system, reaction takes 
place, and thereby a vigorous contest is maintained with the warring 
elements without, as well as with die principle of decay within. 

It is thus that man is enabled to endure, from year to year, the 
toils and fadgues of life, die variation of heat and cold, and the 
vicissitudes of the season; tliat he is eniibled to tmverse every 
regiou of tlie gk)bey and to live with almost equal case under the 


equator, and in the frozen regions of the north. It is by this power 
that all his functions are performed, from tiie commencement to the 
close of life. 

The principle of excitability exists in the highest degree in the 
infant, and diminishes at every succeeding period of life ; and if man 
is not cut down by disease or violence, he struggles on, and finally 
dies a natural death ; a death occasioned by tlie exhaustion of the 
principle of excitability. In order to prevent the too rapid exhaus- 
tion of tliis principle, nature has especially provided for its restora- 
tion by establishmg a period of sleep. After being awake for 
sixteen or eighteen houi-s, a sensation oi fatigue ensues, and all the 
functions are performed with diminished energy and precision. 
Locomotion becomes feeble and tottering, the voice harsh, the in- 
tellect obtuse and powerless, and all the senses blunted. Li this 
state, the individual anxiously retires from the Kght, and from the 
noise and busde of business, seeks that position which requires the 
least efibrt to sustain it, and abandons himself to rest. The ^ill 
ceases to act, and he loses in succession all the senses. The mus- 
cles unbend themselves, and permit the limbs to fall into the most 
easy and natural position. Digestion, respiration, circulation, secre- 
tion, and the other functions, go on with diminished power and 
activity ; and consequently the wasted excitability is gradually 
restored. After a repose of six or eight hours, this principle be- 
comes accumulated to its full measure, and the individual awakes, 
and finds himself invigorated and refreshed. His muscular power 
is augmented ; his senses are acute and discriminating ; his mtellert 
active and eager for labor ; and all his fiincuons move on with 
renewed energy. But if the stomach be oppressed by food, or the 
system excited by stimulating drinks, sleep, though it may be pro- 
found, is never Uranquil and refreshing. The system being raised 
to a state of feverish excitement, and its healthy balance disturbed, 
its exhaasted excitability is not restored. The individual awakes, 
but finds himself fatigued rather than invigorated. His muscles 
are relaxed, his senses obtuse, his intellect impaired, and all his 
functions disordered ; and it is not until he is agam under the in- 
fluence of food and stimulus, that he is fit for the occupations of 
life. And thus he loses the benefits of this wise provision of repose, 
designed for his preservation. Nothing, probably, tends more pow- 
erfully to produce premature old age, than midnight revels or diur 
turbed and unrefreshing sleep. 

It is also true, that artificial stimulas, in whatever way applied, 
tends constantly to exhaust the principle of excitability of the 
system, and this in proportion to its intensity, and the freedom with 
which it is applied. 

But there is still another principle on which the use of ardent 
spirit predisposes the drunkard to disease and death. It acts on the 
blood, impairs its vitality, deprivef it of its red cdor, and therebf 


renders it unfit to stimulate the heart and other organs xhrcm^ 
which it circulates ; unfit, also, to supply materials for the different 
secretions, and to renovate tlie different tissues of the body, as weB 
as to sustain the energy of the brain— offices which it can perform 
only while it retains its vermilion color and other arterial proper- 
ties. The blood of the drunkard is several shades darker in its 
color than that of temperate persons, and also coagulates less 
readily and firmly, and is loaded witli sertim — appearances which 
indicate tliat it has exchanged its arterial properties for those of the 
venous blood. Tliis is tlie cause of the livid complexion of the 
inebriate, which so strongly marks him in the advanced stage of 
intemperance. Hence, loo, all the functions of his body are slug- 
gish, irregular, and the whole system loses its tone and its eneiw. 
If ardent spirit, when taken into die system, exhausts the vttal 
principle of tlie solids, it destroys die vital principle of the blood 
also ; and if taken in laree quantities, produces sudden death ; in 
which case the blood, as m death produced by lightning, by opium, 
or by violent and lone-condnued exertion, does not coagulate. 

The principles laid down are plain, and of easy application to the 
case before us. 

The inebriate having, by the habitual use ofardentspii'it, exhaust- 
ed, to a greater or less extent, the principle of excitability in the solids, 
the power of reaction, and the blood having become incapable of 
performing its office also, he is alike predisposed to every disease, 
and rendered liable to the inroads of every invading foe. So far, 
tlierefore, from protecting the system against disease, intemper- 
ance ever constitutes one of its strongest predisposing causes. 

Superadded to this, wlienever disease does lay its grasp u}X)n the 
dnmkard, the powers of life being already enfeebled by (he stimu- 
lus of ardent spirit, he unexpectedly sinks in the contest, and but 
too fi-equently to the mortification of his physician, and the surprise 
and grief of his friends. Indeed, inebriation so enfeebles the pow- 
ers of life, so modifies the character of disease, and so changes the 
operation of medical agents, that, unless the yoimg physician has 
«Audied thoroughly the constitution of the drunkard, he has but par- 
tially learned his profession, and is not fit for a practitioner of the 
present age. 

These are the true reasons why the drunkard dies so easfly, and 
from such slight causes. 

A sudden cold, a pleurisy, a fever, a firactured limb, or a sfigbf 
wound of the skin, is often more than his shattered powers can en- 
dure. Even a little excess of exertion, an exposure to heat or cold, 
a hearty repast, or a glass of cold water, not unlrequently extingoishet 
the small remains of the vital principle. 

In the season that has just closed upon us, we have had a melan- 
choly exhibitk)Q of the eSdci of btemperance in the tragical deiatk 

roUBTH BfiPORT. — 1831. — ^APPZIIDIX* 89 

of some dozens of our fellow citizens ; and, had the extreme heat 
which prevmled for several days continued for as many weeks, we 
should hardly have had a confirmed drunkard left among us. 

Many of tho^e deaths which came under my notice seemed al- 
most spontaneous, and some of them took place in less than one hour 
from the first symptom of indbposition. Some died apparently from 
a slight excess of fatigue, some from a few hours' exposure to the 
sun, and some from a small draught of cold water — causes quite in- 
adequate to the production of such effects in temperate persons.** 
(Dr. SewalFs Address.) 

" A circular letter, adaressed by the New York City Society, to a 
number of the most respectable physicians of that state, proposing 
certain interrogatories respecting tlie effect of ardent spirits upon the 
human body, has been answered by at least forty of tiTose to whom 
it was sent ; and whose names are given in the Report of that Society- 

From those answers it appears, 1st, that the use of distilled li- 
quors, by those in health, is, in no case whatever, beneficial for the 
preservation of health, or for the endurance of fatigue or hardship. 

2d. That disease and death are the Inevitable result of the con- 
tinued use of alcohol upon die healthy human system. 

3d. That ardent spirit never operates as a preventive of epidemic 
or pestilential diseases ; but is very generally an exciting cause of 
such diseases, and always aggravates them. 

4th. That, the tone of the nervous system being impaired by the 
use of intoxicating liquors, the constitutinn Uius becomes more sus- 
ceptible to the impression of all noxious agents. 

5th. That nothing has a tendency more immediately and com- 
pletely to destroy the moral faculty^ than intemperate drinking. 

6th. That the intellecival faculties are impaired by alcohol. Ev- 
ery excess is a voluntary insanity, and if often repeated, and carried 
beyond a certain degree, it often produces the horrible disease called 
deJirium tremens; m which, while the animal powers are prostrated, 
the mind is tortured with the most distressing and fearful imagina- 

7lh. TTiat intemperance destroys the susceptibility of the body to 
the operation of medicine, so far as it injures the tone of the nervous 

That the disease of an habitual dnmkard will generally run its 
course, uninfluenced by medical treatment ; that in the exhaustion 
90 produced by intemperance, medicines are often useless, and tlie 
diseases of the water-drinker are, comparatively, few in number ; 
in general, readily controlled ; and when the malady is removed, the 
constitution is easily restored to its original health and vigor. 

8th. One fifth, and perhaps one fourth, die, directly or indirectly, 
from intemperance. (This is the answer of the only physician who 
bas undertaken to make an estimate of the proportion of deaths pro- 


duced by ardent spirits. The others speak in genera] terms, and 
say a large proportion.) 

9th. That ardent spirits are the most common source of inBanky^ 
and that they operate by producing inflammation of the brain, as 
well as other diseases oi tliat organ, and of the nervous system in 

10th. That no person who uses distilled liquor can reasonably 
expect to avoid the contraction of an unnatural thirst for stimulus. 

11th. That the specific eflfects of alcohol are produced by a two- 
fold process : — 

First by its direct effects upon the nervous system ; and secondly 
by being absorbed into the circulation without undergoing digestion. 

12th. That ardent spirit is not beneficial in cases of dyspepsy or 
in chronic debility ; but in most cases is prejudicial. 

13th. That it is not safe as a family medicine. 

14th. Finally, that about one hundred physicians have died in tbe 
city of New York within the last thirty years ; of whom forty were 
intemperate ; but that tlie character oi the profession, in that respect, 
is now much improved. 

To this testimony may be added, that, according to the accounts 
published of the sudden deaths during the excessive heat of the past 
summer, it appears, upon inquiry, that in every instance where the 
death has been ascribed to the drinking of cold water, or to the di- 
rect efifect of the heat, the deceased was in the habitual use of ardent 
spirit ; and not one instance is recorded of such a deatti where the 
person was in the habit of entire abstinence. f 

* Doctor Carter, one of the resident pbysiciant of tbe Philadelphia alms- 
bouse infirmary, in a paper publittbed in tbe American Journal of the Medical 
Science!, calls ardent spirit a destructive poison, and speaks of mania a potu 
ns tbe usual penalty of excessive drinking. In tbe establishment in whicn he 
is connected, there were, from November 21st, 1828, to February 1st. 1829, 70 
cases of munia a potu, and from June lOtb to September 10(h, 182!), 75 cases ; 
making 145 cases in six months. 

f It is stated in « letter from Greenwich (Conn. ^ to the Editor of the Joamal 
of Humanity, dated July 26, 1830, that, ** during tne preceding week of exces- 
sively hot weather, no man who had been of cold water character for any length 
of time had given out ; that two persons had died suddenly in tbe vicinity, but 
that both were of intemperate habits ; that others had stopped work, but all 
of them were given to the use of strong drink." 

In the Journal of Humanity of August 19, 1830, is the following article, taken 
from the Belvidere Apollo: — 

** Nine cases of death from drinking cold water have occurred among the 
laborers ongnged in excavating the sections of the Bristol and Morris (New 
Jersey) canal ad|oitiin£r this place. We are assured by highly respectable 
physicians, that, m ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, the victims of cold 
water drinkinir are those who have been addicted to the free use of ardent 

" In the last weok but one in July last, the deaths in New York were 204; 
1 1 of which were from drinking cold water, and 22 by convulsions. In the same 
week in Thiladclphia, tJie deaths were 196 ; of which 11 were from drinking cokl 
water, G from hcut, G from intemperance, and 22 from convulaiona. 


It b said by Doctor Hosack in hb late address, that it appears 
firom the society of Friends, that, in consequence of their habitual 
temperance, one half of tlie members of tliat society live to the age 
of 47 ; and that one in ten lives to be SO :* whereas the average 
of human life is 33 years, and not more than one m 40, of tlie gen- 
eral population, lives to be 80 years of age. The amount of human 
life, tlien, gained by temperance, is more than the difference between 
33 and 47 — or an average of 14 years gained in every life — which 
is equal to 42 per cait." {JwJge Cranch^s Address.) 

'• it appears from our former remarks, that the blood, by its circula- 
tion, conveys to every part of the body tlie nutritious matters of 
whidi it is composed, while each organ is endowed with the power 
of selecting from tlie common mass, the materials both for its own 
nourishment, and for tlie performance of its peculiar functions, and 

It will be recollected that about the Bame time a very considerable alarm tor>k 
place in the neighboring town of Georgetown (D. C), in consequence of a great 
number nf sudden deaths among the laborers upon the canal ; 20 or 30 havinr^ 
ditsd in the course of a week. An extract from a letter from that town dated 
July 27th, 1830, was published in the Baltimore Gazette, in which the writer 
^:^yB — ' i regret to add that death, in its most appalling form, has made its ap- 
pdorance in this town and vicinity. It seems to be confined to tlie laboring 
classes in general, but more especially to the emi^ants working upon the ca> 
nal. Its approach seems to be preceded by a wild delirium, which holds till 
tlie body snrinks from exhaustion, and afler a few hours' continuance in this 
c )ndition, the spirit departs from its mortal tenement. Shortly afler death the 
corpne takes a dark hue, and becomes nearly black. In the Roman Catholic 

f rave-yard, I have been informed that as many as 14 were interred in one day. 
*he laborers are chiefly members of that church. The disease is not always 
fatal. There have been several cases of recovery. — It is represented by the 
physicians, that, so fur as regards the native citizens, the town was never 
heal tidier.* 

At the time of this alarm, I caused inquiry made of the coroner, the 
ondortaker, and the town physician, and was satisfied that, in every case of 
sudden death, the deceased had been in the habitual use of ardent spirit. 

in the Jourual of Humanity of 2d September, 1830, the Editor says — * A 
^entl«>man of tlie greatest respectability from the south asserted, the other 
day. in our hearing, that those who fell victims in tlie southern climes, are 
almost invariably those who indulge in the free use of ardent spirits. So says 
tlio New York Journal. The same paper mentions the death ot three persons 
in its vicinity, occasioned by heat and drinking cold water, all of whom were 

A gentleman of respoot^ibility (Mr. Symonton), whose family has an inter- 
est in the island of Key West, on the coast of Florida, informed me that the 
island was very sickly last year, and many died of the fever; but that all who 
died had been in the habitual use of ardent spirits ; that this fact was ascertained 
by a minute investigation of every case ; and that tlie evidence was so satisfacto^ 
ry, that the inhabitants this year have generally abstained from distilled liquors; 
SD that not more than one gallon has been consumed this year for every barrel 
OMd Last year. The consequence is, that this year they have been uneommonly 

The fact that nine tenths, if not nil, the deaths from drinking cold water, 
happen among those who are in the habitual use of ardent spirits, is so impor- 
tant, that I have dee^ned it expedient to state this evidence upoa which the 
aaaertion is founded." 

^ This fact is statsd also in M'Kinzey's 5000 lUceipU 


of returning to it the refuse materiab which are no longer of use. 
The blood is thus a sort of common carrier, conveying ^m part to 
part whatever is intrusted to it for the common benefit. When 
obliged to carry spirit (and it carries it so reluctantly that some phy- 
sicians have doubted whether spirit ever actually enters the blood), 
it presents it, as it does its otlier commodities, to the several organs 
for their selection : but, as we liave seen, they all decline it. The 
head says, " My nerves are calmer, my tlioughts are clearer, without 
it, — I beg to be excused ;" the heart says, " My motions are more 
regular, my affections are purer, without it, — 1 have no occasion for 
it f^ the limbs say, " Our strength is finner, our vigor is more dura- 
ble, without it, — we need it not ;" all say, " It cannot nourish us, it 
cannot sustain us, — ^we will none of it;" and at length, rejected by 
aU, except by those organs whose peculiar office it is to convey out 
of the blooci its refuse and wortliless parts, it is taken up by them 
and thrown out of the body. How happy for mankind, did tlie 
reason of man conduct him to the same practical wisdom, which is 
thus given by his Creator to the instinctive excitabilities of his ani- 
mal faculties ! But, unhappily, tliese several organs, although they 
may refuse what is unsuitable to them, cannot escape without suf- 
fering. Our carrier, inflamed by his burden, though he received it 
at first with reluctance, becomes the insolent pedlar, who insults and 
abuses the customers who decline his wares. 

The office of the stomach, as is well known, is to digest tlie food, 
and prepare its nutritious parts for absorption into the blood. This 
it does chiefly by means of the juices which are formed in its coats, 
to be mixed with, and dissolve the food. When these juices are in 
a healthy condition, the digestion is well performed ; when they are 
unhealthy, we have flatulence, oppression, and a host of ills. Now 
the stomach, in common with the other parts of the body, is pre- 
served in health by a proper state both of its nutrition and of its ex- 
citability. Whenever it is excited by an unnatural stimulus, — and 
we have sufficiently shown that ardent spirit is an unnatural stim- 
ulus, — although tlie action may be increased for a short time, debil- 
ity immediately follows, and the next portion of food is imperfecdy 
digested. If this indigestion is at once met by a temporar}*- absti- 
nence, or judicious diet, it may soon be removed. But the sensa- 
tions by which it is accompanied, form a temptation to renew them 
by repeating die stimulus. Indeed the digestion itself may for a time 
be improved by a daily repetition of the excitement. But, then, 
every such repetition exhausts a certain portion of the excitability, and 
this process cannot go on long before the powers of the stomach be- 
come so debilitated, that no food is properly digested, and there if 
an uneasiness which craves relief by some new stimulus. It is this 
uneasiness, this gnawing sensation, that constitutes one of the great- 
est obstacles to breaking off tlie habit of taking spirit; whenever such 
a habit has been begun. 

FOURTH ft£PORT.^-1831. — ^ApmrDix. 93 

Id consequence of the imperfect manner in which the food is 
digested, either a su/Hcient quantity of nutritive matter is not prepar- 
ed to be absorbed into the blood, or it is absorbed in a crude state, 
and not well suited to the purposes of nutrition. Thus all the parts 
of the body sufler fiom the delinquency of the stomach. It is well 
known that all the several organs of the body exert an influence 
upon each other by means that are not fully understood ; which 
pnysicians call sympathetic. The sympathies of the stomach are 
more extensive dian those of any otlier part ; and hence it is that 
when this organ is disordered, a greater variety and extent of suf- 
fering is the consequence, than is produced by an equal extent of 
injury to any other part. 

We come next to speak of the effect of the use of spirit upon tlie 
liver. The principal function of this organ is to aid in the process 
of digestion. As, in the perfonnance of this function, its actions are 
associated with those of the stomach, so many of the effects of dis- 
ease are of a similar character. There are, however, one or two 
particulars in which the effects are so difterent as to demand a sep 
arate though concise consideration. The liver complaint and the 
jaundice are sufliciently known to be the frequent consequences of 
mtemperance. But it seems not to be so well known that a more 
moderate use of spirit produces a strong tendency to the same dis- 
eases. The liver is easily excited to extraordinary action, not only 
by what aflects tlie stomach, with which it is so closely associated, 
but also by whatever powerfully stimulates the general system, and 
especially by strong emotions of the mind. When the excitement 
'is moderate, such as is produced by a proper diet, or by a rational 
employment of the mental faculties, then the effect upon this organ 
b salutary and healthful. But if, from either cause, the excitement 
becomes too great, it tends to disease ; and the tendency is increas- 
ed with every repetition. This explanation may show how it is 
that any quantity of ardent spirit, however moderate, has an injiu*ious 
efiect u|)on tlie functions of the liver. 

I shaJl notice only one more class of tlie effects of ardent spirit ; 
and this is its influence upon the brain and nervous system. It is 
here that we have exhibited the phenomena of that most distressing 
of diseases, delirium tremens. The tremblings, — the watchfulness, 
which opium itself can scarcely conquer, — ^the characteristic delirium, 
so full of fearful apprehensions, that seem like the embodied repre- 
sentations of a guilty conscience, — all are the result of undue excite- 
ment of the nervous system by ardent spirit ; and all united consti- 
tute a measure of distress and anguish, which is none too forcibly 
expressed by the name grven to this disease among the sailors in our 
naval service, the horrors. The miserable victim is deprived of 
his understanding before he is aware that he is sick, as if to show 
that the drunkard has outlived his probation ; and he sinks into death 



V itbout one moment's opportunity to profit by the alann of hit 


But you will say, my reader, This is the disease of the drunkard: 
why speak of its horrors to me ? I drink a litde, it is true, perhaps 
daily, — sometimes oftener, and sometimes, it may be, not forseverd 
days ; surely 1 am no dmnkard ; and why talk to me of ddirium 
tremens ? fee it so, you are no drunkard ; are you not in the way 
to become one ? Or, concede that you are safe from Uiis danger, 
still you are not so safe as you imagine from tliis most appalling dis- 
ease. Some of the worst cases of it that I have ever seen (and the 
number tliat I have seen is so great diat my heart shudders at the 
recollection of them) liavo been of persons who liad rarely or never 
been known to be intoxicated. Men have been taken down by this 
delirium, who have rcgarilcd tliemselves, and have been regarded 
by their neighbors, as toniperute men. They were known to 
drink occasionally, indeed ; but tJiey would have resented as much 
as you do to be lold that they were intemperate. Nor is this the 
only evil. The nervous system is a nicely adjusted stmcture, which 
superintends the functions of the whole hvmg body. There are 
many degrees of derimgement, of which it is susceptible ; all of 
which are of more or less importance, although they may not amount 
to so severe and fatal a disease as this of which we have spoken. 
Every glass of spirit that you drink does some Violence to the deli- 
cacy of this complicated and beautiful system ; and every repetition 
of tlio glass destroys the harmony of one of those thousand strings 
of which your life is composed. 

The conclusion of the whole matter is as follows. We have 
seen that ardent spirit can be of no possible benefit to tlie Imman 
constitution, and is hurtful, unless in some peculiar and rare cases 
of disease, in which its administration, so as to do good and not 
harm, requires tlie skill of a judicious physician. We have seen, 
further, tliat to take spirit only occasionally, and even rarely, incurs 
a risk, and an imminent one, of being drawn, by a sort of necessity, 
to taking it again and again, until a habit is formed of taking :t, first 
in moderate and tlien in larger quantities, until the unhappy individ- 
ual, with Uttle or no consciousness of his danger, becomes a con- 
firmed, unreclaimed, despairing drunkard. Lastly, we have seen 
that, sliould so strange a thing be accomplished, as that a man 
should persevere in limiting his quantity of spirit to what may be 
termed, in comparison witii that of othei-s, a moderate allowance, 
still he is by no means exempt from the evil eflTects upon his health 
and constitution. 

Wherefore, my dear reader, I conclude once more with the ad- 
vk;e to drink no spiiut. It b not good for your health ; but il 
tends directly to induce disease, and to alxMten hunum life.** 
{Dr. Hole's Essay.) 

tOU&TH Hfil'ORT. 1831. — APPENDIX. 95 

•* All the healthy (unctions are the result of the action of appropri- 
ate agents upon the several organs. Tiius li^ht is adapted to the 
eye> air to the lungs, appropriate food to the digestive organs, re- 
spectively ; giving origin to the functions of vision, respiration, and 

But where has nature provided a receptacle for ardent spirits ? 
What organ requires tlieir stimulus, to enable it to perform its office ? 
What gland possesses the power of extractuig from them the small- 
est portion of nutriment, or any other ingredient which can be use- 
fully employed in the animal economy ? 

On every oi^an they touch they operate as a poison. No where 
in the himian body are they allowed even a lodgment, until the 
vital powers are so far prostrated that they cannot be moved. 
They are hurried onward fix)m one organ to another, marking their 
course with irregularity of action and disturbance of function, until 
at last, as a common nuisance, tliey are taken up by the emuncto- 
ries — the scavengers of the system — and unceremoniously excluded. 
When, tiux)ugh decay of organic vigor, this process ceases, the work 
of destruction is drawing to a close, and the last glimmerings of life 
are soon extinguished. 

The records of every hospital, and tlie recollections of every in- 
telligent physician, will furnish multitudes of examples in which 
mild diseases have been rendered severe, and severe ones fatal, in 
consequence of the use of spirits. This is more particularly the 
case during the prevalence of epidemics and in extremely waim 

A British surgeon many years ago stated, that in his opinion half 
the sudden deaths that happen in the community are in a fit of in- 
toxication, softened into some milder name, not to ruffle the feelinss 
of friends in laying them before the public ; and tliere is no doubt 
that at least an equal proportion of all the sudden accidents requiring 
the aid of surgery, such as wounds, dislocations, and broken bones, 
are occasioned in the same manner. 

These things physicians tell you from no sinister views, from 
no lurking principle of selfishness. For they well know that, when 
distilled and stimulating liquors shall be banbhed from the commu- 
nity, the fountain of one half of all chronic diseases — a fruitful 
source of their emolument — ^will be dried up ; that a large pmpor- 
tioQ of surdcal operations will be uncalled for ; and that the number 
and intensity of acute diseases will be materially diminished. 

When a person imaccustomed to stimulants is induced for the 
first time to take a glass of spirits, an instantaneous excitement Is 
produced. The pulse becomes more frequent ; the face is flushed ; 
and the functions of the body and the mmd are hurried ; the eye 
sparkles ; the tongue is unloosed ; the imagination is excited ; the 
whole scene assumes the appearance of vivacity, and glee, and 


But, after all, it is unnatural. It is not the glow of health. It if 
not tlie vivacity of youth. It is not tlie buoyancy of innocence. 

It is the flush of approaching, fever ; the excitement of momen- 
tary delirium ; the hilarity of the incipient maniac ; and it cannot 
endure. Lassitude, weakness and depression are its inevitable re- 
sults. A f hock has been given to the constitution ; the laws of 
healtli and life have been violated, and the first chastisement inflicted. 

Suppose tlie warning to be disregarded, and habits of daily tip- 
pling established. The rosy hue of health is exchanged for a deep 
scarlet ; the eye loses its intelligence ; the voice becomes husky ; tlie 
blood parts with its florid color ; the appetite is impaired ; the mus- 
cles waste ; tlie face is bloated ; and in rapid succession the liver, 
tlie digestive organs, the lungs, and heart, and brain, lose tlieir vital 
forces, and but imperfectly perfonn their functions ; and sooner or 
later die constitution is broken down, organic disease supen^enes, 
and death closes the scene. 

Since life is extinct, send now for a surgeon, and let the body be 
inspected for the benefit of the living. 

The stomach is enlarged or contracted ; often indurated, and al- 
ways diseased ; the intestinal canal, a mass of disease ; the mucous 
membrane tlirough its whole extent, irritated; the liver, shrunk, 
dense, discolored, and its vessels nearly obliterated ; the lungs, en- 
gorged, adhering, often filled with tubercles ; the braiuy hardened, 
as if it had been immersed for weeks in alcohol. 

Every tissue proclaims but too disdncily the injuries it has receiv- 
ed. There are no marks of weakness or decrepitude, as die result 
of natural decay and advancing age ; but all the' organs, in accents 
awfully impressive, speak of poison, of madness, of self-immolation. 
The anatomist turns away in horror ; the last funeral rites are per- 
formed ; the earth closes over the dust ; the scene is forgotten. 

This is the short history of thousands in our own time and coun- 
try, and of untold millions of other times and in other lands. 

Could I present a picture of all the diseases and death-bed scenes 
oc>casioned by spirits, which it has been my painful lot to witness 
within the last twenty years, every one present would involuntarily 
start back with horror ; the feeling would be universal. If such are 
the effects of spirits, let them be banished from the world. 

If die preceding remarks are well founded, to a man m heahh 
there is no such thing as a temperate use of spirits. In any quantity, 
they are an enemy to die human constitution ; their influence upon 
the physical organs is unfavorable to health and life : they produce 
weakness, and not strength ; sickness, and not health ; death, and not 
life. Is the moderate use, or any use, of such an article as this, to 
be accounted temperance ? 

I appeal to every philanthropist, patriot, Christian, to take part in 
the reform ; to avoid die use of spirits as a violation of the laws of 



life ; to abstain from the unholy traffic as from a traffic in human 
blood." {Dr. Alden's Address.) 

" We, the undersigned, do hereby declare our conviction, that 
ardent spirits are not to be regarded as a nourishing article of diet ; 
that the habitual use of them is a principal cause of disease, poverty, 
and misery in this place ; and tliat the entire disuse of them, woiud 
powerfully contribute to improve the health and comfort of the com- 

"This document has received the signatures of four Professors of 
the Medical Faculty in the University, of eleven Members of the 
Royal College of Physicians, of the President and twenty-seven 
Fellows of the Royal College of Surgeons, and of ihirty-four other 
medical practitioners : — 77 in all." {Report Glasgow Temp. Soc.) 
" We, the undersigned, hereby declare that, in our opinion, noth- 
ing would tend so much to die improvement of the heahh of the 
community as an entire disuse of ardent spirits, which we consider 
as the most productive cause of die diseases and consequent pover- 
ty and wretchedness of the working classes of Dublin : — 

Alex. Jackwn, M. D., 
State PliysicUn. 

John Cramptnn, M. D., 
Prof. Mat. Med. 

R. Carmichael. 

Fr. L*£^range. 

S. W^ilniot, Prof. Surgery. 

Philip Crampton, Sur- 
gfon General. 

R. M. Peile. 

Tbo!i. Mills M. O. 

Cusack Roney. 

J. Cheyne, M. D., Phy- 
sician General. 

A. Colles, ProC of Sur- 

Francii Barker, M. D., 

ProC Chem. T. C. D. 
Tbos. H. Orpen, M. D. 
S. B. Labatt, M. D. 

John O'Brien, M. D, 

Vice-Prcsid. K. and 

Q. CoH. 
John Brcen, M. D. 
Thos. Hew9on. 
J. W. Cusack. 
Hen. Marsh, M. D., ProC 

Med. Pract. Coll. Sur. 
Eph. M*Dowel. 
N. Adams, M. D. 
J. Browne, M. D. 
John Houston. 
John M'DonncU. 
J. Harvey, M. D. 
R. L. Nunn. 
Com. Daly, M. D. 
Will. Auchinleck. 
Francis White. 
R. M'Namara, ProC 

Mat. Med. 

Rob. Bell, M. D. 

Maurice CHIis. 

C. E. H. Orpen. 

W. Stokes, M. D. 

J. A. Crawford, M. D. 

W. W. Campbell 

Will. Renny. 

J. Kirby. 

John Osborne, M. D. 

W. J. Morgan, M. D. 

R. Collins M. D.,Maa 

tnr Lyinc^-in Ho^p. 
John MoUan, M D. 
G. A. Kenne Jy, M. D. 
Rob. Law, M. D. 
Ch. Johnson, M. D. 
George Hayden. 
C. J. Madden. 
J. C. Brennan." 

" Being thoroughly convinced, by long and extensive observaUon 
amongst the poor and middling classes, that there does not exist a 
more productive cause of disease, and consequent poverty and 
wretchedness, than the habitual use of ardent spirits, I cannot thero- 
fore hesitate to recommend the entire disuse of such a poison, rather 
than Jhcur the risks necessarily connected with its most moderate 
use. " William Hartt, 

" Physician to the Prisons of Dublin." 
(Glasgow Temperance Society Record.) 

" In Glasgow, according to Dr. Cleland's Tables, there has been a 
fwy great increase in the mortality since 1822, the year m which 


die duty on distilled spirit was reduced. In 1821, the number of 
deaths was 368G ; in 1822, 3690 — ^being an increase only of 4 ; but 
in 1823, tlie year when the low duties began to operate, the mortal- 
ity rose to 4627 ; and in 1824, it amounted to 4670, being an kk' 
crease, m the former year, of no less than 937, and in the latter, of 
980 deaths, compared with 1822." {Do.) 

" Let every man who indulges in the use of spirits, ponder well oo 
the declaration of a committee of one of the most enlightened med- 
ical societies in our land. ' Beyond comparison, greater is the risk 
of life undergone in nearly all diseases, of whatever description, when 
they occur in those unfortunate men who have been previously dis- 
ordered by those poisons.' Such men too, it may be added, are 
much more hable to the attacks of disease than those who totally 
abstain from alcohol. In botli these ways, therefore, the use of 
spirits, even in the greatest moderation, tends to shorten life.** 
{Prof. Hitchcock* s Address.) 

" Of 33 pei^sons found dead in one city, 29 were killed by intern 

Of 77 persons found dead in different places, the deaths of 67, 
according to the coroners' inquests, were occasioned by strong drink. 

Of 94 adults, who died in one city, in one year, the deaths of 
more than one third were, according to the testimony of the Medi- 
cal Association, caused, or hastened, direcdy or indirectly, by in- 

And in another city, of 67 adults who died in one year, 28 were 
Killed in the same way. Who slew all these ? And who will be held 
responsible at the divine tribunal ? Those who were knowingly ac- 
cessory, by furnishing tiie liquor, and those who were actively mstru- 
mental in producing the result; in violation of die command, ' Thou 
shah not IcilU " I know diat the cup is poisoned — I know that it 
may cause his deadi — I know tl)at it may cause more than death — 
that it may lead him to crime — ^to sin — to the tortures of everlasting 
remorse. Am I not then a murderer ? worse than a murderer ? as 
much worse as the soul is better than the body." 
"If ardent spirits were nothing worse than a deadly poison — if they 
did not excite and inflame all the evil passions — u they did not 
dim diat heavenly light, which the Almighty has implanted in our 
bosoms to guide us through the obscure passages of our pilgrimage 
— if they did not quench the Holy Spirit in our hearts, tney would 
be comparatively hannless. It is their moral ef^t — it is the ruin 
of the soul which they produce, that renders them so dreadiiiL 
The difference between death by simple poison, and death by ha- 
bityal intoxication, may extend to the whole difference between ev- 
erlasting happiness and eternal death." {Judge CrancKs Addrtu.) 


O. (p. 51.) 

From authentic documents, collected by tlie Rev. J. R. Barbour, 
■which are soon to be published, with remarks, — a copy of which 
ought to be in the hands of every minister of the gospel, and every 
church member in the United States, — it appears that, from 135 
churches, more tlian 360 persons have been excommunicated for 
intemperance ; and more than 200 others for immoralities to which, 
it is supposed, the use of ardent spirits led them. In 1634 cases 
of discipline, more than 800 of them were for intemperance ; and 
more than 400 others, it is believed, from the best information that 
can be obtained, were for immoralities occasioned by the use of 
strong drink. More than seven eighths of all the difficulties io 
churches, have probably resulted frx)m this evil ; and so long ts 
members of churches use ardent spirit, or traffic in it, they are 
instrumental in producing and perpetuating these evils. This b the 
case with all who are engaged in the traffic, whether members of 
the church or not. And should they, for the sake of gain, continue 
this destructive business, they will not, when its effects shall be 
thoroughly understood, be able to give credible evidence to any one, 
that they are good men. 

The foUowmg resolution has already been adopted by the 
General Convention of New Hampshire, the Pastoral Association, 
and die General Association of Massachusetts, and the General 
Association of Connecticut; bodies embracing more than 500 
evangelical ministers of the gospel ; and it expresses, ao doubt, the 
\'iews of hundreds of thousands of Christians and philanthropic 
men, in all parts of our land : — 

*^ As the use of ardent spirit, ibr persons m health, is not only 
needless, but hurtful ; — as it tends to form intemperate appetites and 
habits; and while it is continued, the evils ol intemperance can 
never be done away ; — as it causes a great portion of the pauperism, 
crimes and wretchedness of the community ; increases the number, 
frequency and violence of diseases ; depnves many of reason, and 
brii^ down multitudes to an untimely grave ; — as it tends to pro- 
duce in the children of those who use it a predisposition to intem- 
perance, insanity, and various diseases ; ana to cause a universal 
deterioration of both body and mind ; — as it tends to prevent the 
efficacy of the gospel, and all the means which Grod has provided! 
for the moral and spiritual illumination and purification of men, and 
thus to ruin them for both worlds, — ^Therefore, 

<^ Resohedj That, in our opinion, the traffic in ardent spirit, as tn 
article of luxury or diet, is inconsistent with the spirit and require- 
ments of the Christian religion, and ought to be abandoned throu|^ 
<mi the Christian world. 


" And we would express our deep regret, that, after all the light 
which, in the course of providence, has been thrown on this subject 
by physicians, jurists, philanthropists and Christians, any sober man, 
eqpecially any member of a Christian church, should be foimd en- 
gaged in this destructive traffic." 

The Methodist Quarterly Conference, at the city of Washington, 
March 16, 1831, adopted the following, viz: — 

" Believing the manufacture, sale and u^e of ardent ^iiits to be 
unnecessary, injurious, and inconsistent with the Christian profes^ 
sion, — therefore, resolved, that we will not manufacture, sell or use 
ardent spirits, and we will do all in our power to discountenance 
the manufacture, sale, and use of them by others." 

The Baltimore Annual Conference say, " Beinc deeply convinced 
that the manufacture and sale, as well as use, of ardent spirits, are 
inconsistent with the best interests of the communing, and therefore 
incompatible with the Christian profession and character, we do 
hereby express our decided disapprobation of our members being 
concerned in die distillation and traffic of ardent spirits ; and 
with these views the members of this Conference invite all our lay 
brethren to get up petitions and memorials for the next General 
Conference, prayinc that respectable body to take such measures 
as they in their wisdom shall judge best, to prevent the manufacture 
and sale of ardent spirits, by the members of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. And we also pledge ourselves to aid such of our lay 
brethren, in our respective circuits and stations, as may attempt to 
get up such memorials ; and we beg leave to call the attention of 
Sie other Annual Conferences, and oar lay brethren throughout the 
connection, to this important subject ; and request them to adopt 
similar measures in relation to it, that the Creneral Conference may 
have before them a full expression of the sentiments of our people 
on this subject, throughout the whole cotmection." 

Similar resolutions have been adopted by the Philadelphia Con- 
ference, and various other bodies. And no doubt, if temperate 
men do their duty, this will soon be the conviction of the whole 
Christian world. What stronger evidence can there be that the 
traffic in ardent spirit is inconsistent with the Chrbtian religion, 
than the facts which are exhibited in the foregoing Report t 

P. (p. 62.) 

The first public meetine of the London Temperance Society 
VfM held on the 29th of June. A letter was read from the Lortf 
Mayor, expressing his regret that official engagements prevented hb 

womu m£poni>-^1831.-*-*APPcia>ii« tOl 

tttendance ; whereupon Sir John Webb, Director General of the 
Medical Department of the Ordnance, was called to preside. On 
taking the chair, he mentioned the evils of spirit-dnnking in the 
army and navy, and in the community at large, as they had come 
before him as a magis^te. Intemperance, in his opinion, was the 
cause of most of the vices that prevailed. 

The Secretary then read a Report, exhibiting the principles of 
the Society, and the progress of temperance in America, and in 
Scotland and Ireland. In England, 30 Societies had already been 
formed, and 100,000 tracts put into circulation. 

The meeting was then addressed by W. Allen, Esq., the Solici- 
tor General of Ireland, Rev. Dr. J. P. Smith, Professor Edgar of 
Belfast, Rev. Dr. Hewit, of Connecticut, Rev. Dr. Bennet, Mr. 
Collins of Glasgow, Mr. Carre, of New Ross, Ireland, the Bishop 
of Chester, and Rev. G. Clayton. 

The Solicitor General of Ireland^ after alluding to his official 
connection with another Temperance Society (the Hibernian), and 
his devotion to the cause, proceeded to give his views at length on 
three points— the objects of Temperance Societies — <he necessity 
of them— «nd the adequacy of the measures adopted by them to 
secure their end. 

" The object of Temperance Societies was simple and single ; it 
was but one. The principle was so simple, that it was amazing it 
had escaped the skill, the ingenuity and the talent of so many cen* 
tunes, and had remained to be discovered, within the last few years, 
by a clereyman in one of the Northern States of America. The 
simple pnnciple was, that the common use of ardent spirits was 
one of the chief causes of the crimes, the misery, the poverty, and 
the distress of mankind in the present day ; and that there was one 
efficient remedy for the subjugation of that hostile principle, which 
had been preymg against man's best interests for so long a period 
of time ; namely, that it was the bounden duty of all who loved 
themselves, who loved their neighbors, and who venerated their 
God, to abstain from ardent spirits themselves, and by mfluence, 
example, and authority, to discountenance the use of them in others. 
Suppose ardent spirits were altogether unknown — suppose the 
knowledge of the mode of distilling them was lost — ^would there not 
be a gain by the loss ? Oh, there would be great losers by it ; all 
the c&am-shops would be shut up, the public houses would be 
dosed ; — but much of the Sabbath-breaking would be put an end to ; 
much of blasphemy would be stopped ; much of perjury, swearing, 
aannilt, riot, and even murder, would be banished from the land« 
Temperance Societies Wanted to get rid of these poison shops alto« 
getber. That was the object oi the present meeting ; and was 
than anr man, who had fbe heart of a man, that would raise his 


band against it? The language was, perhaps, too strong, but ht 
was about to say, Was there any man so cold-blooded, so careless, 
80 indifferent abDut the interests of hb neighbor, as to stand neuter 
when an intestine war was waging between holy and unholy prin- 
ciples ? Yet that was tlie situation in which these stood who called 
themselves the temperate drinkers of the present day. The sword 
was drawn, the war was proclaimed, temperate members of society 
against ardent spirits ; and how could these men answer for it to 
their conscience, who were quiedy standing by ? They were trai- 
tors to the cause. He would enforce the Athenian intestinal war 
act i^ainst them, that, where two parties were contending, the man 
who stood neuter should be put to death. He begged permission 
to give his idea of a temperate man, because he knew that legal 
subtleties had been set up against these institutions. A temperate 
man was lie whose reason ruled his appetite, and the intemperate 
man was he whose reason was ruled by his appetite. No man, io 
his humble judgment, could be considered a temperate man, who, 
to indulge his appetite, would do an injury either to himself, or, 
above aD, to his neighbor. Now, if he were right in that definition, 
and if he could show that the man who used ardent spirits, in the 
most moderate degree, was doing an injuiy to his neighbor, then 
he dethroned him fix)m the situation in which he had placed him- 
self as a temperate man ; and the individual was, according to the 
true, logical, and philosophical definition of the word temperaiey an 
intemperate man. 

Let all persons become subscribers to this institution, and, 
without adding one shilling to their expenses, they would cut off ten 
millions of expenditure, which they would have in their pockets to 
contribute to benevolent societies. The honorable and learned gende- 
man then proceeded to state, that three fourths of the cases of crime, 
of premature death, and of lunacy, and other violent and distressing 
maladies, were occasioned by intemperance. And he would ask, 
whether, if there were a person present who would refiise to become 
a subscriber to this institution, that person were not an accessory to 
the commission of these crimes, and to the procurement of these 
ills. He would boldly stale, that if any person, after examining 
the documents which he should now present to the meeting, could 
coldly stand back, and say, " I will not support your Society, and 
thus give to the public the benefit of my example," that indivtdval 
would be chargeable with the guilt of an accessory to the evils 
which spring from this fruitful source of crime, disease, and death. 
The honorable and learned gentleman here read the certificates to 
which he had referred. The first was that of the Physician-General 
of Ireland ; the second was signed by 77 professional men of lEA^ 
inburgh ; he had others, also, unom Manchester, Bradford, and other 

rOURTH REPORT. — 1831. — ^APPENDIX. 103 

respectable and populous towns. They all reprobated, fn stronz 
terms, the use oi ardent spirits, as dangerous to die health and 
existence of those who indulged in them, and recommended their 
oitire disuse. These physicians, the honorable and learned gen- 
tleman proceeded, had told tlie meeting, that out of the use of 
ardent spirits grew the direst maladies to which the human frame is 

He had been long in the habit of prosecutinz criminals at the 
bar of justice in Ireland, and he could state positively, that at least 
three fourths of the criminals tried there, were led on to crime by 
intemperance. The gi-eater part of tlie crimes wliich were com- 
mitted in Ireland, were the results of intoxication— of the use of 
ardent spirits. He had tlie sanction of aD the high authorities b 
Dublin to the statement, that the disuse of ardent spirits would be 
one of the most effectual means of preventing crime there. And 
would not the same cause produce similar effects in London ? 

An individual, who has been in die habit of visiting the cells of 
the condemned, had told him that a condemned criminal had state<i, 
tiiat the plan adopted in die commission of murder, was, to get hold 
of some man fond of liquor, and, having taken him to a public 
house, having there made him high in spirits, to reveal gradually 
die plan laid for robbery and murder, and then to prevail on him 
to execute Uie fatal deed. First, hints would be thrown out, and 
then more explicit statements would be made ; and he who at first 
shuddered at the very thought of crime, would ultimately yield to 
the effects of liquor and persuasion, and consent to do the deadly 
act proposed to nim." 

Sir Asdey Cooper, in a letter which was read, stated, that no 
person had greater hostility to dram-drinking than himself; inas- 
much as he never suffered spirits to be in his house, considering 
them to be evil spirits ; and if tlie poor could see the white livers, 
the dropsies, and the shattered nervous systems which he had seen 
as the cpnsequences of drinking, they would be aware that spirits 
and pauons are synonjrmous terms. {Boston Recorder.) 

Q. (p. 65.) 

The following is the form of agreement entered into by the dele- 
gates of Virginia, assembled at Williamsburg, August 1, 1774 : — 

" Art. 3d. Considering the article of tea as the detestable instru- 
ment which laid the foundation of the present sufferings of our 
distressed firiends in the town of Boston, we view it with horror ; — 
and therefore, 


" Resotvedy That we will not, from this day, import tea, of any 
kind whatever ; nor will we use it, nor suffer such of it as may now 
be on hand to be used, in any of our families.^' 

And they say, " that, in view of the grievances and distresses 
inflicted by the hand of power on the people, they recommend their 
association to merchants, traders, and others, hoping they wiU ac- 
cede to it cheerfully." Their hopes were not disappointed. Sim- 
ilar associations were formed throughout the land ; and posterity, to 
all future generations, will experience the bene&t. 

And says a distinguished civilian, " What have we here ? An 
association on the principle of total abstinence. The men of '74, 
it seems, were no strangers to this wonder-working principle ; and 
they brought it forward in aid of one of the noblest causes that 
ever attracted the admiration and sympatliies of the world. The 
Virginia delegates looked upon tea, with its slavish appendage, 
' with horror.' So do we, I hope, look with equal horror upon nuii, 
with the slavery annexed to that. They resolve to abstain from 
tea, and invite all others to do the same. We, in our turn, abstain 
from rum, and entreat all others to do the same. What was the 
slavery of drinking tea, in comparison with the slavery occasioned 
by rum-drinking, with all the abominations unutterable it brings on 
the bodies and souls of men ! Why, then, are not bonds for total 
abstinence from rum, m 1831, as necessary and proper as tiie same 
bonds to abstain from tea, in 1774? Did the men of '74 and '76 
drive too fast, or carry matters to an extreme ? We answer. No. 
We all unitedly commend tlieir wisdom, energy, and self-denial. 
With tliese they gained our independence. How is it, then, that 
Temperance Societies drive too fast? As tea was once detested 
because it was the instrument that brought so much distress on our 
citizens, we would call upon all moderate drinkers to detest ardent 
spirit, and let it alotie ; and would entreat them to have com- 
passion for the distresses of their miserable feUow creatures, who 
are consupiing away in the fires of intemperance." 

And if the men, who, in '76, continued to traffic in tea^ were 
viewed as traitors, aiding and abetting in the oppression of their 
country, how ought the men to be viewed who continue, now, 
to traffic in rami Are they not aiding in the promotion of intem- 
perance and all its abominations ? And will they not be held re- 
sponsible at the divine tribunal ? Jud^e ye, and in such a manner 
that your judgment will not be reversed in the day of final decisioo. 


or TBS 


By the facts presented in the Fourth Report of this Society, the 
following truths are established, viz. 

1. Ardent spirit as a drink is not needful. 

2. It is not useful. 

3. It is a poison which injures both the body and the mind. 
And this results not merely from the great and increasing quantity 
of the liquor which may be taken, but from the kind. It is a liquor 
which is injurious in its nature, and which cannot be taken without 

4. It impairs, and often destroys reason. 

5. It lessens the power of motives to do right. 

6. It strengthens the power of motives to do wrong. 

7. It tends to bring all who use it to a premature grave; 
and usher those who understand its nature and effects, and yet 
continue to drink it, or to furnish it as a drink for others, into a 
miserable eternity. 

From these truths, all of which are established by numerous 
and in Jubitable facts, it follows that to use ardent spirit as a drink, 
to manufacture, buy, sell, or in any way furnish it as a drink for 
others, is a sin ; and in magnitude equal to all the evils, temporal 
and eternal, which it tends to produce. He who has die means of 
nnderstanding its nature and effects, and yet continues to use it, or 
to furnish it, will at the divine tribunal, and ought at the bar of pub- 
lic opinion, to be held responsible for its effects. For the pauper- 
ism, crime, sickness, insanity, wretchedness and death, which he 
occasions, he is responsible. " In the vice of drunkenness," says 
a distinguished member of Congress,* "as indeed in every 
other, the man who holds out the temptation to it, is the chief 
transgressor. The weak mortal who is sunken by intemperance 
to the level of the brute, is a victim to the avarice of the man who 
can calmly look upon him, and continue for cents and sixpences to 
sell him the dreadful poison." And says an eminent writer, " Words 

* Hon. James M. Wayne 



cannot express the guilt of those individuals who are now engaged, 
in any way, in manufacturing or vending ardent spirits." Such 
ought to be, and as light prevails, such will be, the sentiment of 
the whole community. The men who furnish the meansj and 
present the temptation for tlie making of drunkards, are partakers 
in tlieir guilt, and ripening for their awful retribution. They are 
exerting an influence which is hostile to the holiness and happLness 
of the community ; and which tends strongly lo .the .destmctioo of 
man for both worlds. 

To illustrate these truths, and impress them on the hearts of all| 
the Executive Committee of the American Temperance Society 
have, tiirough tlie divine kindness, continued their operations dur- 
ing another year. The last Report, which contains tlie history of 
this Society, and of its operations from its commencement, and also 
the reasons why its great principles should be extended through the 
world, was stereotyped ; and ten thousand copies have been printed. 

It has been circulated in various parts of the United States, 
and copies have been sent to Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova- 
Scotia ; to Mexico and South America ; to England, Ireland, Scot- 
land, Denmark, Sweden, Russia, Germany, Malta, Palestine, Tur^ 
key, Bombay, Ceylon, Burmali, China, Liberia, and die Sandwich 
Islands ; and the committee have abundant assurances that it has 
been productive of great good. It has been received witli special 
approbation, and has produced powerful effects. Wliile reading it, 
the rum drinker has resolved no longer to use the poison, and the 
rum seller no longer to poison his fellow men ; the man who had 
renounced the use of it and the tiaffic in it, and tliought that tliat was 
enough, has resolved, while reading it, to unite with others in a 
Temperance Society, and to do good as he has opportunity to all; 
because he has felt, diat to him tiiat knoweth to do good, and doeth 
it not, to him it is sin. Those who had before united witli societies 
have been excited to new and more vigorous exertions, and dius 
the number and influence of such sociedes have been gready in- 
creased. The conviction is extending, that all men are under sacred 
ohligadons to aid in this cause, and to condnue their efforts dll in- 
temperance is done away. It is seen diat short enlistments will not 
answer the purpose; and increasing numbers are engaging to 
serve during the war. An old man of more than fourscore years, 
afflicted with a bodily infirmity, for which he had been advised by 
a physician to use ardent spirit as a medicine, was presented 
with a constitudon of a Temperance Society on the plan of absd- 
nence. He read it, and said, ^'That is the thing to save our 
country ; I will join it." ** No," said one, " you must not join it, 
because ardent spirit is necessary for you, as a medicine. " I 
know," said he, " that I have used it, but if something is not done, 
our country will be ruined ; and I will not be accessary to the ruin 

I13J FIFTH REPORT. 1832. 3 

of my country. I will join the Society." " Then," said another, 
"you will die." Well," said the old man, in the true s|)irit of '76, 
"••for my country, I can die;" and signed the constitution; gave 
lip Ills medicine, and his disease fled Fway. It was the remedy 
lliat kept up tlie disease ; and when he had renounced the one, 
he was relieved of the otlier. So it probably would be, in nine 
cases out of t^n where this poison is Ui>ed as a medicine. It tends 
to perpetuate and aggravates disease, till it ends in death ; and 
often does it render that which would otheruise be sliglu and 
temporary, permanent and fatal. Another old man, once the gov- 
ernor of the State in which he L'ves, who had long been afflicted 
widi a disease for which ardent spirit had been prescribed as a re- 
medy, at a temperance meeting, said, 

" Friends and neighbors : i am now more than seventy years 
of age. You all know my state of health. 1 have been trying an 
experiment for two months past in abstaining from tlie use olar- 
dent spirits, which affords me much relief from the great distress 
I at times experience. My suffering has been great, but less than 
i feared. In \}ie war of the revolution, 1 commanded a company 
of militia in this state. At the approach of the enemy to Benning- 
ton, I had just recovered from a fever that had confined me to 
my bed for many days. 1 had not then left my room. The 
alarm was given, the militia called out ; and I, in opposiuon to the 
entreaties and expostulations of my friends, marched at the head 
of my company for Bennington. In our march we had to ford a 
river ; a sturdy soldier shouldered and carried me over on his 
back. We met the enemy, — fought — conquered, — and returned 
in safety to our families. I thus put my liie in jeopardy to aid in 
serving my country, and I am willing to do it again. An enemy 
more powerful and subtle than the British, is destroying our fire- 
sides, and trampling with iron hoofs the fairest portions of our land. 
I present myself to join your ranks in tliis war of extermiration, 
and enlist under your banner, bearing the motto Total Abst»- 
Dence. This step will no doubt shorten my days. Be it so ; I 
stand ready to sacrifice my life in the cause, and I fieely subscribe 
your pledge, totally and forever to abstain from the use of ardent 
We are happy in the expectation that the life of this venerable 

fitriot, instead of being shoitened, as ho expected by joining the 
emperance Society, will probably be prolonged a ntmiber of 
years. And if it should not, his comfort on' die whole, and his 
usefulness will no doubt be a;really increased, by all his disinterest- 
ed sacrifices for thie good of otliers. 

Some friend, your committee are informed, sent to the first of 
these men a copy of your last Report ; and he has read it iljroua;h 
flx times; says that he will have it bound, laid up by the side ul 


his Bible, and keep it till he die?. No book of the size, he tliini^y 
will do greater good to Uie coiiiit\y. 

" This Report, says n judicious writer, contains a detailed and 
faithful history of one of Uie greair^sl changes which was ever ef- 
fected in the condition of the human race. The Temperance 
Reformation will form a most important chapter in the history of 
navigation and commerce, of political economy and morals, of 
manners and fashions, and of tlie christian religion. There is reason 
to believe that a great proportion of the youth and children in the 
United States, and of the young men under thirty years of age, 
are acting on tlie temperance principle. Those who drink, and 
those who vend or manufacture the poison, are generally over thir- 
ty years of age. Their bodies will soon fall in the wilderness 
where they have tempted God and their fellow men ; a new genera- 
lion wiio have not been slaves in Egypt, will rise up and enter a land 
flowing with what is better than milk ana honey. A vision of glo- 
ry and beauty, such as the dying legislator of Israel did not see 
from the top of Pisgah, opens to ilie eye of die philanthropist and 
christian of this country. We would recommend the Rfjiort of 
tlie Tcnjperance Society, with all the earnestness in our power. 
We vvish it could be circulated by hundreds of thousands. \\ 
contains facts and reasonir^gs which are absolutely irrosiMible. 
It is precisely the pamphlet which was wanted. Why will not 
every temperance society in the land supply all their members 
with a copy ?" * 

A distinguished gentleman from the city of Washington, writes, 
" The Fourth Report of tlie American Temperance Society seems 
to receive the universal approbation of all sects and parties, as a 
paper inost able and judicious. It seems to me that the su;)ply of 
a copy to each family in the United States, would do very much 
toward accomplishing the great object for which it is designed, 
the removal of intemperance from the country." After saying that 
a copy had been presented to each member of congress, and that 
its good effects had been manifested in tlie great teniperance meet- 
riig which had been held in the capitol, he adds, " The strong and 
steady march of the temperance cause in this region, and at the 
South, and West, is obvious and unequivocal. That the great 
principles of die Reformation are every where gaining ground, 
and that public sentiment is every d?y rising in its demands, and 
tliat the manufacture, sale, and use of ardent spirits are daily 
becoming more and more disgraceful, is most !inquostionably true. 
And if all christians and sober men will do -Jieir dutv, fear- 
lessly and perse veringly, I am sure our cour^try will be purified.'' 
This sentiment deserves to be written in letters of go d. It is the 

* Joama] of Education, Vol. iv. No. 2. p. 1 13. 

115] rilTH REPORT. — 1832. $ 

hinge on which the Temperance Reformation, with all its inesti- 
mabie bene6ls, now turns. " If christians and sober men wilt d^ 
their duty, fearlessly and perseveringly, our country will be puri-- 
jiedy How momentous then is tlieir duty ; and, how overwlielm- 
iDg will be their guilt, if they do not perform it. " The meeting 
at the capitol," the writer adds, " will do great good, and in a thou- 
sand ways. Temperance publications have been working their 
way, and hardly a day passes but brings new evidence of tlie pro- 
gress of the cause in this city and neighborhood." 

Similar testimonies have been received from various other parts 
of the country. Friends of temperance, in many places, have put 
a copy of the Report into eveiy family. In other cases benevo- 
lent individuals have visited various towns in a county, delivered 
addresses, or read extracts from the Report, and at the close of 
meetings proposed a subscription, and thus procured for it a gen- 
eral circulation. Parents have often taken copies for their child- 
ren ; and could each child in the United States, have one for his 
own, and become acquainted with its principles and facts, your 
committee cannot but think, with the writer above referred to, that 
it would do very much for the salvation of tlie country. Those 
facts are so various and strong, so numerous and decisive, that it 
appears to be hardly possible for any one, not abandoned to hard* 
ness of heart and blindness of mind, to become acquainted witla 
tliem, in their various bearings, connexions, and consequences, 
and not be deeply and permanently affected by them. Many a 
man who, by reformation, has been saved from the drunkard's 
grave, may say, " Had 1 known when I was young what I know 
now, I might always have been a sober man ; have been saved 
from wretchedness unspeakable, and my family been saved from 
ruin." And many a man, now in tlie drunkard's grave and in the 
drunkard's etennty, had he known in youth, what every cliild in 
the United States may know now, and acted accordingly, might 
have been in glory, singing the song of Moses, and the song of 
the Lamb. Had the facts contained in that Report been knoun 
to every child in our land fifty years ago, and duly regarded, mor^J 
than half a million of men had been saved from tlie drunkard':^ 
gnve ; more than live millions from the living death of drunkei: 
relatives and friends ; and one of the sorest, foulest calamities 
which has ever afflicted humanity had been prevented. And 
as llie Report is adapted to be a permanent document, and lilt 
drunkenness has ceased, its principles, facts, and reasonings will be 
as important as they are now. — the committee cannot but unite in 
the desires expressed by many in this and other countries, that it 
may have a universal circulation. They rejoice to learn that an 
abstract of it, in an edition of ten thousand copies, has been pub- 
lished in the state of North Carolina, and that tlie whole Report 


has been republished in Great Britain, and large portions of it b 
numerous publications, in this, aiid other countries. It is spoken 
of. in the Ln<i;hsh papers, as " one of the most cheering and extra- 
ordinary docinnents which has ever appeared, in any age or coun- 
try." " It would seem, they say, as if Great Britain were follow- 
ing, in some humble measure, the noble example of our transat- 
lantic brethren — and the provinces are rising up, en masse, in fa- 
vor of Temperance Societies." 

The editor of the English Temperance Magazine and Review 
siiys, " We have before us the Fourth Report of die American 
Temperance Society ; and certainly, it has seldom fallen to our 
lot to peruse a more important and deeply interesting publication. 
We look at the facts which it adduces, and the results which it ex- 
hibits of exertions made in the cause of Temperance, and we are 
compelled, on a careful examination, to come to the conclusion thai 
the enemy of Temperance Societies is the enemy of man. He 
may be so ignorant ly ; he may be so unwittingly ; he may be so 
under ti)e impression tliat Temperance Societies are the fruit ol 
enthusiasm, and that there is no harm in drinking a little ; still we 
repeat it, he is the enemy of man ; and he is an opponent of one 
of liie grandest practical schemes which has ever been devised for 
the promotion of human comfort and happiness." 

" The Lord Chancellor from his place on the wool-sack denoun- 
ced gin-drinking as an evil so extensive tlrat if any thing could pre- 
vail on him to abandon his principles of free trade, it would be 
the desire to put down tiie free trade in ardent spirit. We can- 
not help thinking that the old world is under deep obligation to 
America for the developement of the principles of Temperance 
Societies ; and ik)w that they have been introduced and with suc- 
cess mto Great Britain, we trust tl)nt we shall not be slack, as 
Knglishmen, in acknowledging our obligations. We know that 
diere has been a feeling in this coimtry against every thing Ameri- 
can, but we trust and bpjieve that tliat day has gone by, never to re- 
turn. Let us /emulate them in this good work, and may the alac- 
rity with which we follow in their footstpps excite them to persevere 
till the cope-stone of the building is brought forth wiUi joy. We 
warmly recommend this Report to any individual who wishes to 
be correctly informed on the subject on which it treats. To 
Temperance Societies and the friends of temperance it cannot fail 
of proving highly interesting ; and if they peruse it mih tlie same 
feelings which we have done, they will rise from the perusal more 
firmly determined than ever, to go on with the work which they 
have begun, and in the strengdi of God, not to give in, till death 
sojmds the retreat." 

The Temperance Society Record, printed at Glasgow in Scot- 
land, says, 'Mt is a work which will be read with deep interest hf 


ibose who rejoice in seeing suffering humanity delivered from locli 
z desolating scourge ; and its nunierous facts and solemn appeak 
cannot fail to produce in the minds of those who give it an atten- 
tive perusal sentiments favorable to Temperance Societies." 

A gentleman writes from the island of Maha, " The Fourth 
Report of the American Temperance Society is doing great good 
here. One of tlie Judges to whom I lent it is delighted with it.** 
Anotlier gentleman says, '^ Give to that Report a universal circu- 
lation, and it will accomplish the object. The facts and reasoning 
cannot be resisted." 

In June last, through the distinguished liberali^ of a friend of 
this cause, our late agent the Rev. Dr. Hewit visited England. 
He was received with great kindness, and his labors were crown- 
ed widi signal success. A meeting in London, of the friends of 
Temperance, was appointed previous to his arrival, for the pur- 
pose of forming a London Temperance Society. Tliat meeting 
be was enabled to attend ; and his communications added greatlj 
to the interest of the occasion. Persons were present not onl? 
fron> the metropolis, but from various parts of England, Irelaiut, 
and Scotland, and a London Tera|)erance Society was formed. 
The impression was so strong, the need and practicability of a 
Temperance Reform so obvious, and the benefits, which, should 
h become universal, it would confer on the world, were so numer- 
ous and important, that at a subsequent meedng, by the desire of 
Dr. Hewit and otliers tliey enlarged the object of tlie society and 
also its name. '^ The I#ondon Temperance Society " was chang- 
ed to tlie " British and Foreign Temperance Society " for the 
purpose of extending its blessings throughout the kingdom and 
throughout the world. Should they continue to act in accordance 
with their high privileges, their great responsibility and tlieir dis- 
^tinguished name, and with the success, which, through tlie divine 
kindness, may be expected in that case to attend their exertions, 
this event will form an era in tlie history of the Temperance Re 
fbrniation. In addition to other efficient measures, the friends of 
the object have established in London two monthly periodicals, via. 
The British and Foreign Temperance Herald, 27,000 copies of 
which have been published, and the Temperance Magazine and 
Review. One is a dudecimo, and the other an octavo, and both 
are to be devoted to this great cause : there are also two monthly 
publications, viz. The Temperance Society Record, published in 
Scotland ; and the Temperance Advocate, published in Ireland ; 
besides various other publications of different forms, devoted to 
dus object in different parts of the kingdom. The number of 


copies which have been published during the year amounts to 
more than a million. 

Mr. Carr, of Ireland, and Mr. CruikshRnk, of Scotland, have 
been employed as agents ; more than two l>undred meetings have 
been held, and numerous Temperance Societies formed in various 
parts of the kingdom. More than a hundred thousand are now 
embodied in Great Britain, on the plan of abstmence from the 
use of ardent spirit ; and among them are 400 veteran British 
seamen, inmates of Greenwich Hospital, under the auspices of the 
distinguished naval officers who govern that institution. 

Di\ Hewit also visited France, and would have gone to Ireland 
and Scotland had not providential afflictions in his family hastened 
his return.* But although his stay was shorter than was desired 
by the friends of Temperance, both in this country and in Eng" 
land, we would gratefully acknowledge the kindness of Providence 
in his preservation, and m the good which he was enabled to ac^ 
eomplish ; and indulge the hope that the benefits will be felt to 
all future time. 

We view it as a great favor, and hail it as a token for 
good, that a system of effort to abolish the use of ardent spirit, 
and the traffic in it, was devised and adopted previously to the ap^ 
pearance in Europe of that direful malady the Cholera, nine tenths 
of whose victims are those who indulge in strong drink. And we 
hope tliat it will be borne in mind, that the men who use ardent 
spirit, and especially the men who furnish it for the use of others, 
are inviting the ravages, and preparing the victims of that fatal dis- 
ease. Nor will they be guiltless, shodd it never visit the places 
in which tliey live ; for other diseases in great numbers, and wilb 
mulriludps equally fatal, are infallibly produced by it. In one of 
our cities, half the men over 18 years of^age, who died in 1828, ac- 
cording to the testimony of the physicians, were killed by it. 
And those physicians, remark, " When we recollect that even the 
temperate use, as it is called, of ardent spirits lays the found auoit 
of a numerous train of incurable noaladies, we feel justified m 
expressing the belief, that were the use of distilled liquors entirely 
dr9<"ontinucd, the number of deaths among die male adults would 
be diminished in our city at least one half." Wliat would be 
diought of tlie men who, for the sake of money, should directlv 
sell disease ? would it not be viewed as an immorality of a high 
and aggravated character ; as a sin, continuance in which woiud 
be utterly inconsistent with christian character ? and is it not as 
really immoral, as really a crime, to sell the known cause of dis- 
ease, as it would be to sell disease itself? What would be thought 

^ Rebecca Hewit, daughter of Rev. Nathaniel Hewit, D. D.» died at New He- 
veo» Conii., July 80tb, 1831, 

Ii9j fltTH RliPORT.— 1832. 9 

of tlie man wIjo should knowingly and deliberately sell death } 
and in such quantity as to double tlie tenants of the grave-yard ? 
What ought to be thought of hira ? And is it not as really wicked 
for men to sell the known cause of death ; and when survivors 
raise, in tend and solemn tone, the note of remonstrance, are they 
to be put off, with the supremely contemptible reply, If we should 
not sell this, we could not sell so many other things ?— or, we must 
change our business ? — or, we could not support our families ?— or, 
if we do not do it, somebody else will ? Suppose somebody would 
import plague, if you should not ; and in that case could sell more of 
some kinds of goods, which he had on hand, than if he diH not ; and 
should give this as the reason why he must do it ; would that screen 
you from the indignation of a suffering community, or the retributions 
of a righteous God, if for a similar reason you should do it ? What 
would be thought of an apoihecaiy who should import pestilence, or 
wake up fever, because if he did not do it, he could not sell so ma- 
ny medicines, and perhaps must change his business? Wliat would 
be thought of the merchant who should do this in order to sell a 
greater quantity of mourning apparel. Suppose an apothecary, in- 
stead of being conBned to one branch of business, sells both drugs 
and cloths ; and also seUs indiscriminately, to all who will buy 
arsenic or opium ; though he knows that it kills men by thousands. 
And when an injured community rise up and remonstrate, array 
against him the tears of widows, and the groans of orphans, he 
says, " If I should not sell arsenic I could not sell so many grave- 
clothes ; and as my family depend upon my business for a living, 
I mu^ destroy other families, to support my own." And sup- 
pose It were told in heaven, that such a man professed to be a 
friend of the Lord Jesus Christ, and that he cried daily, " Glory 
to Grod in the highest, good vnll to men," would they not quake 
in view of the indignation, and wrath, and tribulation, and anguish 
which would fasten upon him, when the earth discloses her blood, 
and no more covers her slain ; but tlie God of the widow, 
and the father of the fatherless proclaims in actions, " Vengeance 
is mine ; I will repay, saith Jehovah ? " 

When the nature of this business is duly considered and its in- 
variable effects ; when its consequences are viewed in the lieht of 
eternity, we cannot but think that every man who has the spirit of 
Jesus Christ will renounce it, as a business at war with Jehovah, 
and with the temporal and etenial interests of men. The idea 
of making property by a business so destructive, is revolting 
even to humanity, and will ere long be reprobated as a high-hand- 
ed offence throughout the world. Says an eminent European 
writer,* " The abolition of the slave trade is deservedly considered 


the glory of modern times ; yel neither in the evils to be removed, 
in ihe opposition of difficulties to be encountered, or in the amount 
of good done, is the abolition of the slave trade to be once named 
in comparison of the Temperance Reformation.** 

And, says another distinguished writer,* " Hard must be the 
heart that bleeds not, cruel indeed the nature that weeps not, 
while surveying the emaciation of body, the bloated ghastliness of 
countenance, the paralization of nerve, the poverty, and conse- 
quent mpanness, that slowly, it may be, yet surely creeps on their 
constant customers ; and their consciences must be callous indeed 
if they permit them without loud, tormenting, and reiterated accu- 
sation, without awful forebodings of future retribution, and fearful 
lookings for of fiery indignation, daily to observe, and hourly to 
promote in their victims, the gradual prostration of intellect, the 
destruction of honor, tho obliteration of shame, the forgetfulness 
of religious obligation and even of common honesty, the loss of de- 
licate feeling, the withering of reputation, the insensibility to char- 
acter : in a word, the destruction of the men, and their transfor- 
mation, first into brutes, and tlien into fiends, which is the con- 
stant and palpable effect produced in their hell-assisting manufac- 

" Every man, as a patriot, is bound to employ himself in a 
manner that will promote the welfare of his country ; but I assert, 
without fear of successful contradiction, that the spirit trade is the 
greatest bane to our countiy, but especially to its poor, that at pre- 
sent does, or probably ever did exist : it kills more people tlian 
any war in which we ever were engaged : it destroys more of the 
industry and consequent wealth of our country tlian all the other 
evils under which we labour ; and as it respects crime, it may be 
called Legion, for it either embodies in itself, or drags in its hag- 
gard and desolating train, every abomination which is tarnishing 
the fair page of our history, and blasting our yet lofty national 
character ; in the dens of intemperance almost every crime is de- 
vised ; by the brutifying stimulus of intoxicating liquor almost 
every crime is perpetrated ; and, oh ! you who are employed in 
spreading liquid madness, with its attendants, misery, blasphemy, 
and iniquity, tremble while you hear it, — by your agency our 
age and nation groans under the shameful burden of such cn?el 
monstrosities, of such heartless and mercenary murders, as have 
been perpetrated by a Burke, a Hare, a Bishop, a Williams, a 
Stewart, the Gilmerton Carters, and others of infamous memory : 
while, through the preparation of liquid fire, some of you are exalt- 
ed to roll along in your carriages, and by your boastibl mottos insult • 

* Craikahnnk's AddreM on the ipirit trade, Britiih Temperence Magniine tad 
Raview» p. 103^ 

121 J FIFTH REPORT. 1832. 1 1 

your dupes by telling, that * Gin hath bought it : who could have 
thought it?' By spreading ihe fiery slrean:, and heaping fuel on 
the destructive conflagration, many more are wallowing in almost 
princely affluence ; while the victi^ns of your trade, their wiveS; 
and ciiildren, are covered with rags and drenched in misery. I 
would affectionatelv beseech such to examine the source whence 
tlieir riches flow. I would beg of them to consult tlieir con- 
sciences, which will inform them tint their ornaments are purcha*?- 
ed at the expense of misery to their customers, their superfluous 
finery deprives the others of necessary clothing, their ease, volup- 
tuousness, and splendor are supported by inflicting acute |)ni!is, 
wasting diseases, excruciating torments, madness, despnrr, and 
Heath ; on whom ? on the enetnies of their country ? on strangers 
or foreigners ? — even this woiild be cniel ; but no ! their victims 
are their friends, relations, n(*is:hbors, and fellow countrvmen. I 
would coiijure them, therefore, by the Intent spark of manly leel- 
ine that vel wnnns their breast, by the stnis:i:linirs of that fedin-;: 
Hfirninst sordid i?iterest, by their yet remaining pairiotism, to abnn- 
don the accursed trade, and attend to their interest lor time arid 
for eternity, by turning to the liOrd's side." 

And FRVs a distinscuished civilian in our own countrv,* " It is dI 
the utmr»st imj)ortance to the temporal and eternal interests of our 
citizens, that a stop should be put to the sale of ardent spirits :i^- 
speedily as possible." — " Convince the men who make shrine s Inr 
ihe goddess Diana that they are ptirtakcjrs in the gtiilt of tlwe 
who worship the idol, and most ol them will abandon the unhiillMwr d 
purstr't. Satisfy the unreflecting vender of ardent spirits that li»; 
is morally responsible for all the crime and misery which his mad- 
dening potations natmally produce, and lie will relinquish tlie '^It - 
nior:*li/.ing traffic. Point the christian to the s:;cred \yd'Ae wlir-r.' 
ihe pen of inspiration hath written, 'he who hath th« love of (io : 
in hfs heart, worketh no ill to his n(.'igiib()r,' and he will not, tor i.u- 
sak-^ of a few dollars, destroy the temporal and eternal happiji*"- 
of tlK)se around him. Convince the retailer who makes the drunK- 
ard, and sends him staggering home to abuse, and perhaps to mur- 
der a wretched wife and starving children, that the curse of Hen - 
ren is denounced against him who holdeth the cfip to his neighbor's 
lips, and surely he will forbear. Let the attention of the fond pa- 
rent who seeks to provide for his beloved ofl^spring, by the manu- 
fisicture or sale of ardent spirits, be directed to this witnering curse 
which may soon be resting upon his own head, when he may be 
cofnpeUed to rescue his own broken-hearted daughter from the 
lodescribable wretchedness of a drunkard's hovel, or to follow his 
last son to that hopeless depository, a drunkard's grave ; and 

* lUoben H. Walworth, Chancellor of the State of New York. 


certainly coercion cannot be necessary to induce bim to forsake 
this dangerous pursuit. And let all emulate the precept, and en- 
deavor to live up to the requirements of tliat law, which commands 
us to love our neighbors as ourselves, and to consider and treat ail 
mankind as our breiliren. 

** High on a scroll, imcribcd on Nature*! shrine, 
Live, in brij^ht characters, the words divine^ 

* In all life's changing bcenes, to othors do 

* What yoo would uuh by others dope to yoo/ 
Winds, wide o*er earth thi^ sacred law convey ; 
Ye nations hoar it, and let all obey.*' 

In September the Temperance Society of Baltimore applied to 
our secretary for an agent to labor under their direction and at 
their expense, in that city and state. He engaged for that service 
the Rev. John Marsh, of Haddam, Connecticut, Secretary of the 
Connecticut Temperance Society. In addition to the visiting of 
different parts of that slate, he visited also, during his agency, the 
city of Washington ; and was instrumental in procuring the meet- 
ing in the capitol which has been referred to, and which has been 
so extensively useful throughout the country. The Hon. Lewis 
Cass, secretary of war, presided, and Waher Lowry, Esq. clerk of 
the senate of the United States, was secretary of the meeting. 
ITie Rev. Reuben Post, of Washington City, chaplain of the 
House of Representatives, opened the meeting with prayer, llie 
Rev. Mr. Marsh stated that the object of it was, the promotion of 
the cause of Temperance in the United States, and throughout 
the world. The meeting was then addressed by the Hon. Felix 
Grundy, United States Senator from the State of Tennessee ; die 
Hon. Theodore Frelinghuysen, United States Senator from 
the state of New Jersey; the Hon. Isaac C. Bates, member 
of tlie House of Representatives from the State of Massachusetts ; 
the Hon. James M. Wayne, member of the House of Representa- 
tives from die Slate of Georgia, and the Hon. Daniel Webster, 
United States Senator, from the State of Massachusetts. A vote 
of thanks was tlien presented to tlie secretary of war for presiding 
on the occasion, and the meeting was closed with prayer by the 
Rev. Professor Durbin, of Kentucky, chaplain of the Senate of the 
United Stales. 

Those who addressed the meeting spoke in high terms of the 
social, civil, and religious beneBts which have resuhed to our 
country, from the formation and operations of Temperance Socie- 
ties, and expressed their conviction that the influence of them wiB 
be felt tlirough the world. The speeches have since been publish* 
ed in various parts of the country, have passed through several 
editions, and are now receiving a very extensive circulation. 

Anoiiier lm|)ortant tesunioiiy tr> tlie benc6ts of temporancn 

123] PIFTH RKPORT. 1832. 13 

societies, and to the importance of their universal extension, was 
given by the Hon. William Wirt, late attorney general ol the Uni- 
ted States. In a communication which he made to a meeting of 
the Baltimore city Temperance Society he said, " 1 have been 
for more than forty years a close observer of life and manners in 
various parts of the United States, and I know not the evil that 
will bear a moment's comparison with intemperance. It is no ex- 
aggeration to say, as has been often said, that tliis single cause 
has produced more vice, crime, poverty, and wretchedness in 
every form, domestic and social, than all the other ills that scourge 
us, combined. In truth, it is scarcely possible to meet with misery 
in any shape, in this country, which will not be found on examina- 
tion to have proceeded, directly or indirectly, from the excessive 
use of Prdent spirits. Want is one of its immediate consequences. 
Tlie sau spectacle of starving and destitute families, and of igno- 
rant, half naked, vicious children, ought never to be presented in 
a country like this, where the demand for labor is constant, the 
field unlimited, the sources of supply inexhaustible, and where 
there are none to make us afraid ; and it never would be presented, 
or very rarely indeed, were it not for the desolation brought upon 
families by the general use of this deadly poison. It paralyses the 
arm, the brain, the heart. All the best affections, all the energies 
of the mind, wither under its influence. Tl>e man becomes a 
maniac, and is locked up in a hospital, or imbrues lus hands in 
the blood of his wife and children, and is sent to the gallows or 
doomed to the penitentiary ; or, if he escapes these consequences, 
be becomes a walking pestilence on the earth, miserable in him- 
self, and loatlisome to all who behold him. How often do we 
see, too, whole families contaminated by the vicious example of 
the parent; husbands, wives, daughters, and sons, all drunkards 
and furies : sometimes wives murdering their husbands ; at others 
husbands their wives ; and worst of all, if worse can he in such a 
group of horrors, children murdering their parents. But below 
Uiis grade of crime, how much is there of unseen and untold mise- 
ry, throtighout our otherwise happy land, proceeding from tliis fatal 
cause alone. lam persuaded that if we could have a statistical 
survey and report of the affairs of unhappy families and individu- 
als, witli tlie causes of their misery annexed, we should find nine 
casi-s out of ten, if not a still p*eater proportion, resulting from the 
use of ardent spirits alone. With this conviction, which seems to 
hav« become universal among reflecting men, the apathy shown 
to the continuance of the evil can only be ascribed to the circum- 
stance that the mischief, tliough verbally admitted, is not seen and 
fdt in all its cnonnity. If some fatal plague, of a contagious 
character, were imported into our country, and had coti\menced 
its ravages *n our cities, we should see tlie most prompt and vigor- 

8 10* 


ous measures at once adopted to repress and extinguish it : but 
what are the most fearful plagues tliat ever carried deatli and 
havoc in iheir train through the eastern countries, compared with 
this ? They are only occasional ; this is perennial. They are 
conGned by climate or place ; this malady is of all climates, 
and all times and places. They kill tlie body at once ; tliis con- 
sumes both body and soul by a lingering and dreadful death, involv- 
ing the dearest connections in the vortex of ruin. What parent, 
however exemplary himself, can ever feel that his son is safe wliile 
the living fountain of poison is within his reach ? Grod grant ilni 
It may soon become a fountain sealed, in our country at least- What 
a rehef, what a delightful relief, would it be to turn from the awful 
and horrid past, to the pure, peaceful, and happy future i ! to see 
the springs of life, and feeling, and intelligence, renewed on every 
hand ; health, industry, and prosperity, glowing around us ; the 
altars of domestic peace and love rekindled in every family ; and 
the religion of the Saviour presented with a fair field for its celes- 
tial action. 

" The progress already made by our temperance societies, ir 
advancing this golden age, proves them to be of a divine origin. 
May the Almighty crown his own work with full and speedy suc- 
cess. I remain, dear sir, respectfully and truly yours, 

"William Wirt." 

So numerous and striking have been the benefits of societies 
formed on the plan of abstinence from the use of ardent spirit, that 
increased efforts have been made during the past year to extend 
them through the country. The friends of /temperance in the 
State of New York have set an example on this subject, which, 
if followed, would do much towards banishing intemperance from 
the earth. They have entered, witli systematic vigor, and with great 
success, on tlie plan of forming a temperance society in every town, 
and in ever school district in the State. A circular has been issued 
and sent to every family, invhing all the members who have come 
to yearsof understanding, to abstain from the use of ardent spirit; 
and to unite with a temperance society. More tliau 60,000 have 
been added to their temperance societies during the past year. 
And the secretary of that society states, that the members which 
are added to tlieir societies will average a thousand a day. " The 
circulars," he says, "have produced and are producing wonders. 
All that our State needs is information, and the work will be onward. 
Pennsylvania has sent for a partial supply of the circulars, and we 
have sent enough to the Secretary of the navy for tlie supply of 
our national ships. 

To engage in thb benevolent work all classes of people, and to 

125] FIFTH REPORT. 1832. 15 

extend the same efBcient system througliout the country, the Com- 
mittee of the American Temperance Society, at their meeting iu 
Boston, January 16, 1832, adopted the following resohitions, viz. 

" 1. That the social, civil, and religions interests of our country, 
and of the world, would be gready promoted, should each indivi- 
dual abstain entirely from die use of ardent s])irit, as a drink ; from 
the manufacture ol it, and the traffic in it; and from the furnish- 
ing of it, in any way, as drink for others. 

" 2. That each individual in our coumry, as soon as practicable, 
be particularly invited thus to abstain, and in all suitable ways to 
exert his influence, to lead ail others to do the same. 

*^ 3. That, as information is important, a Circular, containing a 
brief view of the prominent facts on Uiis subject, be prepared, and, 
as means can be obtained, be sent to every family in the United 
States, respectfully and earnestly requesting each individual, who 
has come to years of understanding, to adopt the above plan ; and, 
for the sake of doing good, to unite with oUiers in a Temperance 

" 4. That, to promote the formation of Temperance Societies, to 
invite all to join them, and to carry the above plan into practical 
eflect throughout our country, it is needful tliat one or more wise 
and efficient Agents should be employed by each Slate ; and that 
some General Agents should visit all parts of our land. 

" 5. That application be made to benevolent individuals and 
known friends of temperance, for means to accomplish the above- 
mentioned objects ; and to enable the American Temperance So- 
ciety to prosecute its great and benevolent work, dll the use of ar- 
dent spirit as a drink, tlie manufacture of it, and the traffic in it, shall 
be done away throughout our country, and throughout the world.'' 

In pursuance of the above resolutions, the following letter has 
been published, and sent to a number of gendemen in different parts 
of the United States : — 

"The American Temperance Society is engaged in the 
great and benevolent work of extending the principle of abstinence 
from the use of ardent spirit, till it shall become universal. By 
means of the press and of living agents, a strong impression has 
already been made, and a great change effected with regard to 
this subject* More than a million of persons in the United States 
DOW abstain from the use of ardent spirit. Amon^them are those 
of all ages, and in all kinds of lawful business. Many, who for 
jears used it habitually, and tliought it needful, have found by 
experience that they were mistaken, and Uial tliey are in all re- 
spects better without it. And should the experiment be fairly 
made, this would be found to be the case with all. 

" More than a thousand distilleries have been stopped ; more 
than diree thousand merchants have ceased to traffic in die poison. 


and more than three thousand drunkards ceased to use intoxicating 
drinks. More than ten thousand persons, as appears from numer- 
ous facts, liave, by the change in the sentiments and practices of 
the community, ah-eady been saved from becoming drunkards. 
The quantity of ardent spirit used over extensive districts of coun- 
try, has been greatly diminished ; and pauperism, crime, sickness, 
insanity, and premature deaths have been diminished in propor- 

" And when persons have ceased to use intoxicating drinks, they 
have not only become more sober, healtliy, diligent and economi- 
cal, and their condition for this life been greatly improved ; but 
they have, in much greater numbers, become hopefully pious, and 
experienced an entire change of character and oi prospects for the 
life to come. And could appropriate means be used, over our 
whole country, a change, witii the divine blessing, might be cffert- 
ed, which would save, annually, millions of property, and thousands 
and tens of thousands of lives ; a change which would remove one 
of the greatest dangers to our social, civil, and rehgious institutions, 
one of the greatest obstructions to the efficacy of the gospel, and 
all the means of grace ; and one of the chief causes, throughout 
our land, of human wretchedness and wo. 

But for ability to employ these means, and accomplish these 
objects, the American Temperance Society is dependent upon 
what the friends of temperance are disposed to furnish. Its whole 
permanent income is not six hundred dollars a year ; a sum insuf- 
ficient to print and circulate, as extensively as is desirable, even 
its Annual Report. Numerous and pressing applications, from all 
parts of the country, are made for publications, and for agents ; 
but tlie Society has not the n)eans of complying with these re- 
quests. And without assistance, its labors, which, in time past 
have been so greatly blessed, imd which are so intimately connect- 
ed with the welfare of the present and all future generations of 
men, for both worlds, must in a great measure cease. Whether 
they shall be continued, or not, now depends upon this, whether 
the friends of the object will furnish the means. 

The Committee, therefore, in reliance on Him who has all 
hearts in his hands, have resolved to make application to as many 
as practicable, of the known friends of temperance, who are blessed 
with property, and respectfully and earnestly request them to fur- 
nish the necessary means. Should one hundred individuals give 
one hundred dollars a year, or could a sum equal to that be ob- 
tained, abstinence from the use of ardent spirit might, it is believed, 
be extended throughout our country, and throughout the Chris- 
tian woi-ld. The next generation, and all future generations of 
men might come forward into life without the habit of using it, 
without any appetite for it, or expectation of any benefit to be de- 

127 J FIFTH REPORT. 1832, 17 

rived from the use of it. Then the gospel and all the means of 
grace may be expected to produce more than double their past 
effects ; and all efforts for the intellectual, moral and spiritual bene- 
fit of man be crowned witli greatly augmented success. And in 
no way, probably, could the same amount of property do greater 
good to mankind. 

The Committee, therefore, in fulfilment of tjie high trust assign- 
ed to them, and for the purpose of promoting the great interests 
of our country and tlie world, respectfully and earnesdy request 
the friends of temperance to assist them in this great and moment- 
ous work. And although they have no desire to dictate as to the 
manner, or the amount, yet as it is very desirable that they shouki 
know what means they can obtain in order to lay out tlieir plans, 
and direct their operations accordingly, Uiey take tlie liberty to 
present tlie following form of subscription, viz. — ^To enable the 
American Temperance Society, by means of the press, and of living 
agents, to extend the principle of abstinence from the use of ardent 
spirit, throughout our country, — we the subscribers agree to pay 
annually to said society, so long as it shall appear to us to be pro- 
per, the sums annexed to our names. 

Georgr Odiorne, ' 

John Tappan, 

Heman Lincoln, 

Justin Edwards, 

Enoch Hale, Jr. 
Boston, Jan. 16, 1832. 
P. S. — Although, for the reasons above mentioned, and also on 
account of the greater ease and diminished expense of collecting 
it, an annual subscription is viewed by the Committee as moi'e 
desirable than a donation, yet if any person prefer to assist by a 
donation, he is requested to write donation against his name. And 
any amount, furnished in either way, and sent to tlie Treasurer, 97 
Milk street, Boston, unll be thankfully received, and faitlifuUy ap- 
propriated to the great object of the society." 

The Circular referred to in tlie 3d resolution has been prepar* 
ed. It is a pamphlet of twelve pages, and has been stereotyped. 
It is sold by A. Russell, No. 5, Cornhill, Boston, at $10 pei 
thousand, and is adapted to universal circulation. 

Should one hundred individuals give one hundred dollars m 
year, or could a sum equal to that be obtained, a copy of it might 
be put into every family in the United States: millions be added 
to xemperance Societies, and their operations be continued till the 
use of ardent spirit as a drink, and tlie traffic in it, shall be done awa]f. 



!More than 1 00,000 copies of the pamphlet referred to, have alreadj 
been pnntiid ; and all who are disposed to promote tlie good of 
mankind, are reqnested to aid in furnishing means, and in giving to 
it a universal rirculn.tion. 

The Corresponding Secretary has continued to devote his whole 
time to the concerns of the Society. He su|>erintended the stereo- 
typing and printing of the Fourth Report, and assisted in its circula- 
tion. He also prejyared the circulars which have been referred 
to; has traveled more than 1700 miles, and addressed public 
bodies more than 150 times. He has prepared numerous articles 
which have been circulated extensively through the medium of 
periodicals, and public papers ; has published forty letters on di« 
immorality of the traffic in ardent spirit ; conducted the correspon- 
dence, and s.ipcrin'eiided the general concerns of the Society. 
An abstract of the letters on the immorality of the traffic in ardent 
spirit, have, at the request of friends of the cause, been published 
in a pamphlet, and are found in the Appendix to this Report.* 

Means have been furnished for the enr.ployment of an agent six 
months in the city of Now York, who was appointed by, and la 
bored under the direction of the Committee of the New York City 
Temperance Society. An agent also of the Baptist denomination 
has been employed for eight months, in the State of Illinois. 
Other agents have been employed by State and County societies ; 
numerous individuals have performed voluntary agencies; ad- 
dresses have been delivered by clergymen, attorneys, physicians 
and others; the press, with its powerful and all-pervading voice, 
has continued to speak, and the conviction to deepen and extend, 
that the use of ardent spirit as a drink, the manufacture of it, and 
tlie traffic in it, is an immorality of a high and aggravated character ; 
wholly opposed in its nature and influence to the spirit and require- 
ments of the Christian religion ; at war with the honor and govern- 
ment of Jehovah, and hostile to the holiness and happiness of 
mankind. The conviction is becoming general, that the men who 
understand the nature and effects of ardent spirit, and yet continue 
to traffic in it, are accessories to the evils, and accomplices in al! 
the crimes which it occasions; that they give fearful evidence 
that they regard money more than God, and are willing, for the 
sake of it, to destroy, for both worlds, their fellow-men. Sob^r 
men of all classes, who have examined this subject, are moving 
onward to the settled and permanent conclusion, that such mer. 
rrjirtnot, while they continiie to do this, give that credible evidence 
of being good men, which would justify an impartial community, 
in receiving and treaung them as such. 

Multitudes, during the past year, have spoken out on iliis subject, 

* Appendix CL 

139J riFTH REPORT. — 1832. It 

and with great clearness and strength, corroborated what others 
had said before. 

Rev. Henry Ware, jr. professor of pulpit eloquence and the 
pastoral care m Harvard l/niversity, says, '^ No proposition seems 
to me susceptible of more satisfactory demonstration tlian this, — 
and I am sure that no person can give it one hour's serious djougftf 
without assenting to it, — ^that, in the present state of infoi .nation od 
this subject, no man can think to act on Christian principles, or do 
a patriot's duty to his country, and at the same time make or sell 
the instrument of intoxication." And shall men continue to be 
received as giving credible evidence of being Chrisdans, who 
knowingly carry on an employment, in which they cannot diinkto 
act on Christian principle ? and which is utterly inconsistent, even 
with a patiiot's duty? which, in the language of this writer, is 
^' no less than employing his time, capital and industry to prept^re 
for use, and offer for use, that which has been proved to be the 

f)rincipal source of misery and crime m modern socie^ ? providing 
or men the convenient and tempting means of ruining their heahh, 
and their business ; beggaring their families^ becoming vagabonds, 
and a nuisance while alive, and sinking prematurely to a dishonor- 
able grave ? " and when ^' the nature of his calling renders this 
inevitable, and he cannot be a dealer in spirits without becoming 
accessory to all this vice and ruin ? " Is he who, for the sake of 
money, perseveringly continues to do thb, to be received and 
treated as giving credible evidence that he is a good man ? An 
injured and suffering community, by the voice of accumulating 
millions, answers — ^No. 

The Rev. Francis Wayland, D. D. President of Brown Univer- 
ty in Providence, Rhode Island, in an address lately delivered, 
after stating that it has been shown that more than $90,000,Opo 
are annually lost to the country by the use of ardent spirit, in addition 
to all the other evils which now from it, puts to the conscience of 
each one who continues, whether by wholesale or retail, to be. en- 
gaged in the traffic, or in any way to furnish ardent spirit for the 
use of his fellow men, the following questions, viz. 

" First. Can it be right for me to derive my living from that 
which is spreading disease, and poverty, and premature death 
throughout my neighborhood ? How would it be in any similar 
case ? Would it be right for me to derive my living from ^elUi^g 
poison, or from propagating plague, or leprosy around me ? 

Second. Can it be right for me to derive my livinc; from that 
urtiich is debasing the minds, and ruining the souls of my neighs 
bors ? How would it be in any other case ? Would it be right 
for me to derive my living from the sale of a drug which produced 
miseiy , or madness ; or from the sale of obscene books which ex- 


20 AMEHICAN TKMl»t:ttAN'ce socifiTr* [13(F 

cited the passions, and brutalized the minds, and ruined the soub 
of my fellow men ? 

Third. Can it be right for me to derive my living from that 
which destroys forever the happiness of the domestic circle-— 
which is filling the land with women and children in a conditioa 
far more deplorable than that of widows and orphans ? 

Fourth. Can it be right for me to derive my living from that 
which is known to be the cause of nine-tenths of all the crimes 
which are perpetrated against society ? 

Fifth. Can it be right for me to derive my fiving from that 
which brings upon society nine-tenths of all the pauperism which 
exists, and which the rest of the community arc ooliged to [jay 

Sixth. Can it be right for me to derive my fiving from that 
which accomplishes all these at oitce, and which does it without 
ceasing ? 

Do you say that you do not know that the liquor which you are 
selling will produce these results ? Do you not know that nine 
hundred and ninety-nine gallons produce these effects for one 
which is used innocently ? I ask, then, 

Seventh. Would it be right for me to sell poison on the git>und 
that there was one chance in a thousand that the purchaser would 
not die of it ? 

Eighth. Do you say that you are not responsible for the acts 
of your neighbor ? Is this clearly so ? Is not he who knowingly 
furnishes a murderer with a weapon, considered an accomplice f 
Is not he who navigates a slave ship, considered a pirate ? 

If these things be so, and that they are so, who can dispute, f 
ask you, my respected fellow citizens, what is to be done ? Let 
me ask, is not this trade altogether wrong ? Why, (hen^ should 
we not altogether abandon it ? 

If any man think otherwise and choose to continue h, I ha^^e 
but one word to say. My brother, when you order a cargo of in- 
toxicating drmk, think how moth misery you are importing inter 
the community. As you store it up, thfnk how many curses yoat 
are heaping together against yourself. As you roll it out of your 
warehouse, think how many families each cask wiS ruin. Let 
your thoughts then revert to your own fireside, your wife, and your 
little ones ; look upward to Him who Judgeth righteously, and ask 
yourself, my brother, Is this right?" 

The Hon. Reuben H. Walworth, Chancellor of the Stafe of 
New York and President of the New York State Temperance 
Society, in an address lately delivered, says, " Though my public 
duties have not allowed me to participate in this great work in the 
manner I could have desiredy I have witnessed with delight its 
lapid progress, and shall ever esteem it the highest bc>nor I could 

131] rirTM »*:i»oiiT.— J S32. fl 

have received from my fellow citizens, to have been permitted to 
connect my name with this institution, and to use the little personal 
influence I possessed in aiding its 6perations« 

" In reviewing the progress of temperance for a few years past, 
the changes which have been produced in public opinion on this 
important subject are astonishing, even to its most sanguine friends. 
And it furnishes to us all the hig!:csT encouragement to continue 
our exertions, until the common use of ardent spirits shall be con- 
sidered as disgraceful as open opposition to such use was once 
deemed unpopular ; until reflecting men wiD no more think of 
making and vending ardent spirits, or of erecting and renting grog*^ 
shops as a means of gain, than they would now think of poisoning; 
the well from which a neighbor obtains water for his family, or of 
arming a maniac to destroy liis own life, or the lives of those around 

Such are becoming tl)e views of good men of all descripdons, 
who are acquainted with this subject, throughout tlie country. 
They view it as a sin of high and awful aggravation ; and believe 
that a man is as reaUy guilty who kills himself, or is accessory to 
the death of his fellow men, by means of ardent spirit as by means 
of opium, a knife, or a pistol ; and that the hope of greater bodily 
gratification, or worldly gain, is no more really a jusufication in 
One case, than in die other. And tliey believe that the commands 
of God, '* abstain from fleshly lusts, fbodily gratifications) which 
war against the soul;" " as ye woula diat others should do to 
jrou, do ye to them ; " and " thou shah not kill," and many others, 
as really forbid a man's being the occasion of death in one case, 
as in the other. 

Says a distinguished writer,* " I challenge any man who un- 
derstands the . .ature of ardent spirit, and yet, for the sake of gain, 
continues to Ire engaged in the traffic, to show tliat he is not in- 
volved in the ^uilt of murder.'' The money tliat is accumulated 
in this way is now viewed as the price of blood, and when left to 
the children, and scattered by them to tlie four winds of heaven, 
will be spoken of as the inheritance which the Lord hath cursed. 

Another writer,f declares, " They who keep tliese fountains of 
pollution and crime open, are sharers, to no small extent, in the 
g;uilt which flows from them. They may be temperate men 
themselves, but they contribute to make others intemperate. They 
stand at the very source of the evil. They command the gate- 
way of that mighty flood which is spreading desolation through the 
land ; and are chargeable with all the present and everlasting con* 
sequences, no less than the infatuated victim who throws himself 

• LjnMii Boecber, D. D. t Bmy. Samuel Spring. 


ii AMK&iCAff Tc^tpctuNce fociEtir. [138 

upon the bosom of the burning torrent5 and is borne by it into the 
gulf of wo." 

The Rev. Wilbur Fiske, D. D. President of the Wesleysn 
University, Middletown, Conn, in an address to members of 
churches on the immorality of the traffic, says, ^^ It is not enoug)i 
that a majority of the church keep themselves from evil ; if tt^ 
hold the sacred and protecting banner of the church over tboM 
who cause others to sm, they are verily guilty themselves. Tie 
same train of means and causes that have produced the intempet^ 
ate of the past and the present generations are still in operaiiom 
to produce an equal or greater proportion in the next eeneratiomf 
and so on forever ! And what is still worse, the church is ending 
and abettir^ thi^ di{d)olical conspiracy against the bodies cmm 
souls of men ! We had indeed hoped for better things of Chris* 
tians ; but we are obliged to acknowledge the fact. And I appeal 
to the church herself, and ask her in the name of sincerity if she 
can clear herself of the charge i Do not many of her members 
use ardent spirits ? Do they not traffic in the accursed thing ? 
Do they not hold out on their signs invitations to all that pass i^, 
to come and purchase of them the deadly poison? Then indeed 
is the church a partner in this conspiracy' ; for it cannot be de- 
nied that all the drunkenness in the land is produced by what is 
called the temperate use of ardent spirits, 

*' The conclusion, then, is irresistible, and every candid mind 
must feel it, every Christian will feel it, he who by use and traffic 
countenances the practice of drinking ardent spirits, is throwing 
his influence into the work of recruiting the ranks of the intem- 
perate, and renders himself personally responsible for the woes 
that follow. I say, then, on all this moderate drinkers in our land, 
on all that traffic m the accursed thing, rests the wo that God him- 
self hath denounced on him that putteth the cup to his neighbor's 
mouthy and maketh him drunken, 

'* My Christian brotlier, if you saw this trade as I believe God 
sees it, you would sooner beg your bread from door to door, tliao 
gain money by such a traffic. The Christian's dram shop! 
Sound it to yourself. How does it strike your ear ? It is doubt- 
less a choice gem in the phrase-book of Satan ! But how para^ 
doxical ! How shocking to the ear of the Christian ! How o&n- 
sive to the ear of Deity ! Why, the dram shop is the recruiting 
rendezvous of hell ! (If the term shocks you I cannot help it, for 
we all know it is the truth.) And shall a Christian consent to be 
the recruiting officer ? It is here the drunkard is nuide, and you 
pander to his appetite until you have kindled up in his bosom a 
raging fire that can never be quenched — and all this for a little 
money ! — And when you have helped make him a drunkard, and 
he becomes troublesome, you drive him, perhaps, from your 

133] FIFTH REI'OSIT. \^o2. 23 

house or yoiir slrap, declare yn>i luaxn to kc-cp an orderly Ikxisl ! 
express your abliorreiice of dni!ik»r(is ! and iinagine you are in- 
nocent of tiieir blood ! But it is too Jate to talk al>out denying 
him now. The man is niinedy and you have been the instrument. 
Say DOC, if you do not sell, others will. Must you be an ally of Sa- 
Ho, and a destroyer of your race, because others are ? If you 
ktve off selling, you will weaken die ranks of sin, and stren&;then 
dn hands of the righteous. Say not, if you do not sell, it will 
injure your business, and prevent your supporting your family. 
It was said by one, that ' such a statement is a libel upon die Di- 
vine government.' Must you, in<]eed, deal out ruin to your fel- 
low men, or starve ? Then star\'e ! It would be a glorious niar- 
Ijidom contrasted widi the odier alternative. Do not say, 1 sell 
oy the large quantity — I have no tipplers about nie — and therefore 
lam not guilty! You are the chief man in diis business — the 
odiers are only subalterns. You are the ' poisoners e;eneral,' of 
tdiom Mr- Wesley speaks, who murder your lellow citizens by die 
wholesale. But for the retailers to do your drudgery, you would 
have nothing to do. While you stand at die bulk head, and open 
the flood gates, they from diis river of fire draw off die smnll riv- 
ulets, and direct them all over the land, to blight ever)' ho|)e, and 
lum up every green Uiing. The greater your share in the traffic, 
the greater is your guilt. There is no avoiding this conclusion. 
The same reasoning will also apply to die manufacturer. If any 
man has priority of claim to a share in diis work of deadi, it is die 
manufacturer. The church must free herself from this whole 
business. It is aU a sinful work, widi which (^Hirislians should 
have nothing to do, only to drive it from die sacred enclosures of 
the church, and if possible from the earth." 

The Rev. Baxter Dickinson, of Newark, in tho Slate of N. J. 
in addressing makers and venders of ardent spirit, says, '^ You are 
creating and sending out die materials of disorder, crime, pverty, 
disease, and intellectual and moral degradauon. You are contrib- 
uting to perpetuate one of the sorest scourges of our world. And 
the scourge can never be removed till those deadly fires which you 
have kindled are all put out. — ^Without a prophet's vision, I foresee 
the dsiy when the manufacture of intoxicating drink for common 
distribution, will be classed with die arts of counterfeiting and for- 
ger}', and the maintenance of houses of midnight revelry and )x>llu- 
iion. — Upon the dwellings you occu|)y, upon the fields you enclose, 
upon the spot that entombs your ashes, diere will be fixed an in- 
describable gloom and odioiisness, to ofTenci the eye an J sicken die 
heart of a virtuous community, uli your memory shall perish. Quit, 
then, diis vile business, and spare your name, spare your family, spare 
)iour childrei/s children such insupportable shame and reproach.'* 

And he might have added, spare yourself too die insupportable 


anguish of meeting, at the tribunal of God, those whom 7011 have 
polluted, debased, and ruined. All, who, by the 6ery potsoo 
which you have furnished, have ripened for the fire that never can 
be quenched, will meet you at the judgment day, and pour out 
upon you, as accessories to their ruin, their deep and awful execra- 
tions ! Nor do they always delay till the light of eternity awakes 
them. A man who had been furnished by his neighbor with the 
means of destruction, and been brought by it to the verge of the 
grave^ was visited, in his last moments, by tlie author of his ruin; 
who asked him, whetlier he rememberea him. The dying man, 
forgetting his struggle with the king of terrors, said, " Yes, 1 re- 
member you, and I remember your store, where I formed »he 
habit which has ruined me for this world and the next. And 
when I am dead and gone, and yon come and take from my 
widow and fatherless children the shattered remains of my proper- 
ty to pay my rum debts, they too will remember you." And be 
added, as they were both members of the same church, " Yes, 
brother, we shall all remember you, to all eternity." And it 
might be added, he too, will remember them, and will remember 
what he did, for the sake of money to bring tlieir husband and fa- 
ther and his own brother in the church, to the drunkard's grave ; 
and to take from the widow and fatherless not merely property 
but that which no wealth can purchase ; and which when taken, 
no power on earth can restore. And he may remember himself 
too, as the author, the guilty, polluted, execrable author of mis- 
chief which eternity cannot repair ; and which may teach him, in 
deeper and deeper wailings, tliat it profits a man nothing to gain 
the world, and lose his soul ; or be accessory to the k>ss of the 
souls of others. 

The Rev. Df. Beecher, in addressing the young men of Boston 
said, '' The dealers in this liquid poison of ardent spirit may be com- 

S)ared to men who should advertise for sale, consumptions, aiui 
evers, and rheumatisms, and palsies, and apoplexies. But would 
our public authorities permit such a traffic? No— The pnbUc 
voice would be heard at once, for the punishment of such ene- 
mies of our race ; and the rulers that would not take speedy ven- 
geance would be execrated and removed. But now the men wtio 
deal out this slow poison are licensed by law ; and they talk abcut 
their constitutional rights, and plead that they are pursuing their 
lawful callings. But does the law of God, or the good of society 
admit of an employment to decoy the unwary, and murder the 
innocent ? yet these traffickers in the blood of men, tell us that this 
work of death is their livings their means of supporting their fam- 
ilies ; and that others will prosecute the business if they decline it. 
But can they imagine that God will prosper such a course for the 
destniction of their fellow beings ? or that he has so constituted 

135] FIFTH RRPORT. 1833. 2d 

things as to render ihe transgression of his laws the necessary 
means of famiiy subsistence ? Should a class of persons attempt to 
dig pit-falls in our public streets, to insnnrc the passengers ; oi 
should they make use of blood-hounds to tear and devour our 
peaceful citizens^ or should they hire a company of cut-throats to 
drag out our young men from their peaceful homes, and murder 
diem in our streets ; how long may we suppose the authorities oi 
our city would endure such ravagers and spoilers ^ But where lies 
the di&rence in criminality between the dram -seller who adminis- 
ters uie slow, but certain death, and the public murdeiei ? The 
former is licensed in his wickedness, by law, the other must be 
hanged.^ Over every grog-shop, says Jude^c Daggett, should be 
written, in great capitals, " The way to h^l, going down to ike 
chambers ojdeatk.^'* Nor have such appeals, which, during the 
past year have been multiplied from all pans of the country, been 
m vam. Hundreds of distilleries have been stopped, and thousands 
of merchants have given up the traffic. And those who have not, 
are becoming daily more and more criminal, often in their own 
view, and more often in the view of others. A disrinin^ishod gen- 
deman from one of our principal cities writes, " DistilN i.-, retailers, 
and drunkards are culprits here in the eyes of all sober men." Th^ 
remark is new common, that h is as wicked to kill a man, by one 
kind of poison, as by another. And the conviction is setding 
down upon the public mind, that he who continues knowingly to do 
it in any way, is, in the sight of God a murderer, and as such 
will be held responsible at his tribunal. The opinion of .Judge 
Cranch, withnregard to the criminality of furnishing ardent spirit, 
as a drink, is, with conscientious and enlightened men, fast becom- 
bg co^nmon. " 1 know, that the cup is poisoned — ^I know that it 
may cause death — ^that it may cause more than death — that it 
may lead to crime, to sin — to the tortures of everlasting remorse. 
Am I not then a murderer^ worse than a murderer? as much 
worse as the soul is better than the body?" — "If ardent spirits, 
were nothing worse than a deadly poison — if they did not excite 
and inflame all the evil passions — if they did not dim that heav- 
enly lidit which the Almighty has implanted in our bosoms 
to guide us through the obscure passages of our pilgrimage — if 
diey did not quench the Holy Spirit in our hearts, they would 
be compardUvely harmless. It is their moral effect — it is the 
ruin of the soul which the y produce, that renders them so dread- 
ful. The difference between death by simple poison, and death by 
habitual intoxication, may extend to the whole difference between 
everlasting happiness, and eternal death." Multitudes, increasing 
rapidly, now say, with the gentlemen who compose the committee 
of the New York State Temperance Society, " Disguise that busi- 
ness as they will, it is stilK in its true character, the business of de- 

3 11* 



8li*oying the bodies and the souls of men. The vender and the 
maker of spirit, in llie wliole range of them from the pettiest grocer 
to the most extensive distiller, are fairly chargeable not only with 
supplying the appetite for spirit, but \vith creating that unnatural ap> 
petite ; not only with supplying the drunkard with the fuel of hia 
vices, but with making the drunkard." * And they are fairly 
chargeable too with being accessories to all the mischief, and ac- 
complices in all the guilt which flows from it. Nor is tlie commu- 
nity any longer to be blinded, and put off by the stale plea, that 
they do not know that ihey produce such effects, and do not in- 
tend to kill men, by their employment. The fact is, they do 
know ; or if they did not hate the light, and shut their eyes against 
it, would know. The evidence is before the public, and accessible 
to any man. It is now proved by facts which no impartial man can 
gainsay or resist, that ardent spirit as a drink is "not necessary, not 
useful, not harmless, and not safe ; that it is a poison both to the 
body and the mind ; Uiat it causes a great portion of all the crimes 
and wretchedness in our land; that it hinders the efficacy of the 
gospel, and often ushers men, in a state of drunkenness and not 
unfrequently with blasphemy on their tongues, into a boundless eter- 
nity. Providence has exhibited facts on diis subject, which are de- 
cisive ; ns well might a man contiinue to discharge grape-shot among 
multitudes of people, or poison their wells of water, and say that 
he does not know diat he shall kill ; or to circulate among tliem 
aUieistical and immoral books, and say tliat he does not intend to 
destroy, and expect therefore to be excused, — as to expect it, while 
he continues to furnish them as a drink with ardent spirit. The 
community will look at the results of his actions, and fasten u}X)n 
him their odiousncss and guilt. Nor arc they any longer to be 
misled by the sophistical declaration applied to this subject, that the 
abuse of a thing is no argument against its use ; for all use of ar- 
dent spirit as a drink, is now known to be an abuse. It is now 
known to be mischievous as a drink, under all circumstances. It 
is now known, on every organ it touches to operate as a poison ; 
nowhere in the human body is it allowed even a lodgement till the 
vital powers are so far prostrated that it cannot be removed : " It 
produces weakness, not strength ; sickness, not health ; death, not 
life." The use of it therefore is branded as a sin ; and the fur- 
nishing of it, for the use of others, as a still greater sin. 

There is another view of this subject which is becoming com- 
mon, viz. That the traffic in ardent spirit is a business which is 
unjust toward the community. Here, for instance, is a county 
which has in it a thousand drunkards ; a great portion of them 
paupers, of course ; and are, or soon will be, with their childreiif 

* Second Report of the New York State Temperance Society, p. 96. 

187J nrTH bepobt. — 1832. 27 

dirown as a burden upon the public. The pro6t of making these 
paupers is enjoyed by a few grocers, but die burden of supporting 
them comes ou the whole community. By what theory of politi- 
cal economy, or what principle of correct legislation, can it be 
shown that there is not, in this, horrible injustice. Do the men 
who carry on the business say, that they pay a bonus to the govern- 
ment, and by it increase the revenue of the State, and thus in some 
measure compensate the community for the mischief which they 
do to it ? Let us examine this plea. Here is a town of a thou- 
sand people, tn it is a retailer who sells ardent spirit to all who 
wiD buy ; and thus causes a great portion of all the pauperism 
and wretchedness in the place. And what does he pay for ihui 
burdening the community with taxes, and bringing upon it a liost 
of other evils? The paltry sum of one dollar.* And are the 
comrounit}' to be told that therefore this business is not unjust ? 
that as he pays four dollars, it is just that he should increase more 
than four-fold their paupers and their criminals ; augment gready 
their diseases, expose their children to drunkenness and ruin r Oa 
what principle of righteousness can it be shown to be just for him, 
ibr one dollar, to burden tliat community with ten tinoes that sura, 
and bring upon it evils, for which no money can compensate. In 
one town, tnrough which our Secretary passed, tliere was but one 
man who sold ardent spirit, and he witS a member of the church. 
There were one fourth as many drunkards in that place as their 
were families ; and he supplied theni all. He supplied, also, all 
moderate drinkers wiUi tnat which is adapted to make them 
drunkards, to ruin their ch'ddren, and to perpetuate a drunkard 
to every four families to all future generatipiis. At one time his 
own son, in the bouse and business of his father, was dealing out 
this poison, and partaking of it himself, till h^ became so poisoned 
that he could not stand ; and was carried home to his heart-broken 
wife and children, in a state of intoxication. This you say is hor- 
rible — horrible. It is, indeed. Yet it is the very business in 
iriiich are many church members, even in New England. Some 
of this character have, the last year, been admitted to the churches, 
who are as really accessory to the making of drunkards, as was this 
roan. If they do not make drunkards of their own children, they 
do of the chQdren of others. And tbe committee cannot but deep- 
ly r^ret that Boston, the metropolis of the pilgrims, exalted by 
UesBiiiei to heaven, and which ought to be a light and a glory to 
afl lands, fdiould have churches in which there are members, who 
make it a business to stand at tliese poisonous fountains, and pour out 
streams of death over the community ; thus teaching by business, the 

• The HUD paid hf • raUuI«r, in the State of Blaaachasettf, for a liceuM to mI 



most impressive way, that for men to buy and use ardent spirit, is 
right ; a doctrine that has probably, during the past century, pol- 
luted more hearts, beggared mpre families, destroyed more lives, 
and ruined more souls, than any other heresy or crime whatever. 
And so long as the churches shall connive at such deadly evils io 
their members, may they expect to be visited with the witberin| 
curse of the Almighty. They cannot hold the protecting banner of 
the cross over such enormities, and escape the blasting indignation 
of Him who bled upon it, to redeem unto himself a peculiar peo- 
le, zealous only of good works. Not only are they ruining meo 
y thousands for the next world, but most unjustly and cruelly 
loadine the community with tremendous burdens in this. 

In me city of Washington, 225 venders of spirit paid for the 
privilege of selling it, about $6000, annually. The pecuniary has 
to the cidzens from the use of it. Judge Cranch has estimated at not 
less than j^60,000. And were all me losses which result from it 
taken into the account, he says that the amount would probably be 
doubled. Here then, supposing this estimate to be correct, b a 
community suffering a loss of $120,000 annually, to obtain the 
paltry revenue of $6000. 

And are those who receive no profits from the sale of ardent 
spirit to be told that it is just that tney should endure these evils; 
and bear these burdens ? This will not be believed. Thousands 
who have no wish for such a law, still ask, " Was n law ever enacted 
more perfecriy righteous, than one which should require that die 
men who alone have the profits of making drunkards, should alone 
bear the burden of supporting them." And so long as this is not 
the case, the business will be reprobated, by an enlightened com- 
munity, as palpably unjust, and as highly criminal. And even 
should those who traffic in ardent spirit support all tlie paupers 
they make, still the law of Grod would condemn the employment; 
because it is injurious, m all its connections, to the spintud good 
of men. And they cannot continue to prosecute it, without fasten- 
mg upon the public mind the convicdon that they are notorious^ 
wicked men ; men who, for their own pecuniary profit, will know- 
in|^y and perseveringly curse the community. 

As certainly as the nature of man contbues the same, and light 
on this subject continues to increase, this conviction will extend, 
till it shall become universal. It fastens, even now, upon the 
seared conscience of many a retailer himself. Said one, who du- 
ring the past year renounced this traffic, laying his hand on bis 
heart, "You can't think what a load I have eot off here.** He 
had been the whole round of excuses, ibr continuing the business ; 
had persevered in the contest between covetousness and con- 
science, until he had fought every inch of ground ; but, ^* I 
ave lain awake/' said he, << night after oight, and nigltt afiei 

139 J FIFTH BEPORT. — 1632. 29 

nighty thinking of it.'' Thinking of what ? That he was engaged 
in a work of death ; that for the wretchedness, temporal and eter* 
naly which he was occasioning, he must answer at the tribunal of 
God — ^thinking that it would profit him nothing to gain tlie world 
and lose his soul ; or be instrumental ia destroying the souls of' 
others. Yes, he lay awake night after night, thinking of it. It is 
the detenninadon of God, that nicn shall ihiiikoCix. His provi- 
dence is pressing it upon dieir minds. Light has penetrated even 
the thick darkness which surrounds the distiller's conscience and die 
wholesale dealer's. While furnishing by hogsheads and careoes, 
what Robert Hall called '' distilled death, and liquid damnation," 
a dreadful sound has been in their ears, crying, *^ although sen- 
tence against an evil work is not executed speedily, yet judgment 
of a bng time lingereth not, and damnauon slumbereth not.'^ 
The Holy Ghost, in many cases, has convinced them of sin, of 
righteousness, and of judgment. And where the heart of the fa- 
ther has not been touched, his children often have prayed and 
wept over his approaching ruin. '' Father," said a son, with tear- 
ful emotion, " are you going to sell any more rum ? I should not 
think you woidd.— Oh, I hope you will not." He trembled lest 
he should witness his own fatlier, stained with the guilt of bk)od 
He abhorred the thought of his providing, by such an emplovment, 
even bread for his children. While eatmg it, they might feel, as 
if tbey were living upon the tears and groans of other children. 
Nor aire such feehngs with regard to this business, without good 
reasons. In the State of New York alone, in the course of a few 
weeks^ not less than four men, under the influence of ardent spirits 
murdered their wives, and with their own hands made their chil- 
dren orphans. And shall other children wish to live on the gains 
of such a business ? or parents by it to provide bread for dieir 
cluldren? Can their children desire that they should lay up 
money, or even support them, by that which leaves other cliildren. 
who need support as much as they, without parents? One of 
these men put to death not only his wife, but six of his children. 
With his own hand, under the influence of this poison, which some 
man for a trifle bad sold him, be could butcher his offspring, and 
place one of them to broil to death on die fire of his own hearth. 
And shall other children wich their parents to sell it ? Shall any 
of those, who, under the light of the Bible, are rising through sab- 
bath schools, into life, ever think for a moment, of engaging In 
such an employment, or wish to have their parents conUnue in it ? 
b it strange that they beseech their fathers with tears, as diey 
value the favor of God, and would escape his righteous indigna- 
tion, to renounce it ? 

The Judge, in passing sentence upon one of the unhappy men 
whose children had by hb own hand been rendered momerless. 


said, '' By one fatal act your wife was sent to the cold and silent 
mansions of the dead ; your children were deprived of all the en- 
dearments and fostering care of tlieir mother, and you are fated 
to expiate your offence upon a gallows. Upon a review of this 
shockmg transaction, the question naturally presents itself, what 
could so have perverted your nature ? what could so have steeled 
your heart ? The answer is, — spirituous liquor. It has had the 
effect to estrange you from the most endearing relation, from the 
ties of blood, from your obligations to your fellow beings and to yoiir 
Creator. If any further evidence were wanting to manifest the deso- 
lating effects of ardent spirits which have moved like a destroying 
angel over our land, we have it in the astounding fact, that within 
the last two months, three men have been arraigned before me, on 
charges of murdering their wives : each of these offences was com- 
mitted by intenraperate men."* 

As another Judge was passing sentence of death upon anoth- 
er of these unhappy men, a spectator remarks, " When the allu- 
sion was made to the tender and thrilling circumstance of his vic- 
tim, being not only a defenceless woman, but his own confiding 
wife, the mother of ibis own children, who was, at the moment of 
receiving the fatal blow from his hand, giving sustenance to his 
am: ling infant, folded in her arms y and of her being found by the 
neighbors, after the lifiurderer had fled, literally weltering in Iier 
own blood, and in the very agonies of death, stiU folding the cline- 
mg babe to her bosom, with a maternal fondness tliat neither crud- 
ty nor death could overcome ; I say, when these circumstances 
were alluded to, a shdck passed over his system too heavy for con- 

" A sudden flash and rapid roll of the eye showed a living sen- 
sibility in him, which even drunkenness and crime had not the 
power to extinguish. But it was momentary. He soon recover- 
ed himself, and heard again, like one who has been accustomed to 
Blaster compunctions of conscience, until he was referred to the 
awful retributions of eternity, and reminded that his only hope was 
in speedy repentance and humbling himself before God, when 
another shudder came over him, too powerful not to be noticed, 
A strong emotion, in spite of resistance, rose in his soul, at the 
thought of eternity, and its retribution to the murderer. But, ex- 
cept in tliese two instances, it was not seen that Holt felt more than 
others. He stood there, at once a living victim to his ruling vice, 
intemperance ; and a living demonstration of its hardening, petrify- 
ing influence upon all that is dignified and lovely in our being, and 
€it its certain tendency to obliterate the last trace of humanity and 

* Judge Edwards* sentence of death upon James RanflDm. 

141] FIFTH REPORT. 1832. 31 

of kindly feeKn^ from our nature, and to transform a man, a hus- 
band, a father, mto the veriest monster in the universe. 

'* Holt was the keeper of a tippling shop, and himself a tippler. 
All ! this tells the story ! let those, then, who are so far followbg 
in lus steps be warned, and beware lest they overtake him in his 

" Paul B. Torrey, of Naples, N. Y. in a fit of intoxication on 
Sunday, the 17th iust. after cruelly beating his own son, took him by 
the kgs and dashed his head against the side of the house with such 
vkdence, as to break the wall, and then with a boot-jack beat the 
poor child's head literally to a jelly. The dead body was discov- 
ered on Monday afternoon. The murderer is m jail at Canandai^a. 
Torrey was addicted to intemperance. His wife was driven nrom 
bis house some time since. He was a merchant, as we learn 
from a house in this city, with whom he dealt, m good standing. 
AH this unutterable anguish comes from the detestable habit of 
drinking." — Albany paper. 

A gentleman firom rortsea, England, writes, **I was called yester- 
di^ to a house in the neighborhood, where a man had just mur- 
dared his wife ; the purple gore was yet flowing, and life was not 
extinct, when I arrived. The husband was in a state of intoxica- 
tioo, and his wife speedily expired, from a wound inflicted by him, 
with a sboe-maker s knife. They were both drunkards. I at- 
tended the inquest : the verdict returned, was, ' wilful murder.' 
Hie day before, a child was burnt to death by its clothes taking 
fire. The father and mother, at the time it took place, were both 
JO drunk that they could not assist the little suflTerer." 

In view of such facts, which might be recounted for hours, the 
community wiU apply the principle maintained by the distinguish- 
ed legislator referred to, that " the man who holds out the temp- 
tation, is tlie chief transgressor." For cents and sixpences, he 
win thus knowingly sport with the lives and souls of his fellow 

On a certain day, during the past year, one of these men sold 
his neighbor, who, with his wife and son about 22 years old, had 
been intemperate, some New England rum. The next day an 
altercation took place betwen the son and his mother. He told 
h^ if she would furnish him with a rope he would hang himself. 
Hie rope was procured, and a few rods from the house, he suspend- 
ed himself from a tree. In that situation a neighbor discovered him, 
and mformed his mother that her son was dead. She said she 
was glad of it, and hoped he was in hell. While the man was gone 
Id call otliers, she made her way to tlie spot, where her son hung, a 
Ifeless corpse, took a bottle from his coat pocket, and drank her- 
self to intoxication. Not many months after, her husband was 
faund on the floor of iiis house, m which state it is supposed he had 


been 24 hours, dead. And what did that man get probably for 
the rum which he sold them ? Perhaps thirty cents. And for 
that paltry sum, he is to be held etenially responsible for its effects. 
•* Such painful effects," says a writer on the spot, who conversed 
with this woman on the death of her son, *' speak loudly and im- 
pressively ; and I hope will excite all the friends of temperance to 
increased devotedness in a cause, which so directly involves the 
present and eternal welfare of mankind." 

In anotlier case, a man sold to a man and woman a pint of 
ardent spirit. They drank a part of it, and made their way to- 
ward a pond, in which they were both shortly after found dead, 
with tlieir clotlies and their bottle lying together on the shore. 
And how much did that man get for thus being accessory to the 
death of two of his fellow men ? perhaps six cents. So tn:e is it, 
that men who call themselves s6ber, humane, and who sometimes 
even profess religion, for cents and sixpences will destroy the 
bodies and souls of their fellow men. 

To one individual was committed at one time on board a 
steam-boat the care of a hundred and twenty persons. Some 
one, for a mere pittance, sold him some ardent spirh; under its in- 
fluence he was caUed to encounter a storm. Night approached, 
danjger became imminent, and being near the |X)rt the passen- 
gers besought him to return. ** No, said he, if we go back we 
shall have no profit." And for three hours he held those passen- 
gers in danger of dettth ; and when entreated to make signals of 
distress, he utterly refused ; and would not even hang out a light; 
althcugli by doing it, the prospect was tliat aH might be saved ; 
tnd by not doing it, that all would be lost. The vessel struck 
«pon a rock, and fifty persons were plunged into the s^a. And, 
as if in judgment, the first among them, was the captam himself. 
And there, amidst the foaming billows, more than a hundred persons 
found a watery grave, — all apparently occasioned by ardent 
spirit. Says a passenger who was saved, " the captain was in- 
toxicated all tlie way." And what did the person who sold him 
the liquor get for thus being accessory to the loss of more than a 
hundred lives ? And what will it avail him in the day when he 
must answer for the iYiflufence of his business upon the world ? 
Will it screen him from the accusation of the slam, the stings of 
an accusing conscience, and the burning indignation of an in- 
censed God, to say. If he had not done it, somebody else would ? 

From a similar cause, thousands of lives are wantonly sacrificed, 
and property to an almost incredible amount, buried in the ocOan, 
every year. And shall the men who are knowingly accessory, 
lliink to escape the execrations of earth, or heaven? 

A merchant from one of our principal sea-ports remarks, "1 
sent out a vessel under an express agreement that no ardent spirit 

145] nrrH abport. — 1832. 33 

^ould be taken on board. I had suffered so many losses from 
it, that I resolved never to permit it to be taken on board again. 
The captain, in violation of his agreement, when about to return 
took on board four gallons of brandy, which lasted him about four 
weeks; and that four gallons of brandy cost me $4000. A great 
proportion of all tlie shipwrecks on the ocean are occasioned by 
it. I hardly ever sufiered a loss at sea, or had vessels meet with 
disasters, where this was not the cause; and I am resolved 
never to send out another vessel under the command of a man, 
who will either use, or furnish it." 

So strongly marked are the facts, that such are now becoming 
the sentiments of respectable merchants throughout tlie country. 
More than five hundred vessels are afloat, which do not carry ar- 
dent spirit ; and they will outride storms which will shipwreck a 
great portion of the vessels that do. Insurance offices, have, in 
8CMne cases on such vessels, di^ninished the rate of insurance five 
per cent. And the time, it is hoped, is not distant when the use 
of ardent spirit by officers or crews, in case of the loss of vessels, 
shall be a forfeiture of the insurance. 

Nor is the change more striking or beneficial, in the merchant 
service than in the. Navy. An order was issued by the Secreta- 

Sr of the Navy, directing that each man on board the United 
tates vessels, who should relinquish his grog ration, should re- 
ceive as an eauivalent six cents a day. An officer on board the 
sloop of war John Adams, in a letter dated Syracuse, Jan. 1st, 
18^, writes, *^ Since the Secretary's letter respecting grog rations 
has been read to the men, we have not had more than forty on 
board who drew their grog, and to-day they all stopped it, except 

Ckmimodore Biddle, who commands the Mediterranean squad- 
ron, in a letter to the Secretary of the Navy, states that the whole 
number of persons in the squadron, exclusive of commissioned 
and warrant officers, is 1107 ; and that 819 have stopped their 
allowance of spirits ; and that on board the sloop of war John 
Adams, not a man draws his grog. And a gentleman from Syra- 
cuse writes that not an officer on board draws his rations of spirits ; 
and that there is much zeal among them, in the temperance cause. 
Similar changes have taken place on board other ships. One 
b now fitting out at Washington, and every man, before he goes 
aboard of her, voluntarily pledges himself to abstain from the use 
of ardent spirit, and receives m lieu of his rations of grog, an 
equivalent in cash. No man not disposed thus- to pledge himself, is 
received. And there can be no doubt that the proctice of furnisb- 
mg ardent spirit by the government, and tluis uitliout benefit, and 
at a great expense exciting tlie men to violate the conunancls of 
ibeir officers, tempu'ng tl^eiu to form intemperate habits, and reu- 



dering them unfit for the public service ; corrupting their morals, 
increasing their diseases, shortening their hves, and mining th<Hr 
souls, will ere long in the Navy, as well as the Army, be done 
away. Millions now unite with that member of Congress, who, in 
addressing the head of the War Department on the subject of 
Temperance, said, *' It may be quickened by what I trust will be 
its next great step, the relinquishment, through enlightened and 
patriotic feelings, of ardent spirit by our gallant army and navy. 

" Those who have had experience in both, have officiaUy declared 
that the greatest difficulties they had to encounter, have arisen from 
the daily rations of spirit to the soldier or sailor. The physician 
says that it is not promotive of heahh, but that it weakens the 
energies, engenders diseases, and destroys life. Why then should 
it be given at all to the gallant men who bear our banner upoo 
tlie land and the wave, arid who have the glories of their fathers 
past achievements in keeping? The smi^ quanti^ of ardent 
spirit allowed creates an appetite for more, and it often happens, 
in both army and navy, that a month's pay of the men is spent for 
the means of intoxication. In our little army of 5642 men, there 
have been, it is stated, 5832 courts martial, within five years ; of 
^ich five sixtlis are chargeable to intemperance ; and also 4049 
desertions of which almost all are chargeable to intemperance* 
Desertion alone has cost the United States $336,616 in five years. 
Add to this the declension of moral feeling, the disease and pre- 
mature deaths produced, and what a hideous aggregate does it 
give of the ravages of intemperance.— What has been done, it 
was right and best to do gradually. Btit now strike boldly in 
unison with the public tone; fulfil its expectation; recommend 
the entire disuse of spirits, and receive from your countrymen the 
praise of not being statesmen alone, but statesmen and benefactors. 
Give us your aid to bring upon men almost the brightness of the 
world's first morning.'* 

A distinguished officer of the army, m a letter to our Secretary, 
says, '* I am under great obligations to you for the Fourth Report 
of the American Temperance Society ; and I feel myself highly 
honored in having been made a member of that truly benevolent 
institution* When I arrived here, I question whether there were 
three men who abstained whoUy from the use of ardent spirits— 
now, more than three fourths of our whole number are members of 
a Temperance Society, on the principle of entire abstinence. They 
hold regular meetings once a fortnight, at which, one of their num- 
ber reads an essay or tract on intemperance. The effect has 
been just what I anticipated — a manifest improvement in the ap- 
pearance, spirits, and conduct of the soldiers. Instead of the stu- 

* Hon. Jamei Bi WajnM. 

I46J . . FIFTH UPOBT« — 1832. 35 

pkl and bloated visage, is now seen the cheerful and healthy coun- 
tenance— -where was wrangling and strife is good humor and play- 
fulness — and insubordination and negligence have given place to 
cheerful obedience and prompt attention to dnty. Not a member 
of the society, which is of six weeks* standing, has been confined 
in the guard-house, and such has been its influence even upon 
others, that but two men of the whole command have been con- 
fined since the society was established. I hardly need to add tliat 
the offence, in both cases, was intoxication — while, before the soci- 
ety was formed, the average number of men confined was three 
in twenty-four hours ; so that there were as many men confined 
before in one day, as are now confined in six weeks. — Since 
the formation of the society no desertion has occurred ; while dur- 
ing the month preceding its formation^ five men deserted — I must 
believe that the difference is mainly to be attributed to the teniper- 
ance reformation. — ^I am more than ever convinced that were a 
judicious friend of temperance to visit the various military posts, 
and exert himself in this truly benevolent cause, his efibrts would 
save the government thousands, and the members of the army from 
incalculable evils." 

And who can doubt, after reading the above statement, that 
this would be the case ; when as many men were confined in tlie 
guard-house m one day before the temperance society was form- 
ed, as were afterwards in six weeks ; and when the number of 
desertions was diminished in a still gieater proportion } Thus in- 
dicating tliat the officers have more than forty times as much trou- 
ble with men who use ardent spirit, as with men who do not. 
Od what principle, then, of prudence or economy, patriotism, or 
even humanity, can the government continue to furnish it, or li- 
cense men to sell it to the soldier or the seaman } Just views on 
this subject, the committee are sure, must cause a practice produc- 
tive of no benefit, and fraught with such numerous and alarming evils, 
to be abolished ; and they rejoice to find that a change has taken 
place in other countries on this subject similar to what has been ef- 
fected in our own. The British government has ceased to furnish 
ardent spirit for their armies throughout their provinces ; and to a 
great extent it is relinquished on board many vessels in the British 
navy. And if the friends of God and man do their duty, the prac- 
tice of furnishing it in any case will ere long cease throughout the 

Manufactories of every description are now carried on, canals 
and rail-roads are constructed, and lawful business of every sort, 
and by constantly increasing numbers, is conducted, and with grc^y 
increased advantage, without the use of ardent spirit. In the erec- 
tion of the Massachusetts Lunatic Asylum, the state commission- 
ers say, that more tlian eleven hundred thousand brick have beun 


laid during the past year ; that not an accident has happened ; that 
not an hour's time has been lost by the indisposition of any of the 
workmen ; and that not a drop of ardent spirit has been cojistim- 
ed in the performance. Such facts are becoming common in the 
greatest and most difficult works, and the conviction is extending, 
that should this course be adopted by all, and in all kinds of busi- 
ness, on the land and on the water, the benefits would be unspeak- 
able to our country and the world. 

Another point on which great advance has been made during 
the past year in the public sentiment, is^ the immorality of the 
use of ardent spirit, and also the traffic in it, arising from its de- 
structive infkience on the sotd. Facts have been developed 
which are adapted to impress strongly on the mind, the conviction 
that the use ot ardent spirit, and especially the traffic in it, tends 
in a peculiar manner to olind the understandmg, to sear the con- 
science, to harden the heart, and corrupt and ruin the whole 
character. Those cold-blooded, long continued, and often re- 
peated murders which have been committed for the purpose of 
obtaining money by the sale of the bodies of the murdered for an- 
ati^mical dissection, have uniformly been committed in connectioB 
with the use and sale of ardent spirit. 

And, says an energetic writer,* " The evil effects of ardent 
spirits are not exhibited alone on those who drink them. The 
very traffic stands unrivalled, for its hardening and debasing influ- 
ence, on those engaged in its operations. Who that has been 
conversant with the pollutions of the petty grog-shop, grocery, or 
tavern, does not recollect the cold-blooded barbarity and cupidity 
which has been exhibited by its keeper, who doles to his dninken 
revelers, with a calculating air — and whose sole care is, the profit 
of his establishment ? Many of us have witnessed its effects on a 
higher order of dealers. It is, even in this vicinity, not unfrequently 
the case, that the bread-stuffs, which are worse, infinitely worse 
than annihilated, by their conversion into whiskey, will command 
a price on account of scarcity, nearly equal to what can be real- 
ized by distillation, and yet, the accursed machinery must be kept 
in motion, if by the process, one copper is to be gained — although 
the hungering and helpless poor are pining for the very dregs, 
which the distiller flings to his swine. And how often has this 
same distiller furnished the means of drunkenness to the worthless 
master of a family, and refused his suflering wife and children tlie 
very amount of bread, which, in the form of whiskey, has served 
only to make a brutal husband more brutish — and which might 
iiave daddened the hearts of a whole family. 

^' Who does not shudder at the appalling disclosures, in relation to 

« Jobn L. Chandler^ M. D. 

147J IIFTH B£PORT. 1832. 37 

the deeds perpetrated in the grog-shops and groceries of Edin- 
burgh i Burke and his associates, if I mistake not, were one or 
more of diem the keepers of these establishments. They had 
been long practised in the arts by which the lower classes are en- 
trapped in such resorts — and thus successfully plundered of their 
last shilling. After the wretched victim had ceased to be a pro6t- 
able customer, he was plied with liquor — perhaps gratuitously, 
until be became stupi6ed and insensible — and tlien, in darkness 
and privacy — was suffocated. And for what purpose ? That his 
body might be sold to tlie schools of anatomy or surgery — ^for the 
sum of ten — ^perhaps of ttoenty dollars I I challenge the annals 
of the world to furnish a parallel to tliis monstrous combination of 
ai-arice and blood ; and I charge it, fearlessly, upon the traffic in 
ardent spirits.^' 

The British and Foreign Temperance Society, in their last Re- 
port, say, '* We cannot m this place, adduce the numerous and 
aHfecting proofs of the necessity of a reformation. It may be suffi- 
cient to mention the affecting loss of the Rothsay Casde \* and the 
discovery of murders of so horrible a character, that no word bad 
been found in the English language to describe tlieur atrocity ; and 
it should be remembered that die indispensable instrument for 
brutalizing the perpetrators, and for preparing their victims, was 
intoxicating liquor." And here it should not be forgotten that these 
fiends m human shape did not drink to intoxication ; but only to 
8uch an extent, as they thought needful to fit them for their busi- 
ness ; on the same principle as to nuantity, which governs other 
moderate drinkers, viz. to take only as much as is adapted, in 
their esdraation, to fit them for their work. And can the use 
and the traffic in ardent spirit stand thus connected with such 
deeds of darkness, and tend to fit men to perpetrate them, and 
not be adapted to destroy their souls ? 

In February, our Secretary issued die following circular, viz. 

*^It b known to all persons who are acquainted with the 
churches of Christ in the United States, diat an unusual number 
of persons have been admitted to many of them during the past 
year. The American Temperance Society is desirous of ascer- 
taining concerning those churches, the following particulars, viz. 

1. Are there any persons in them who traffic in ardent spirit? 
If so, how many ? 

2. What proportion of the persons who have been admitted to 
those churches, during the past year, do not use it ? 

3. What proportion of the whole population to whom tlie gos- 
pel b preached in the town or parish abstain from the use of it ? 

* In which more than one himdred peraons lost their lives, thcongh the infla- 
caofUqooroaoneman. 4 12* 


If the ministers of those churches, when they make their* re- 
turns to the various ecclesiastical bodies with which tli?y are cod- 
nected, will answer the above questions ; or the friends of Tem- 
perance will answer them with regard to any particular county, 
or any number of parishes, in the public papers, or by letter to 
the subscriber, they will promote the cause of Temperance, and 
perform an important service to the community. 

Justin Edwards, 
Cor. Sec. Am. Temp. Society.^* 

In consequence of the above, one man writes, that the number 
of inhabitants in the town in which he lives is about thirty-six hun- 
dred ; the number over twelve years of age who abstain from the 
use of ardent spirit, about sixteen hundred ; and the number who 
belong to the Temperance Society, about twelve hundred. Of 
the sixty persons who, at the close of 1830, were members of the 
Temperance Society, but not hopefully pious, more than half have 
since become so. 

Another man states, that of about fifteen hundred souls in his 
parish, he should think that three fourths abstain from the use of 
ardent 3pirit; that frotn those three fourths more than seventy 
made a profession of religion, and were admitted to the church 
in one day, while from the other fourth there were only three : 
and that as many, lackine two, have been admitted to the church 
during tlie past year, as lor twenty years before. 

Another man writes, that in his parish, about two fifths of the 
population abstain from the use of ardent spirit ; that during the 
past year more than one hundred and fifty have become hopefuUy 
devoted to God ; and, although as well acquainted with tliem as 
any man in the place, he knows of but two, who had not prevknis- 
ly given up the use of ardent spirit. As a general thing, he says, 
ail who appeared to experience the power of the gospel were 
from the ranks of Temperance. Others, in some cases, appeared 
to become almost christians, who were in the habit of using a~ 
little ardent spirit, but they have gone back ; and the impression 
among thos^ who understand their case is, this habit was tlie cause 
of their failing of the grace of life. Within a year and a half 
there have been admitted to the church, or are now on probation 
for admission one hundred and thirty ; being a greater number 
than had been added to it for twenty years before ; and nearly all 
were from the two fifths who had renounced the use of strong 

Another man states, that in his parish about two thirds of tlie 

Eeople use no ardent spirit ; tliat during the past year about thirty 
ave become hopefully pious, and all from those who had adopted 
the plait of abstinence from the use of spirituous liquors. Others 
bad their attention arrested, find for a time inquired with deep 

I49J riPTH REPORT. — 1832. ^*J 

anxiety what they should do to bo saved. But they hnv,^ ii'.l 
again become careless, and are nowr stupid in sin. 

Anollier man states, that of more tlian forty, and anoiliKP tir;t 
of more than four hundred, who have apparently passed i\\y>:\ 
death unto life, there was' not one who was not a friend to tiie 
Temperance cause. 

Another man, who, since October 1830^ has visited three hundred 
towns in which special efforts have been made for tlie promotion 
of temperance, states, that of those, who, in September, IS.)- >, 
were not hopefully pious, but belonged to temperance societies, 
six-tenths profess, smce that time, to have devoted themselves to 
Gckl ; and that of those who did not belong to such societies, and 
have since become hopefully pious, eight-tenths have imn)ediaieJy 
united with them. He also states, that of those tlijree hundred 
towns, two hundred and seventy-five have been visited with ilie spe- 
cial influerxes of the Holy Spirit ; that he has witnessed cases, not 
a few, in which* persons who had "been swearers, sabbath-breakers, 
be. have joined a Temperance Society, and soon have, for the 
first time in thefr lives, been heard inquiring what they should do 
to be saved ; and that he has himself known of more than one 
hundred persons, who had been drunkards, who have been re- 
claiined, and are now consistent members of christian churches. 

He also mentions two otlier facts which deserve to be record- 
ed, viz. that he has seen but few professors of religion who op|K)s- 
ed temperance societies, but who either made, sold or drank ar- 
dent spirit ; and tliat he has never known an intemperate man 
who gave up the use of ardent spirit^ but who continued to drink 
wine, beer, or cider, vitio did not perpetuate his intemperance, and 
ultimately turn back to his former habits of using ardent spirit. 
These facts deserve to be remembered, and especiaDy the last. 
The disease of drunkenness, if not fed with intoxicating drink, will 
deep, and not afflict him who has contracted it — but if fed, even 
with fermented drinks, will continue to raee, will ordinarily increase, 
and its deluded, victim may expect to die a drunkard. And this 
will be the case, if he begins, though it may have been years since 
he ceased to use it. There is no safety but in entire and perpe- 
tual abstinence from the use of every thing which . intoxicates. 
Those friends, therefore, and all who urge such persons to use in 
any degree either fermented liquor, or distilled, take the course 
to destrby them. ' And numerous are the cases where the result 
has been speedy death. A drunkard ceased to use intoxicating 
drink, and was, as every drunkard, should he take a similar course, 
will be, a sober man. He continued so, for years, till urged by 
a pretended friend to take a tea-spoon full a day in some restora- 
tive bitters. He' did, and was soon again a drunkard, raging in 
all the madness of tlic deliriimi tremens. Another, by abstaining 



in a similar manner, was a sober man, till his mother urged him to 
tike a little porter ; and told him, when he refused, that it would not 
hort him, and pressed him, till he complied ; and from that day 
she was doomed, as if in righteous judgment, to see her son a 
confirmed sot. Can a man take coals into his bosom, and his 
clothes not be burnt ? as well might a man put a match to gun- 
powder, and not expect an explosion, as to throw alcohol into the 
stomach of a drunkard, or one that has been such, and not expect 
(hat it will take fire. Water, pure, cool water, and unstimulating 
food and drinks, are the only safeguard against his being con- 

With such facts, and numerous others of a similar kind which 
are now before the community, can any one doubt as to the course 
of duty and of safety ? or whether the use of ardent spirit as a 
drink, and the traffic in it, is an immorality of a hieh and aggrava- 
ted character ; altogether inconsistent with a profession of tlie chris- 
tian religion ; at war alike with the spiritual good of man and with 
the glory of his Maker ? Suppose that in the towns above referred 
to, the proportion of the people who do not use ardent spirit is as 
stated by the writers of the letters, who lived among them, and 
had as good an opportunity as any others to judge correctly on the 
subject — how shall we account for the fact, that, in one case, from 
one quarter of the people, but three professed the religion of Jesus 
Christ, while from the other three quarters there were more than 
seventy; being more than twenty to one? and in another case 
where two-fifths of the people abstained from the use of ardent 
spirit, how shall we account for the fact that among the three-fifths 
who did not abstain, not five appeared to become pious, while 
among the two-fifths that did abstain, there appeared to be more 
than a hundred ? How shall we account for the facts of thirty 
becomhig hopefully pious in one district, and forty in another, and 
four hundred in anoUier, who had espoused the temperance cause, 
and not one who had not, without drawing the conclusion, that ar- 
dent spirit, in all its influences, is hostile to the interests of the soul, 
and tends strongly to ruin it forever i The facts are so numerous, 
and so striking by which this is illustrated, as to force the convic- 
tion upon every attentive observer. And the number is rapidly 
increasing, who cannot be persuaded that men who understand tlic 
nature of the traffic in ardent spirit and its effects, and yet con- 
tinue in it, can, while they do this, give credible evidence that they 
are good men. And nothing now hinders this conviction from be- 
coming universiil, so much as the fact thai there are some church 
members who still continue in the traffic. Yet 50 great is the light, 
that notwitiistanding tlieir connection witli the church, the con\ir- 
tion is pervading the whole cpmmunitj', that they, in violation iwi 

151] FIFTH RKFOBT.-^1882. 41 

only of tlie divine law, but of their profession, regard money more 
than God. 

Certain it is, whether they know it or not, that few men in the 
community are doing so much for the destruction of souls as those 
professors of religion who continue in the traffic in ardent spirit. 
A young man, who had been awakened to a deep conviction of his 
guUt as a sinner, who was in great distress, and anxiously inquir- 
ing what he should do to be saved, recollected that he had before 
banished such feelings, by the use of spirituous liquor. In his 
agony, he made his way to the place where it was sold — procui- 
ed it, and drank it. lus distress abated. His eyes seemed to be 
so enlightened that he could see that his former distress was de- 
lusion. A scofTer came in. and began to ridicule him for hav- 
ing, as he had heard, been serious. The young man denied it, 
ridiculed the idea ; and has apparently been in a state of moral 
death ever since. 

Another young man, who was in the habit of freely using ar- 
dent spirit, was at one time tormented w;th the idea, that his wife, 
wiio was anxious for her salvation, was in danger of becoming 
pious. He opposed her, and opposed all her efibrts to secure 
eternal life. He strove^ by all means in his power, to banish seri- 
ous impressions from her mind. He succeeded ; and was permit- 
ted again to h^ar her, like himself, cry Peace, peace, when Jeho- 
vah said, "There is no peace." He was mduced, not long after, 
to give up the use of ardent spirit. His mind soon became 
solemn, and he was deeply anxious for his own salvation. Hij 
wife ofqposed him ; but he was too much m earnest to be hindered. 
He sou^ the Lord while he was to be found-— called upon him 
while he was near — ^forsook, as he believes, every false way, 
and turned heartily unto the Lord, who had mercy upon hitn, 
and abundandy pardoned. He is now rejoicing in hope, and is 
exceedingly anxious that his wife too, may become partaker of the 
same great salvation. She, however, remains as he once wished 
to have her ; and whether the separation, which appears to have 
been begun, is to continue and increase, till a great gulph opens 
betweeo them, and is eternal, remains yet to be determmcd. A 
strong and permanent convicuon, however, rests upon his mind, 
made apparendy by the Holy Ghost, that had he not ceased to use 
ihe dninkard's poison, which once excited him to violent hostility to 
the truth, and unceasing opposition to those who embraced it, lie 
never had experienced its illuminating aiid purifying power. Nor 
is the connection between absdnence and the use of stions: drink 
con6ned to this country. The British and Foreign Temperance 
Society, with the Bishop of London at its head, and composed of 
men whom no one can justly accuse of enthusiasm, say in their 
Report, '* We need not dwell upon the effects of obviously exces- 



sive drinking. The habitual use of such portions of liquor as 
have no apparent effect upon the capability for ordinary occupa- 
tions, maintains, in multitude^ of our fellow countr}'rnen, a contin- 
ued excitement, which sets them free from effectual consciousness 
of responsibility for erery action, and renders impressions of un- 
easiness, regarding their spiritual st^te, transient and inoperative. 

" But, in many instances, to which the Committee refer with pe- 
culiar satisfaction, persons unaccustomed to any obsen~ance of the 
duties of religion, having been induced to join temperance 
societies, have at first become thoughtful hearers, and ultimately 
joyful and sincere receivers of Christian truth. 

'' Your Committee indulge, indeed, the highest hope that this In- 
stitution will be the honored instrument in removing from the 
human mind a general and fatal delusion, which most powerfully 
opposes the reception, and obstructs the progress of tne Gospel 
CI Salvation." 

Even wicked men now understand, ai)d confess, that between 
the traffic i|i ardent spirit^ and a profession of the christian reli^oo, 
there is a total hostilin^. They quote the fact of church members 
contmuing ip^the traffic, and thus being accessory to the pauper- 
ism, crimes, and wretchedness of the community, as conclusive 
proof that they ^e no better than others : they state that they will 
ruin men, (and op their own principles,) for both worlds, for 
money. And does not the excuse which such men oiten' tnake, 
^' that if they did not sell rum, they would not sell so many other 
thmgs," countenance the idea ? What is their excuse, but an 
acknowledgment that their object of supreme regard is money? 
Your church member, says one, is making more paupers and 
more criminals than any other man in the town : and th0 great 
difficulty, in many cases with this assertion, is, it is true. For h'ls 
own profit he is making paupers, says anodier, and I have to sup- 
port them. He is excitmg men to commit crimes, and I have to 
pay for the prosecution of tliem. He is taking from the very 
father, whose children come from day to day to my door and beg 
for bread. He is covering that amiable woman, and her lovely 
children, with gloom and wretchedness, more desolating and more 
relenUess than the grave. For twelve and a half cents, he will doom 
that more than widowed mother to the more than death-like 
agony of seeing her husband, not laid motionless by the hand of 
her heavenly Father, but staggering homeward under a living 
death, inflicted by the hand of a brother in the church, of which 
she is herself a member ; and who, before heaven and earth, has 
covenanted to do her husband good, and good only, as he has op- 
portunity. And he will doom her more than fatherless children, 
not to stand and weep over tlieir father's corpse, but to tiee for 
liicir lives, lest, by Uioir father's hand, they should be made 

153J nrTH report.— 1632. 43 

coqises ; and to leave their mother, tlieir last earthly ho{)e, to 
be, they fear, as mothers often have been, murdered by the 
hands of her liusband. Are such men, i: is asked, Chris- 
tians? Are these the men who give up all for Jesus Christ? 
And yet such men there are in American churches — ^who, if they 
do not sell their Master for tliiity pieces of silver, do sell his dis- 
ciples, to more than the agonies of crucifixion, for one; and with- 
out manifesting even as much compunction as did Judas, when he 
went away and banged himself. Are these men the friends of 
him who said, ^* Inasmuch as ye have done it, unto one of the 
least of these my disciples, ye have done it unto me ?^' For a piece 
of money will they thus agonize the Saviour in the person of his 
disciples, and yet profess to be his friends ? Are these the men 
whose grand object is " Glory to God in the hiehest, good will to 
racn?** Who can believe itr Nor are such feelings, in view of 
these abominations confined to men who make no profession of 
teligion. The consistent Christian beholds them, and from the 
heart, cries, *' Father, for^ve them, for they know not what they 
do." But as he prays, his voice is choked by the recollection 
that they do know; or if they do not shut their eyes, would 
know ; and if they do not, it is because " he that doth evil bateth 
the Sght, neitbler cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be 
reproived.'' And as voluntary ignorance will not for a moment 
screen them from the righteous indignation of the father of the 
fatherless, and the judge of the widows, they are ready to say, <' O 
tbat ray head were waters, and nune eyes a fountain of tears, that 
I mieht weep day and night for the slain of the daughters of my 
peopfe." Nor is their grief assuaged, or their righteous indigna- 
tion abated, by the cold, heartless plea, '* If I should not do it, 

somebody else would " — a plea that might fit a slave-dealer or an 
assassin, but not a disciple of him who said, '* If a man love me 
let him keep my commands. — ^He that loveth houses or land, gold or 
silver, more than me, is not worthy of me — and he that forsaketh 
not aU that he hath, cannot be my disciple. — He tbat findeth his 
life shall k>se it, and he that loseth his Ufe for my sake and die 

il\ shall keep it unto life eternal." 

le Committee know of no principle of the gospel that will 
justify churches of Jesus Christ in permitting their members, who 
have opportunity to understand this subject, to continue this work 
of death. From all parts of the country the lamentation now 
comes, and often with tears, that die greatest difliculues in die 
way of the Temperance Reformation — of the success of the Gos- 
pel, and the salvation of men — are those members of the church, 
who still sell ardent spirit. And if the church shall continue to 



admit persons who are engaged in Uiis traffic, as members, or 
connive at it, by suffering those who are already in tlie church to 
continue it, she will herself assume the responsibility, and be load- 
ed with the guilt of perpetuating intemperance and its abomina- 
tions to the end of the world. 

If the principles of revelation and the facts which God, in his 
providence and by his grace is developing, as those who abstain from 
all connection with ardejnt spirit, as a drink, in greater and greater 
numbers become devoted to his service, and others, amidst all the 
triumphs of his grace,, are almost uniformly passed by ; and if the 
knowledge of the fact that ten times as many in proportion to the 
number of one class 'are apparently renewed in die temper of tiieir 
minds as of the otlier, do not awaken and move tlie members of 
the church to do tlieir duly, — they would not be persuaded though 
one should rise from the dead. Apd should the temperance re- 
formation cease to move onward, and die burning tide of desola- 
tion again roll back upon us, let them not forget that they are the 
cause. Should their own members, in greater numbers apostatize, 
become abandoned, and die Holy Ghost depart, and their children 
die drunkards, let them not forget Uiey are themselves the cause. 
Should the dragon, that old serpent, again renew his vigor, and 
pour out in greater abundance his poison — party spirit in our land 
continue to rage, and become a thousand ibid more tnaligaant, 
and burnb^ — let them not forget that they are furnisliing the mate- 
rials, and kmdling the flames. Should jibey rise even into fury, and 
burn with increasing fierceness, till the band^ of social order burst 
asunder and the foundations of society dissolve, let them not for^ 
get that they are die cause. And should death on his pale horse 
pass through every ' place, and destruction follow, the universe 
would pronounce it just. They that sow the wind shall reap the 
whirlwmd ; and they diat sow ^eath shall reap also death. 

These views, wherever the means are used, are extending 
through the country. Many churches utterly refuse to admit any 
persons as members who continue to traffic in ardent sph-it, or to 
allow this in any of their members. They do not believe that they 
can allow it, without violating the known will of God. Nor is this, 
as some have supposed, adojpting a new rule of discipline : it is only 
applying the rule laid d6wn in the Bible, correctly to tliis case, viz. 
that diose shall not be admitted to the church, or suffered to con* 
linue in it, who continue perseveringly in tlie practice of openim- 
morality. That being accessory to the production of the pauperism^ 
crime, sickness, insanity, deadi and destruction, which are occa- 
sioned by the sale of ardent spirit, is an immorality, is by the Bi- 
ble forever settled. And when this sul^ect is presented, in the 

155] FIFTH KEPOHT. 1832. 45 

spirit of the Bible, and illustrated by the manifestations of provi* 
dence, it is felt to be an immorality of a high and n£;gravated char- 
acter, by every impartial, candid and sober man. Tho trutli on tliis 
subject commends itself to the conscience, and moves strongly on 
the heart. During the past year this subject has been presented, 
by our secretary, to fourteen of^the churches in Boston ; and eight 
of those churches have now in tliem, no members who are engag- 
ed in this traffic ; viz, Bowdoin Street, Green Street, Pine Street, 
and Salem Churches ; the first and second Baptist Churches, the 
Mariner's Church, and the Congregational Church in South Bos- 
ton. Several churches in Salem, Beverly, and various other 
places, making in all more tlian two hundred, are now free. And 
when the church as a body shall treat the traffic in its true charac- 
ter, it will be stamped as a gross immorality throughout the christian 
world. ZioD will then arise and shine, her light being come, and 
the gbry of the Lord beaming upon her. 

A city society has also been formed in Boston, during the past 
year ; and societies formed or enlarged in fourteen different con- 
gregations, embracing more than three thousand members. A so- 
ciety of young men has also been formed on the plan of entire ab- 
stinence irom the use of ardent spirit and the traffic in it, embracing 
ax>re than 500 members.^ Three State societies have also been 
(bnued, during the past year, viz. in Maine, Rhode-Island, and 
Illinois. There is now a State society in each of the United States, 
except Alabama, Louisiana and Missouri ; and it is hoped that, 
before the close of another year, there will be one in every State 
in the Union. 

Id the State of New York there has been added to temperance 
societies^ during the year, more than 50,000 members. In several 
counties the increase has been more than 200 per cent. They 
have printed 350,000 circulars, and sent them to every family in 
the State,, invidng each member, who has come to years of under- 
standing, to abstain from the use of ardent spuit, and to unite widi 
I temperance society. They have also printed and sent to all parts 
of the State, 100,000 constitutions for family temperance societies, 
in the following form, viz. 

" This society shall be composed of the heads of this family, 
and such other members as shall hereunto subscribe their names. 
In subscribing the constitution we pledge oursebcs to the foilow- 
iog rules, viz. 

J. We. will use no ardent spirits ourselves, nor suffer tlie use of 
uiem In our families, nor present them to our friends, or those in 
iiur employment, unless in cases of extreme necessity, for medical 

' * CoQStajif iidi)ition» ire abo itonde to the Society. 


2. Those of us who are, or shall hereafter become heads of 
families, solemnly agree to teach our household ihe principles of 
entire abstinence, and use our best endeavors to obtain tbeir signa- 
tures to this constitution. 

3. A copy of this constitution, shall be pasted in our family Bi- 
ble, to which our children, if any, shall be often pointed as the act 
of their parents ; and we solemnly enjoin it on them, as they revere 
our memories, sacredly to regard these our sentiments." 

They have expended in this benevolent work, during the year, 
about $4,500. 

The following facts, mentioned in their last Report, deserve here 
to be recorded. In the town of Gates, there are sixty-nine gro- 
ceries, and twenty-six taverns, where ardent spirits are sold. A 
single magistrate in Rochester, during the past year has committed 
to the common jail one hundred sixty-two persons, and a hundred 
and twenty -five of them were habitual drunkards, or committed 
their crimes in a state of intoxication. 

Within the bounds of Ira and Cato Temperance Society, there 
are seventy-five drunkards, and twelve have apparently been re- 

In the state prison of Auburn, are six hundred seventeen con- 
victs, who, with reference to their former habits, may be classed 
as follows, namely : intemperate persons five hundred six^-six ; 
moderate drinkers one hundred thirty-two ; under the influence 
of spirits when their crimes were committed, three hundred for^- 
six ; discharged during the past year one hundred thirty-three, of 
whom ninety-five had been drunkards. 

Before the formation of the Hector Temperance Society, more 
than 8,500 gallons of ardent spirit were aimually consumed in 
the town. Eleven distilleries were in operation. Since that time 
the consumption of ardent spirit has diminished nine-tenths. 
Nine of the distilleries, have been stopped, and two are now 
struggling for a doubtful existence. At the commencement of 
the temperance reformation there was scarcely grain enough 
raised in the town for the supply of its inhabitants ; and the last 
year it is supposed that 60,000 bushels were sold for foreign 
consumption. Such has been the effect of absdnence from ar- 
dent spirit, in only a part of the people. 

In West Lansbg there were 11,000 gallons of spirits consumed 
in 1831 ; seventy-one drunkards; $600 paid for the support of 
paupers, and seven-eighths caused by intemperance. There are 
now five hundred and twenty-six members of Temperance Socie- 
ties, and nine drunkards have been reformed. 

In Lockport nine merchants have abandoned the sale of spirits; 
one of whom formerly sold 20,000 gallons in a year. 

In Fishkill Landing, the Mattewan Factory store formerly sold 

157] ruTH BEFORT. — 1632. 47 

Uvo hundred barrels of beer in a year : that factory, and the one 
at Glenham, employing a capital of $250,000, now carry on tiieir 
business without either spirit or beer. 

In Clintonville, the iron forge where seventeen and a half tons 
of iron are maufactured in a week, the extensive rolling mill, 
chain and nail factories aie all carried on without spirits. In 
Clintonvillc twenty-five persons, most of them husbands and 
fathers, who were mtemperate, have renounced the use of strong 
drink ; and three-fourths of the harvest the past year was gather- 
ed without the use of spirit. Cases of assault and battery, and 
petty lawsuits, which before were of almost daily occurrence, are 
DOW seldom known. 

In Cherry Valley, before tlie Temperance Society was formed 
30,000 gallons of spirits v^ere sold in a year; in 1831,8000; 
and to the inhabitants of tlie town only 6000. Of that, 4000 gal- 
Ions were retailed in small measure, at the rate, it is supposed, of 
$2 per gallon,' makbg $8000 ; to which add 2000 gallons at 
31^ cents per gallon, and we have $8,625 paid out the last year 
tor ardent spirit, notwithstanding the use of it had been diminish- 
ed more than fourfold. For common schools, they paid the last 
year $1310. Four districts were not able to have any school. 
Their town and county taxes were $2177 ; their ardent spirit 
taxy notwithstanding its diminution, $8,625. 

The Secretary of the ClarksvUle Temperance Society says, 
there are in town three distilleries, manufacturing annually 60,000 
gallons ; and for the greater accommodation of die people, eleven 
taverns and eight grog-shops are licensed to vend it, making one 
to every thirty-two voters in the town. 

In Buffido, as ascertained' by the Young Men's Temperance 
Society, there are more than one hundred places where ardent 

Sirit IS sold, and more than six hundred intemperate persons. 
ineteen twentieths of the pauperism and crimes appear to 
firing from intemperance ; and a great majority of the male 
aMkdts who have died, in the last tea years, were intemperate men. 

In Hamburg, with about 3500 inhabitants, three hundred barrels 
of whiskey are drunk in a year ; and there are one hundred drunk- 

In Penn-yan, with a population of about 1500, there are four- 
teen stores in which no ardent spirit is sold. Two hardware 
merchants, three saddle and harness makers, one hatter, eight 
lawyers, five physicians, fifteen master mechanics, and one hun- 
dred and twelve heads of families are members of temperance 
societies. Of one hundred and seven, who have united witli the 
church, eighty-three had previously to their hopeful conversion 
abstained enurely from tlie use oi ardent spirit. Nevertlieless, 
three stores, four taverns, and eleven groceries sell ardent spirit; 


and tliere are in the village two hundred and twelve daily moder- 
ate drinkers, and one hundred and eighty-^seven imnooderate; 
fifty of tlie latter are employed on the canal ; one hundred thirQr- 
seven are permanent residents, and sixty of them habitual drunk- 
ards; thirty-five are fathers, and four are mothers; and seventy- 
seven are occasional drunkards. 

In Starkcy, out of forty-two deaths of all persons both old and 

{oung, eight, nearly one-fifth of the whole, were occasioned 
y drinking. The tax for pauperism occasioned directlv by in- 
temperance was, in 1830, $260 96 ; and as an equivalent for 
the privilege of making these paupers, they received by way of 
excise from tlie grocers $70, less than one-third enough to sup- 
port the paupers which they made. The other two-thirds was 
a burden upon the public. Is this fair ? is it just, that grocers, for 
their own profit, should tax the whole community ? In that coun- 
ty it is supposed there are eight hundred drunkards, and eleven 
hundred persons who do not use the drunkard's drink. The profit 
of making these drunkards is enjoyed by the grocers ; and is it 
right that others, in this land of liberty and equal ri^ts, diould be 
taxed for the support of them i 

In Henderson, with three himdred and fiftv-seveo voters, 
$17,104 have within three years been received ij grocers and 
others for ardent spirit; six^-two persons are dnmkardg, 
and nine-tenths of the poor tax is occasioned by intemper- 
ance. Would it not be just that those who have the profits of 
making these drunkards should have also the burden of support- 
ing them ? And should they, and their families have to endure 
all the wretchedness which they occasion to other families, would 
they find it a profitable business? or be ready to complain, if they 
cotdd not be licensed to pursue it ? 

In Lewis, no person nas a license to sell ardent spirit ; and 
drunkards, if they will purchase the deadly drink, are obliged to 
go fix>m ten to twenty miles to obtain it. How would the foun- 
tains of sorrow be dried up, and ten thousand hearts leap for joy, 
were this the case throughout our country. And were tnere none 
in the land wicked enough to sell it as a drink, how many would 
be saved from the drunkard's grave, and from the fire which no 
man can quench. 

And is It not criminal— exceedinsly criminal, for the sake of 
money to be knowingly and actively mstrumental in preventing the 
salvation of such men ? In raising up others like them, and in per- 
petuating their guilt and their anguish to endless ages ? 

The traffic in ardent spirit seems to be marked, even in this 

life, with decisive indications of divine abhorrence ; and with pre- 

:noniuons of sure and awful retribution in the life to come. In 

ereat proportion of all the families that have been accustomed to 

159] FIFTH BEPOAT. 1832. 49 

deal out this poison to others, one or more of the members, often 
the head, and in many cases a majority of the members, have died 

In Stepbentown, N. Y. there have been fifty-four tavern-keepers 
who sold ardent spirit ; thirty-seven did not succeed in business ; 
sixteen are living, intemperate ; and four have died drunkards. 

In Petersburgh there have been fifty-four inn-keepers ; five suc- 
ceeded in their business, and of the forty-nine who did not, eleven 
died dninkards. 

Id Sandlake there have been, in twenty years, twenty-nine inn- 
keepers ; seven made money, and five became drunkards. 

In Brunswick there have been forty tavern-keepers, twenty-two 
of them became intemperate, and four died drunkards. 

In Wynants Kill and Albia there have been twenty-two ; and 
nine of them failed by intemperance. 

In Lansingburgh, of eighteen tavern-keepers, twelve are intem- 
perate, or have died drunkards. Ten deaths have been occasiou- 
ed in die town by ardent spirit, during the past year. Here then, 
ID a nngle coun^, of 207 tavern-keepers who sold ardent spirit, 
seFendr-ninetmore than one-third tlie whole number, became drunk- 
ards themselves. And could we ascertain the number of their 
children who also became drunkards, and the number of the chil- 
dren of those who, notwithstanding their business, remained sober ; 
and how many became drunkards to whom they sold, and how 
many of their children, and how many will through their instrumen- 
tality ; and could we catch a glimpse of the prospects of tliese 
persons in the futiu'e world, we should want no further evidence 
that the sale of ardent spirit, as a drink, is a business which the 
Lord hath cursed. Not only does it tend to destroy others, but 
it increaaes more than four-fold the prospect that it will bring upon 
those who pursue it, and their children, the horrors of the second 

We rejoice therefore to find that there are now more than fifty tav- 
erns in tne State of New York, in which ardent spirit is not sold ; 
and that there are more tlian 200,000 members of temperance 
societies ; that more than 1000 merchants have ceased to traffic in 
die poison ; and that more than 2000 drunkards have ceased to 
use mtoxicating drink. 

And here the Committee would present disdnctly to the consid- 
eration of all sober men, the subject of temperance taverns, and 
temperance groceries ; establishments conducted by men who will 
not c<nisent,Tor the sake of money, to poison and destroy their 
feUow men. Could houses for the accommodation of the public, 
be opened m Boston, Worcester, Northampton, Pittsfield, and other 



principal places, on all great roads, and especially in seaports, in 
which the drunkard's drink is not sold, and no one doomed to the 
torment of witnessing die evils which invariably attend the use of 
it, and could such houses be patronized by all friends of temper- 
ance, the comfort of travelers would be greatly promoted, tliou- 
sands be highly gratified, and a most important service rendered to 
the community. It is indeed humiliating, and to many distress- 
ing, that they cannot stop at a public house, wittiout inhaling, on 
the threshold, the stench of the drink of drunkards ; and that 
those places which ought to be^ and which might be so respecta- 
ble, pleasant, and useful, should be to multitudes the gate-way of 

And as to temperance groceries, the Committee would suggest 
whether it is not the duty of all friends of temperance to patronize 
them, in preference to those whose owners are aiding in perpetu- 
ating intemperance and in demoralizing and burdening the com- 
munity. Even if tliose men, in consequence of the profit which 
they make on ardent spirit could afford to sell other things at a 
lower rate, those who should purchase, and thus, in their estima- 
tion, save something by trading at rum stores, would be aiding, to 
the amount of what they save, in perpetuating drinking and 
drunkenness, with all their evils, throughout tne community. 
And as it is a sin to make, so it is a sin to save property in a way 
that is adapted to perpetuate, and does in fact tend to perpetuate 
mtemperance. And if none who submit to the guilty degradation 
of aidmg the drunkard in destroying himself, or assisting others to 
become like him, should be patronized by any, who do uot use 
his poison, a mighty obstruction to the Temperance Reformation 
would be removed, and a much greater number saved .from tem- 
poral and eternal ruin. The friends of temperance must come 
out, and be separate from this iniquity. They must not by their 
influence aid in perpetuating this mischief, but in causing it to 
cease. In no other way can they escape the guilt of being ac- 
cessory to the making of drunkards, and the danger, in the day 
of retribution, of being, partakers in their plagues. 

Nor would this in the least interfere with the rights of others. 
It would merely be to abstain from conniving at iniquity, and 
from aiding in perpetuating its evils ; which is not only the right, 
but the duty of every man in the community. Absdnence, entire 
abstinence from all known influence which is adapted in its na- 
ture, and is found by experiment to aid in perpetuaung intemper- 
ance, is the duty of all. It is merely ceasing to do evU ; and just 
in proporuon as men take this course, will intemperance forever 
cease. Facts, as well as the character of the divine goveromenty 
warrant this conclusion, and afford the greatest encouragement to 
ail friendsi of the cause to persevere with increasing acuvity and 

16iJ FIFTH REPORT. 1832. 51 

diligence till tliis foe of God and man is banished from the 

From the best information which the Committee have been able 
to obtain, tiiey are led to conclude that more than 1,500,000 peo- 
ple in tlie United States now abstain from the use of ardent spirit, 
and from the furnishing of it for the use of others ; diat there are 
more than 4000 temperance societies, embracing more than 500,000 
members; that more than 1500 distilleries have been stopped, 
more than 4000 merchants ceased to traffic in the poison, and 
more than 4,500 drunkards ceased to use intoxicating drinks* 
lliere is also reason to believe that more than 20,000 persons are 
now sober, who, had it not been for the temperance reformation 
would have been sots ; and that 20,000 families are now in ease 
and comfort, with not a drunkard in tiiem, or one who is becoming 
a drunkard, who would otherwise have been in poverty, or 
cursed with a drunken inmate ; that 50,000 children are saved 
from the blasting influence of drunken parents, and 200,000 from 
that parental influence, which tended to make tiiem drunkards. 
There is also reason to believe that thousands and tens of thousands 
are members of christian churches, and rejoicing in hope of the 
glory of God, who, had they continued to drink, had now been 
without hope and witiiout God in the world. There is reason to 
believe also, that thousands and tens of thousands arc now im- 
penitent, unbelieving, and on their way to die second death, who, 
had it not been for the sale and use of ardent spirit, had been 
ripening for glor}'', and honor, and immortality, and eternal life ; 
and that tens of thousands more have passed the boundaries of 
hope, and are weeping and wailing, who, had it not been for this, 
might have been in heaven. And in view of such things, shall 
we be told, that temperance is only a secular concern ? that it 
a&cts only the bodies of men, not their souls, and is a concern 
which relates to time only, not to eternity ? that it ought not to 
be discussed from the pulpit, on the sabbath? Should Satan 
cause this to be believed, he would perpetuate intemperance to 
the end of the world. Shall tiie fires which make this poison, 
bum on the sabbath, and the use of it tend to counteract all the 
merciful designs of Jehovah, in establishing that holy day ? Shall 
JeboFab be insulted by the appearance in the sanctuary of men 
who use it on the sabbath, and yet tiie sabbath not be occupied, 
by light and love, to abolish the use of it ? Shall it cause die 
Word of the Lord, even from the pulpit, to fall as upon a rock, 
instead of being as the rain and the snow that come down from 
heaven and water the earth ; and thousands who might be trees 
of righteousness in the garden of the Lord, to stand like the heath 
in the desert, not seeing good when good comes, and yet die pul- 
pil be dumb? or speak only on week days, when those who traf- 


fib in it, have so much to do in furnishing the poisoti^ that they 
have no time, and less inclination to hear ? If Satan can cause 
diis to be believed, and those who manufacture, sell, and use the 
weapons of his warfare, and muldply the trophies of his victory 
not near of their sin on the sabbath, when God speaks to the con- 
science ; or be entreated from the pulpit, his mercy's seat, by the 
tears and blood of a Saviour, to flee from coming damnation, the 
adversary will keep possession of his strong hold. Church mem- 
bers will garrison it, and provision it, and fight for him. From the 
communion table, he will muster recruits, and find officers, in 
those who distribute the elements, to fight his battles, perpetuate bis 
warfare, and people with increasing numbers his dark domain, to 
the end of time. If we mav not, in this warfare fight, on the Lord's 
day, when he himself goes forth to the battle, and commands on the 
field — if we may not use his weapons, forged in heaven ; and from 
the high place of his erection, pour them down thick, heavy, and hoc 
upon the enemy, we may fight till we die, and he wiD esteem our iron 
as straw, and our brass as rotten wood ; our darts he will count as 
stubble, and laugh at the glittering of our spear. Leviathan is not so 
tamed. There is no coping with him, but with weapons of hea- 
venly temper from the armory of Jehovah, on the day when he 
goes forth, and creation, at his command, stands still to witness the 
conflict. Then it is, as conscience kindled fi-om above, blazes, 
and thunders in the heart of the enemy, that he is consumed by 
the breath of the Almighty, and destroyed by the brightness of his 

Never was an idea farther from the truth, than that which rep- 
resents the Temperance Reformation as only a secular concern, 
afihcting principally the body ; or confined in its influence to tliis 
world, or to time ; to be discussed only on the w^eek day, and that 
as a matter of convenience, expediency, or domestic comfort, 
pecuniary profit, or reputation, and respectability. Its principal 
influence, and that which in importance eclipses and swallows up 
every other, is upon the soul, and for eternity ; according to tlie 
sentiments of the learned judge referred to — ^As much as the soul 
is worth more than the body, as much as eternity is longer dian 
time, so much more important is its influence on the soul than on 
the body, and witii regard to eternity than with regard to time. 
And till its influence on the character, prospect, and destiny of 
tlie soul for eternity shall be exhibited on tl)e snbbath, from' the 
pulpit, by the ministers of Christ, to every distiller, and trafficker, 
and user of the drunkard's poison in the land, who does not, on 
account of doing evil, so hale the li.j;ht as to refuse to come to it, 
this engine of death eternal will not cease to operate, nor this 
citadel of Satan be demolished. Ministers may think tliat they 
could not be supported without tlie avails of the distillery, and the 

163] FIFTH REPORT.— ^1832. 53 

dram-shop, or the countenance of those wlio furnish or support 
them ; and churches may think that it is not ecclesiastical for 
them to move, or for their members to act on the subject ; and 
both may hope that others, temperance agents, or societies will 
do the work, and accomplish the object without tlieir assistance, 
aod that they had better say notliing, and do nothing, but mourn 
in secret and pray ; diough church members continue to carry on 
the traffic, and cause thousands eternally to die ; yet it is not so. 
No minister of Christ, id doing the work of Christ, needs the 
gains of ungodliness ; and no church of Christ is strengthened, or 
sanctified by having rum-makers, and rum-sellers, and run)-drink- 
^s for members. None such formed the family of the Saviour, 
the company of his aposdes, or any of diat bright constellation, 
who, in their day, through faith and patience, entered in, and took 
possession of the promises. They were men of another sort. 
They coidd not look up to God, and pray, << Lead us not into 
temptadon," and then, go away and tempt their fellow men to ruin, 
and yet hope for his favor. They felt bound to do to oUiers, as 
they would that God should do to Uiem. And if they did not 
strive to use their influence, not to corrupt and destroy, but 
to save others, they knew that Crod would not save diem. Nor 
will he save any, who are not, in diis respect, . like them. In 
vain will they plead their connecdon with die church, in arrest oi 
oondemDadon, for destroying their fellow men. And if they 
continue that work of death, and the church continues to hold 
them within its sacred enclosure, and spread over them the pro- 
tecting banner of the cross, she will bo judged as accessor}', and 
held responsible for the mighty ruin. And when the overflow- 
ing scourge shall pass through, judgment will begin, where, had 
reformation begun and continued, it had wrought out sah-alion, 
at the house of God. And whether die rainbow of mercy which 
has begun to appear, shall extend, and encircle the world, or 
earth be enveloped in blackness of darkness, now, under Christ, 
hangs on the decision of the church which he hadi purchased 
with his own precious blood. Let her members extract from die 
bounties of his kindness, the material for burning out the con- 
sciences of their fellow men, — let them set it on fire, a{Tply it, and 
make it a business, to spread it through the community, and the 
smoke of their torment will cover die whole earth, and spread 
through all its dwellings darkness, lamentation, and mourning, and 
wo. A fire in God's auger will burn continued perpetrators of 
such wickedness, even to die lowest hell. They would keep the 
jewels from the crown of his Son, and ruin the souls for whom 
lie died. 

But let ministers and churches do their duty, free themselves 
from all pardcipadon in, or connivance at iniquity, and let them, 



by light and love, poured out kindly and perpetually, labor to per-^ 
suade all, from supreme regaid to God, and good will to men, to 
do the same, and the night and wo of ages will pass away, and 
the Sun of Righteousness, rising in his glory, will pour round the 
globe the life and the bliss of universal and unceasing day. 

Already, in different parts of Africa, are there Temperance 
Societies ; and African newspapers state, that of aU the reforms 
in this reforming age, this is the greatest. The way is preparing 
fo exclude the scourge of the white man from the whole continent 
which he has cursed. 

The Emperor of China has forbidden it to be sold to the 
nominal Christian, because it makes him demoralize the heathen, 
ind sinks him too low even to associate with them. 

In the Sandwich Islands, a tliousand in a day covenanted not to 
make, sell, or use it. The manufacture and sale of it are prohib- 
ited by law, and a man was fined two hundred dollars, for selling 
a bottle of it. A Temperance Society has also been formed, de- 
agned to embrace the nation. " This society," says one who was 
present, ^^ it is hoped will be a permanent institution, a happy safe- 
guard to the present, and a lasting blessing to iiiture genera- 
tk)ns — an institution which may yet claim kindred with the nobler 
National Temperance Society of the United Slates, which now 
waves the banner of deliverance to pur drowning counuy, and 

gVes her high-born pledge to stay tlie glory that was departing 
om her. The striting fact of a soutliern dealer in the United 
States emptying his casks on the ground, because he could not 
conscientiously sell so dangerous and destructive an article, 
strikes our serious natives, as it does me, as one of the best efforts 
that has been known for exhausting that fountain of death which 
is desolating the earth. Let every dealer in that kind of mer- 
chandize follow so noble, so safe an example, and * joy to the 
world,' would be the song of the rising generation. I am told 
that our young king has ordered a cask of spirits on board one of 
his brigs, to be poured into the sea — ^that, the British consul ap- 
|Jied to the (Jovernor for permission to buy up rum for his Bri- 
tannic Majesty's ships when they touch here, and was denied, — 
that others applied for the privilege of selling to foreigners only, 
not to natives, and the reply of the Governor was, * To horsesy 
cattle, and hogs you may sdl rum^ hut to real men you mu$* not 
•n these shores J " 

Such is the language of a ruler, lately in pagan darkness, 
among a nation of drunkards. A single owner of rum in the 
United States, who sinks it in the earth, rather than poison and 
destroy his fellow men, may exert influence in the promotion of 

165] FIFTH REPO&T.— '1882. 56 

salvation over the whole earth ; while he, who, from the paltry 
love of gain, continues to sell it, tends to perpetuate sin and desuh 
throughout the human family, forever. Both exert influence 
which may be felt after earth is dissolved ; and told, the one in 
strains of glory rising higher and higher, the other in tones of an- 
guish sinking deeper and deeper, to endless being. 

And when Ethiopia is rising and stretching out her hands, and 
tiic isles of the sea are receiving and obeying God's law ; when 
China is strti^ling to keep off death from her people — ^Iceland in 
^u|)plication for deliverance is melting ; and the whole creation 
,u;ruaneth and travaileth in pain — ^when the Saviour, with a voice 
which pervades creation, is proclaiming, Who is on the Lord's 
side? — ^Who? — and the universe look with intense gaze to witness 
the result ; — and when a single individual, by coming out openly 
and decidedly on the Lord's side, and sacrificing, in a single in- 
stance, money to duty, may roll a wave of salvation on the other 
side of the globe ; shall professed members of that church which 
Christ has bought with his bk)od, take part with the enemy of all 
good, and assist in perpetuating his dark and dismal reign over 
souls, to endless ages? — ^If they do, God will write, for the 
universe to look at, To whom they yield ihemsdves servants to 
obey, his servants they are. And the Register, in blazing capitals, 
will be eternal. And though men who continue knowingly and 
habitually to do evil, and to hate the light, may, in this world, 
refuse to come to it, and when it approaches them may attempt 
to flee away ; in the future world it will blaze upon them in one 
unclouded vision of infinite brightness, and show the hearts of aU 
who oersevere'in wickedness to be more black than darkness it- 


«. (P. 18.) 
Oir THE 




No. I. 

Ardent spirit is composed of alcohol and water, in ncarlj equal 
proportions. Alcohol is composed of hydrogen, carbon, and 
•zjgen, in the proportion of about 13, 52, and 35 parts to the 
kundred. It is, in its, nature, as manifested by its effects, b. poison 
When taken in any quantity, it disturbs healthy action in the hu- 
man system, and in large doses suddenly destroys life. It re- 
sembles opium in its nature, and arseuic in its effects. And 
though when mixed with water, as in ardent spirit, its evils are 
somewhat modified, they are by no means prevented. Ardent 
spirit is an enemy to the human constitution, and cannot be used 
as a drink without injury. Its ultimate tendency invariably, is, 
to produce weakness, not strength; sickness, not health; death, 
not life. 

Consequently, to use it is an immorality. It is a violation of 
the will of God; and a sin in magnitude equal to all the evils, 
temporal and eternal, which flow from it. To furnish ardent spirit 
for the use of others, is a still greater sin, inasmuch as this 
tends to produce evils greater than for an individual merely, to 
drink it. And if a man knows, or has the opportunity of know- 
ing, the nature and effects of the traffic in this article, and yet 
continues to be engaged in it, he is an immoral man, and ought 
to be viewed and treated as such throughout the world ; for the 
following reasons, viz. 

I. Ardent spirit, as a drink, is not needful. All men lived 
without it, and all the business of the world was conducted with- 
out it, for thousands of years. It is not three hundred years 
since it began to be generally used as a drink in Great Britain ; 
nor one hundred years since it became common in America. Of 
eourse, it is not needful. 

II. It is not useful. Those who do not use it, are, other things 
being equal, in all respects better than those who do. Nor does 
the fact that persons have used it with more or less frequency, 
in a greater or smaller quantity, for a longer or shorter time, 
render it either needful^ or useful, or harmless, or right for them 


to continue to use it. More than a million of persons in this 
country, and multitudes in other countries, who once did use it, 
and thoaght it needful, have, within five years, ceased to use it; 
and they have found that they are in all respects bettor without 
it. And this number is so great, of all ages, and conditions, and 
employments, as to render it certain, should the experiment be 
fairly made, that this would be the case with all. Of course, ar^ 
dent spirit, as a drink, is not useful. 

III. It is hurtful. Its whole influence is injurious to the bodjr 
and the mind, for this world, and the world to come. 

1. It forms an unnecessary, artificial, and very dangerous ap- 
petite; which, by gratificatton. like the desire for sinning in the 
man who sins, tends continually to increase. No man can form 
this appetite without increasing his danger of dying a drunkard, 
and ezertinv an influence which tends to perpetuate drunken- 
ness and all its abominations to the end of the world. Its very 
formation, therefore, is a violation of the will of God. It is, in its 
nature, an immorality, and springs from an inordinate desire of 
a kind, or degree of bodily enjoyment — animal gratification, 
which (jod has shown to be inconsistent with his glory, and the 
highest good of man. It shows that the person who forms it 
is not satisfied with the proper gratification of those appetites 
and passions which God has given him, or with that kind and 
degree of bodily enjoyment, which infinite wisdom and goodness 
have prescribed, as the utmost that can be possessed consist- 
ently with a person's highest happiness and usefulness, the glory 
of his Maker, and the good of the universe. That person covets 
more animal enjoyment: to obtain it, he forms a new appetite, and 
in doing this, he rebels against God. That desire for increased 
animal enjoyment, from which this rebellion springs, is sin; and 
all the evils which follow in its train, are only so many voices 
by which Jehovah declares ''the way of transgressors is hard." 
The person who has formed an appetite for ardent spirit, and 
feels uneasy if he does not gratify it, has violated the divine ar- 
rangement; disregarded the divine will; and if he understands 
the nature of what he has done, and approves of it, and continues 
m it, it will ruin him. He will show that there is one thing, in 
which he will not have God to reign over him. And should he 
keep the whole law, and yet continue knowingly, habitually, 
wilfully, and perseveringly to offend in that one point, he will 
perish. Then, and then only, according to the Bible, can any 
man be saved, when he has respect to all the known will of Goif 
and is disposed to be governed by it. He must carry out into 
practice, with regard to the body and the soul, '* not my will, but 
thine be done." His grand object must be to know the will of 
God; and when he knows it, to be governed by it, and with re- 
gard to all things. This, the man who is not contented with that 
portion of animal enjoyment which the proper gratification of 
the appetites and passions which God has given him will afford, 

14 8» 


but forms an appetite for ardent spirit, or continues to gratify it, 
after it is formed, does not do. In this respect, if be understands 
the nature and effects of his actions, he prefers his own will to the 
known will of God, and is ripening to hear, from the lips of his 
Judge, '' those mine enemies, that would not that I should reign 
over them, bring them hither and slay them before me." And the 
men who traffic in this article, or furnish it as a drink for others, 
are tempting them to sin; and thus -uniting their influence with 
that of the devil, forever to ruin them. This is an aggravated im- 
morality; and the men who continue to do it, are immoral men. 

2. Tho use of ardent spirit, to which the traffic ia ac- 
cessory, causes a great and wicked waste of property. All that 
the users pay for this article is to them lost, and worse than 
lost. Should the whole which they use, sink into the earth, or 
mingle with the ocean, it would be better for them, and better 
for the community, than for them to drink it. All which it takes 
to support the paupers, and prosecute the crimes which ardent 
spirit occasions, is, to those who pay the money, utterly lost. All 
the diminution of profitable labor which it occasions, through im- 
providence, idleness, dissipation, intemperance, sickness, insani- 
ty, and premature deaths, is, to the community, so much utterly 
lost. And these items, as has often been shown, amount, in the 
United States, to more than $100,000,000 a year. To this enor- 
mous and wicked waste of property, those who traffic in the ar*^ 
tide are knowingly accessory. 

A portion of what is thus lost by> others, they obtain them- 
a^ves; but without rendering to others any valuable equivalent. 
This renders their business palpably unjust; as really so, as if 
they should obtain that money by gambling ; and it is as really 
immoral. It is also unjust in another respect ; it burdens the com- 
munity with taxes, both for the support of pauperism, and for the 
prosecution of crimes ; and without rendering to that community 
any adequate compensation. These taxes, as shown by facts, are 
four times as great as they- would be, if there were no sellers of 
ardent spirit. All the profits, with the exception perhaps of d 
mere pittance which he pays for license, the seller puts into his 
own pocket; while the burthens are thrown upon the conununity. 
This is palpably unjust, and utterly immoral. Of 1969 paupers, 
in difierent alms-houses in the United States, 1790, according 
to the testimony of the overseers of the poor, were made such by 
spirituous liquor. And of 1764 criminals in different prisons, 
more than 1300 were either intemperate men, or were under the 
power of intoxicating liquor, when the crimes, (or which they 
were imprisoned, were committed. And of 44 murders, accord- 
ing to the testimony of 'those who prosecuted or conducted the 
defence of the murderers, or witnessed their trials, forty-three 
were committed by intemperate men, or upon intemperate men, or 
those who at the time of the murder were under the power of strong 

201 J FIFTH REPORT. 1832. ^APPENDIX. 91 

A distinguished Senator in Congress,* after thirty years exten- 
sive practice as a lawyer, gives it as his opinion, that four-fiflhs 
of all the crimes committed in the United Sttites can be traced 
to intemperance. A similar proportion is stated, from the highest 
authority, to result from the same cause in Great Britain. And 
when it is considered that more than 200 murders are committed, 
and more than '30,000 crimes are prosecuted in the United States 
in a year; and that such a vast proportion of them are occasioned 
by ardent spirit,^-<;an a doubt remain on the mind of any sober 
man, that the men who know these facts, and yet continue to 
traffic in this article, are among the chief causes of crime, and 
ought to be viewed and treated as immoral men ? It is as really 
immoral for a man by doing wrong to excite others to commit 
crimes, as to commit them himself; and as really unjust wrong- 
fully to take another's property, with his consent, as without it. 
And though it might not be desirable to have such a law, yet 
no law in the statute book is more righteous than one which 
should require that those who make paupers should support 
them, and those who excite others to commit crimes, should pay 
the cost of their prosecution, and should, with those who commit 
them, bear all the evils. And so long as this is not the case, 
they will be guilty, according to the divine law, of defrauding, 
as well as tempting and corrupting their fellow men. And 
though such crimes cannot be prosecuted, and justice be awarded 
in human courts, their perpetrators will be held to answer, and 
will meet with full and awful retribution, at the divine tribunal. 
And when judgment is laid to the line, and righteousness to the 
plummet, they will appear as they really are, criminals, and 
will be viewed and treated as such forever. 

No. II. 

There is another view in which the traffic in ardent spirit is 

manifestly highly immoral. It exposes the children of those who 

use it, in an eminent degree ta dissipation and crime. Of 690 

children prosecuted and imprisoned for crimes, more than 400 

were from intemperate families. Thus the venders of this liquor 

exert an influence which tends strongly to ruin not only those who 

use ity but their children; to render them more than four times 

as liable to idleness, profligacy, and ruin as the children of thoso 

who do not use it; and through them, to extend these evils to 

others, and to perpetuate them to future generations. This is a sin 

of which all who traffic in ardent spirit are guilty. Often, the 

' deepest pang which a dying parent feels for his children, is, lest 

through the instrumentality of such men, they should be ruined. 

And is it not horrible wickedness for them, by exposing for sale 

one of the chief causes of this tuin, to tempt them in the way to 

death. If he who takes money from others without an equiva- 

* Hod. Felii Graudy, I'uited States Seuator from tlie State of Tenneaiee. 


lent, or wickedly destroys property, is an immoral man, what is 
he who destroys character; who corrupts the children and youth, 
acd exerts an mfluence to extend and perpetuate immorality and 
crime through luture generations? This, every vender of ardent 
spirit does ; and if he continues in this business with a knowledge 
of the subject, it marks him as an habitual and persevering vio- 
lator of the will of God. 

3. Ardent spirit impairs, and oflen destroys reason. Of 781 
maniacs, in difierent insane hospitals, 39!2, according to the testi- 
mony of their own friends, were rendered maniacs by strong 
drink. And the physicians who had the care of them, gave it as 
their opinion, that this was the case with many of the others. 
Those who have had extensive experience, and the best opportu- 
nities for observation with regard to this malady, have stated, 
that probably from one half to three fourths of the cases of insan- 
ity, in many places, are occasioned in the same way. Ardent 
spirit is a poison, so difiusive and subtil that it is found by actual 
experiment, to penetrate even the brain. 

Dr. Kirk, of Scotland, dissected a man who died in a fit of in- 
toxication, a few hours after death. And, from the lateral ven- 
tricles of the brain*, 'he took a fluid distinctly visible to the smell, 
as whiskey ; and when he applied a candle to it in a spoon, it took 
fire, and burnt blue; ''the lambent blue flame," he says, *' char- 
acteristic of the poteon, .playing on the surface of the spoon for 
some seconds." 

It produces also in the children of those who use it freely, a 
predisposition to intemperance, insanity, and various diseases of 
both body and mind; which, if the cause is continued, becomes 
hereditary, and is transmitted from generation to generation; oc- 
casioning a diminution of size, strength, and energy; a feeble- 
ness of vision, a feebleness and imbecility of purpose, an obtuse- 
^'ess of intellect, a depravation of moral taste, a premature old 
age, and a general deterioration of the whole character. This is 
the case in every country, and in every age. 

Instances are known, where the first children of a family, who 
were born when their parents were temperate, have been healthy, 
intelligent, and active ; while the last children, who were born 
afler the parents had become intemperate, were dwarfish, and 
idiotic. A medical gentleman writes, '' I have no doubt that a 
disposition to nervous diseases of a peculiar character, is trans- 
mitted by drunken parents." Another gentleman states, that, 
in two families within his knowledge, the different stages of in- 
lomperance in the parents, seemed to be marked by a corres- 
ponding deterioration in the bodies and minds of the children, 
in one case, the eldest of the family i» respectable, industrious, 
and accumulates property ; the next is inferior, disposed to be in- 
dustrious, but spends all he can earn in strong drink. The third 
is dwarfish in body and mind, and, to use his own language, " a 
foor miserable remnant of a man." 

203"! FirTH REPORT. 1832. — APPENDIX. 93 

In another family of daughters, the first is a smart, active girl, 
with an intelligent well-balanced mind; the others are afflicted 
with different degrees of mental weakness and imbecility, and 
the youngest is an idiot. Another medical gentleman states, 
thai the first child of a family, who was born when the habits of 
the mother were good, was healthy and promising; while the 
four last children, who were born afler the mother had become 
addicted to the habit of using opium, appeared to be stupid; and 
all, at about the same age, sickened and died of a disease ap- 
parently occasioned by the habits of the mother. 

Another gentleman mentions a case more common, and more 
appalling still. A respectable and influential man early in life 
adopted the habit of using a little ardent spirit daily, because, as 
he thought, it did him good. He, and his six children, three 
sons and three daughters, are now in the drunkard's grave, and 
the only surviving child is rapidly following after, in the same 
way, to the same dismal end. 

Tlie best authorities attribute one half the madness, three- 
iburtha of the pauperism, and four-fiflhs of the crimes and wretch- 
edoyeas in Great Britain, to the use of strong drink. 

4. Ardent spirit increases the number, frequency and violence of 
diseases, and tends to bring those who use it, to a premature grave. 
In one place,* of about 7500 people, twenty -one persons were killed 
by it in a year. In another,! of 1 8 1 deaths, twenty were occasioned 
in the same way. Of ninety-one adults, who died in another city]; 
in one year, thirty-two, according to the testimony of the Medi- 
cal Association, were occasioned, directly or indirectly, by strong 
drink ; and a similar proportion had been occasioned by it in 
prerioils years. In another city,^ of sixty-seven adult deaths in 
one year, more than one-third were caused by intoxicating liquor. 
In another cityjl of 4,^92 deaths, 700 were, in the opinion of 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons, caused in the same way. 
The physicians of another city IT state that of thirty-two per- 
sons, male and female, who died in 1828, above eighteen years of 
age, ten, or nearly one-third, died of diseases occasioned by in- 
temperance ; that eighteen were males, and that of these, nine, 
or one half, died of intemperance. They also say, ** When we 
recollect that even the temperate use, as it is called, of ardent 
spirits, lays the foundation of a numerous train of incurable mal- 
adies, we feel justified in expressing the belief, that wore the use 
of distilled liquors entirely discontinued, the number of deaths 
among the male adults would be diminished at least one half" 

Says an eminent physician, ** Since our people jrcnerally have 
given up the use of spirit, they have not had more than half as 
much sickness as thev had before; and I have no doubt, should 
all the people of the United States cease to use it, that nearly 

* Portsnontli, N. H. t SaJero, Mass. t New Ilavcn, Conn. 

% New Bromwick, N. J. II Philatikslphia, Pcnn. ^ Annapolis, Maryland* 



half the sickness of the country would cease." Says another, 
after forty years, extensive practice, ** Half the men every year 
who die of fevers might recover, had they not been in the habit 
of using ardent spirit. Many a man, down for weeks with a 
fever, had he not used ardent spirit, would not have been 
confined to his house a day. He might have felt a slight 
headache; but a little fasting would have removed the difficulty, 
and the man been well. And many a man who was never in- 
toxicated, when visited with a fever, might be raised up as weH 
as not, were it not for that state of the system, which daily mod- 
erate drinking occasions, who now, in spite of all that can be 
done, sinks down and dies." 

Nor are we to admit for a moment the popular reasonmg, as 
applicable here, **that the abuse of a thing is no argument 
against its use; " for, in the language of the late Secretary of 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Philadelphia,* "All 
use of ardent spirits (t. t. as a drink) is an abuse. They arc mis- 
chievous under all circumstances." Their tendency, says Dr. 
Frank, when used even moderately, is to induce disease, prema- 
ture old age, and death. And Dr. Trotter states, that no cause 
of disease has so wide a range, or so large a share as the use of 
spirituous liquors. 

Dr. Harris states that the moderate use of spirituous liquors has 
destroyed many who were, never drunk; and Dr. Kirk gives it as 
his opinion, that men who were never considered intemperate, by 
daily drinking have often shortened life more than twenty years; 
and that the respectable use of this poison, kills more men than 
even drunkenness. Dr. Wilson gives it as his opinion, that the 
use of spirit in large cities, causes more diseases than confined 
air, unwholesome exhalations, and the combined influence of all 
other evils. 

Dr. Cheyne, of Dublin, Ireland, after thirty years practice and 
observation, gives it as his opinion, that should ten young men 
begin at twenty-one years of age to use but one glass of two 
ounces a day, and never increase the quantity, nine out of ten 
would shorten life more than ten years. But should moderate 
drinkers shorten life only five years, and drunkards only ten, and 
should there be but four moderate drinkers to one dninkard, it 
would, in thirty years, cut off, in the United States, 32,400,000 
years of human life. An aged physician in Maryland, states, 
that when the fever breaks out there, the men who do not use 
ardent spirit, are not half as likely as other men to have it; and 
that, if they do have it, they are ten times as likely to recover. 
In the island of Key West, on the coast of Florida, after a great 
mortality, it was found that every person who had died, was in 
the habit of using ardent spirit. The quantity used was after* 

* Samuel Enilen, M. D. 

206] FIFTH REPORT. — 1832. APPENDIX. 95 

wards diminished more than nine-tenths, and the inhabitants be- 
came remarkably healthy.* 

A gentleman of great respectability from the South, states, 
that those who fall victims to Southern climes, are almost inva- 
riably addicted to the free use of ardent spirit. Dr. Moscly, 
after a long residence in the West Indies, declares, ** that pei^ 
sons who drink nothing but cold water, or make it their principal 
drink, are but. little aflccted by tropical climates; that they un- 
dergo the greatest fatigue without inconvenience, and arc not so 
subject as others to dangerous diseases;" and Dr. Bell, ** that 
mm, when used even moderately, always diminishes the strength, 
and renders men more susceptible of disease ; and that we mi^ht 
as well throw oil mto a house, the roof of which is on fire, in or- 
der to prevent the flames from extending to the inside, as to pcur 
ardent spirits into the stomach, to prevent the effect of a \uA sun 
upon the skin." 

Of 77 persons found dead in different regions of country, G7, 
according to the coroneis' inquests, were occasioned by strrug 
drink. Aine-tenths of those who die suddenly afler the drinking 
of cold water, have been habitually addicted to the free use of 
ardent spirit; and that draught of cold water, that eflurt, or fa- 
tigue or exposure to the sun, or disease, which a man wlio uses 
no ardent spirit will bear without inconvenience or danger, will 
often kill those who use it. Their liability to sickness and to 
death is oflcn increased ten fold. And to all these evii.-^, those 
who continue to traffic in it, afler all the light which God in his 
providence has thrown upon the subject, arc knowingly accesso- 
ry. Whether they deal in it by wholesale or retail, by the car- 
go or the glass, they are, in their influence, drunkard-makers. 
So are also those who furnish the materials; those who adverti.<te 
the liquors, and thus promote their circulation; those who lease 
their tenements to be employed as dram-shops, or stores for the 
sale of ardent spirit; and those also who purchase their groceries 
of spirit dealers rather than of others, for the purpose of saving 
to the amount, which the sale of ardent spirit enables such men 
without loss to undersell their neighbors. These are ail acces- 
sory to the making of drunkards, and as such will be held to 
answer at the divine tribunal. So are those men who employ 
their shipping in transporting the liquors, or are in any way know- 
ingly aiding and abetting in perpetuating their use, as a drink, 
in the community. 

Four-fifths of those who are swept away by that direful mala- 
dy the cholera, are such as have been addicted to the use of in- 
toxicating drink. Dr. Bronson, of Albany, who lately spent 
some time in Ccinada, and whose professional character and stand- 
ing give great weight to his opinions, says, ** Intemperance of any 

* Address of Judge Cranch — FoorUi Report of the Arncrican Tempcrauce So- 
ciety, p. 91. 


Bpecics, but particularly intemperance in the use of distilled 
liquorSy has been a more productive cause of cholera than any 
other; and indeed than all others." And can men, for the sake 
of money, make it a business knowingly and perseveringly to 
furnish the most productive cause of cholera, and not be guilty 
of blood ? not manifest a recklessness of character which will 
brand the mark of vice and infamy on their foreheads ? ** Drunk- 
ards and tipplers," he adds, ** have been searched out with such 
unerring certai^ity, as to show that the arrows of death have not 
been dealt out with indiscrimination. An indescribable terror has 
spread through the ranks of this class of beings. They see the 
bolts of destruction aimed at their heads, and every one calls 
himself a victim. There seems to be a natural affinity between 
cholera and ardent spirits." What, then, in days of exposure 
to this malady, is so great a nuisance as the places which furnish 
this poison } Says Dr. Rhinelander, who with Dr. De Kay was 
deputed from New York to visit Canada, " We may ask who are 
the victims of this disease ? I answer, the intemperate it invari- 
ably cuts off." In Montreal, after 1200 had been attacked, a 
Montreal paper states, that ^^ not a drunkard who has been attack- 
ed has recovered of the disease, and almost all the victims have 
been at least moderate drinkers." In Paris, the 30,000 victims 
were, with few exceptions, those who freely nsed intoxicating 
liquors. Nine-tenths of those who died of the cholera in Poland 
were of the same class. 

In Petersburg and Moscow, the average number of deaths in 
the bills of mortality, during the prevalence of the cholera, when 
the people ceased to drink brandy, was no greater than when they 
used it, during the usual months of health — showing that brandy 
and attendant dissipation, killed as many people in the same time, 
as even the cholera itself, that pestilence which has spread sack- 
cloth over the nations. And shall the men who know this, and 
yet continue to furnish it, for all who can be induced to buy, 
escape the execration of being the destroyers of their race ? Of 
more than 1000 deaths in Montreal, it is stated that only two were 
members of Temperance Societies; and that as far as is known 
no members of Temperance Societies in Ireland, Scotland, or 
England, have as yet fallen victims to that dreadful disease. 

From Montreal, Dr Brcnson writes, ** Cholera has stood up 
here, as it has done every where, the advocate of Temperance. 
It has pleaded most eloquently, and y/ith tremendous effect. 
The disease has searched out the haunt of the drunkard, and has 
seldom left it without bearing away its victim. Even moderate 
drinkers have been but little better off. Ardent spirits, in any 
.sliape and in all quantities, have been highly detrimental. Some 
temperate men resorted to them, during the prevalence of the 
mnlady, as a preventive, or to remove the feeling of uneasiness 
about the stomach, or for the purpose of drowning their appre- 
h^-nsions; but they did it at their peril." 

807] riFTH REPORT. — ldd2.— APPEXDIX. 91 

Says the London Morning Herald, aAer stating that the chol- 
era fastens its deadly grasp upon this class of men, ''The same 
preference for the intemperate and uncleanly has characterized 
the cholera cvenj wliere. Intemperance is a qualification which 
it never overlooks. Often has it passed harmless over a wide 
population of temperate country people, and poured down, as an 
overflowing scourge, upon the drunkards of some distant town.*' 
Says another English publication, *' All experience, both in Great 
Britain and elsewhere, has proved, that those who have been 
addicted to drinking spirituous liquors, and indulging in ir- 
regular habits, have been the greatest sufferers from cholera. 
In some towns the drunkards are all dead. Rammohun Fingee, 
the famous Indian doctor, says, with regard to India, that people 
who do not take opium, or spirits, do not take this disorder, 
even when they are with those who have it. Monsieur Huher, 
who saw 2,160 persons perish in twenty-five days, in one town, 
in Russia, says, '*It is a most remarkable circumstance, that 
persons given to drinking have been swept away like flies. In 
Tiflis, containing 20,000 inhabitants, every drunkard has fallen — 
all are dead, not one remains.'' 

And, Dr. Sewall, of Washington city, in a letter from New 
York, states, that of 204 cases of cholera in the Park Hospital, 
there were only six temperate persons, and that those had re- 
covered; while 122 of the others, when he wrote, had died; and 
that the facts were similar in all the other hospitals. 

The men then who furnish ardent spirit as a drink for their fel- 
low men, are manifestly inviting the ravages and preparing the 
victims of that fatal disease, and of numerous other mortal dis- 
eases; and when inquisition is made for blood, and the effects of 
their employment are examined for the purpose of rendering to 
them, according to their work, they will be found, should they 
continue, to be guilty of knowingly destroying their fellow men. 

What right have men, by selling ardent spirit, to increase the 
danger, extend the ravages, and augment and perpetuate the 
malignancy of the cholera, and multiply upon the community 
numerous other mortal diseases? W^ho cannot see that it is a 
tbul, deep, and fatal injury inflicted on society? that it is, in 
a high degree, cruel and unjust? that it scatters the popula- 
tion of our cities, renders our business stagnant, and exposes our 
SODS and our daughters to premature and sudden death? And so 
manifestly is this the case, that the Board of Health of the city 
of Washington have declared that the vending of ardent spirit, 
tn any quantity, is a. nuisance; and, as such have ordered that it 
be discontinued for the space of Sk) days. This has been done 
in self-defence, to save the community from the sickness and 
death which the vending of spirit is adapted to occasion. Nor 
is this tendency to occasion disease and death, confined to the 
time when the cholera is raging. 



By the statement of the physicians in one of our cities,* 
it appears that the average number of deaths by intemperance, 
for several years, has been one to every 329 inhabitants; 
which would make, in the United States, 40,000 in a year. And 
it is the opinion of physicians, that as many more die of diseases 
which are induced, or aggravated and rendered mortal by the uso 
of ardent spirit. And to those results, all who make it, sell it, 
or use it, are accessory 

It is a principle in law, that the perpetrator of crime and the 
accessory to it are both guilty, and deserving of punishment. 
Men have been hanged for the violation of this principle. It 
applies to the law of Grod. And as the drunkard cannot go to 
heaven, can drunkard-makers? Are they not, when tried by the 
principles of the Bible, in view of the developements of Provi- 
dence, manifestly immoral men? men who, for the cake of money, 
will knowingly be instrumental in corrupting the character, in- 
creasing the diseases, and destroying the lives of their fellow-men? 

' * But*' says one, * * I never sell to drunkards ; I sell only to sober 
men." And is that any better? Is it a less evil to the commu- 
nity to make drunkards of sober men, than it is to kill drunkards? 
Ask that widowed mother. Who did her the greatest evil? The 
man who only killed her drunken husband, or the man who made 
a drunkard of her only son? Ask those orphan children. Who 
did them the greatest injury? the man who made their once so- 
ber, kind, and affectionate father a drunkard, and thus blasted 
all their hopes, and turned their home, sweet home, into the em- 
blem of hell; or the man who, after they had suffered for years 
the anguish, the indescribable anguish of the drunkard's chil- 
dren, and seen their heart-broken mother in danger of an un- 
timely grave, only killed their drunken father, and thus caused 
in their habitation, a great calm? Which of these two men 
brought upon them the greatest evil? Can you doubt? You 
then do nothing but make drunkards of sober men, or expose 
them to become such. Suppose that all the evils which you may 
be instrumental in bringing upon other children, were to come 
upon your own, and that you were to bear all the anguish 
which you may occasion; would you have any doubt that the man 
who would knowingly continue to be accessory to the bringing of 
these evils upon you, must be a notoriously wicked man? 

7. Ardent spirit destroys the aoul. 

Facts in great numbers are now before the public,t which show 
conclusively that the use of ardent spirit tends strongly to hin- 
der the moral and spiritual illumination and purification of men; 
and thus to prevent their salvation, and bring upon them the hor- 
rors of the second death. 

A disease more dreadful than the cholera, or any other that 

• Annapol'w, Maryland. 
, t S*^e Foarth and FUlh Reporti of the American Temperance Society. 

209] rirrH report. — 1832. — appem>ix. '99 

kills the body merely, is raging, and is universal, threatening 
the endless /death of the soul. A remedy is provided, all suffi- 
cient, and infinitely efficacious; but the use of ardent spirit aggra- 
vates the disease, and with millions and millions prevents the ap- 
plication of the remedy, and thus prevents its cflTect. Great multi- 
tudes therefore die the second death, who, were it not for this, 
alight live forever. 

More than four times as many, in proportion to the number, 
over wide regions of country, during the past year, have appar- 
ently embraced the gospel, and experienced its saving power, 
from among those who had renounced tho use of ardent spirit, as 
from those who continued to use it.* 

The Committee of the New York State Temperance Society, in 
view of the peculiar and unprecedented attention to religion which 
followed the adoption of the plan of abstinence from the use of 
strong drink, remark, that when this course is taken, the great- 
est enemy to the work of the Ilely Spirit on the minds and hearts 
of men appears to be more than half conquered. 

In three hundred towns, six-tenths of those, who, two years ago, 
belonged to Temperance Societies, but were not hopefully pious, 
have since become so ; and eight-tenths of those who have, with- 
in that time, become hopefully pious, who did not belong to Tem- 
perance Societies, have since joined them. In numerous places, 
where only a minority of the people abstained from the use of ar- 
dent spirit, nine-tenths of those, who have of late professed the 
religion of Christ, have been from that minority. This is occa- 
sioned in various ways. The use of ardent spirit keeps many away 
from the house of God, and thus prevents them from coming un- 
der the sound of the gospel. And many who do come, it causes 
to continue stupid, worldly minded, and unholy. A single glass 
a day, is enough to keep multitudes of men, under the full blaze 
of the gospel, from ever experiencing its illuminating and purify- 
ing power. £veu if they come to the light, and it shines upon 
them, it shines upon darkness, and the darkness does not com- 
prehend it. While multitudes who thus do evil, will not come 
to the light, lest their deeds shou^d be reproved. There is a total 
contrariety between the effect produced by the Holy Spirit, and 
the effect of spirituous liquor iipon the minds ^aQd heorts of men. 
The latter tends directly and powerfully to counteract the former. 
It tends to make men feel in a manner which Jesus Christ hates, 
rich spiritually, increased in goods, and in need of nothing; 
while it tends forever to prevent them from feeling, as sinners must 
feel, to buy of him gold tried in the fire, that they may be rich. 
Those who use it, therefore, are taking the direct course to de- 
stroy their own souls; and those who furnish it, are taking the 
course to destroy the souls of their fellow-men. 

In one town, more than twenty times as many, in proportion to 

• SsaflfUi Bflpirt of Amsricaa Temponuice Sodetj. p. 88. 


the number, professed the religion of Christ, during the past year ; 
and in another town, more than thirty times as many of those who 
did not use ardent spirit, as of those who did. In other towns, in 
which from one-third to two-thirds of the people did not use it, and 
from twenty to forty made a profession of religion, they were all 
from the same class. What then are those men doing, who fur- 
nish it, but taking the course which is adapted to keep men stu- 
pid in sin, till they sink into the agonies of the second death ? 
And is not this an immorality of a high and aggravated descrip- 
tion? and one which ought to mark every man, who understands 
its nature and effects, and yet continues to live in it, as a notori- 
ously immoral man ? What though he does not live in other 
immoralities — is not this enough ? Suppose he should manufac- 
ture poisonous miasma, and cause the cholera in our dwellings; 
sell knowingly the cause of disease, and increase more than one- 
fifth, over wide regions of country, the number of adult deaths, 
would he not be a murderer ? ** I know," says the learned Judge 
Cranch, **that the cup (which contains ardent spirit) is poison- 
ed: I know that it may cause death, that it may cause more 
than death, that it may lead to crime, to sin, to the tortures of ever- 
lasting remorse. Am I not then a murderer? worse than a mur- 
derei ? as much worse as the soul is better than the body ? — If 
ardent spirit, were nothing worse than a deadly poison — if they 
did not excite and inflame all the evil passions — if they did not 
dim that heavenly light, which the Almighty has implanted in 
our bosoms to guide us through the obscure passages of our pil- 
grimage — if they did not quench the Holy Spirit in our hearts, 
they wouid be comparatively harmless. It is their moral effect — 
it is the ruin of the soul which they produce, that renders them so 
dreadful. The difference between death by simple poison, and 
death by habitual intoxication, may extend to the whole differ- 
ence between everlasting happiness and eternal death." 

And say the New York State Society, at the head of which 
is the Chancellor of the State, ** Disguise that business as they 
will, it is still, in its true character, the business of destroying the 
bodies and souls of men. The vender and the maker of spirits, 
in the whole range of them, from the pettiest grocer to the most 
extensive distiller, are fairly chargeable not only with supplyif^ 
the appetite for spirits, but with a'eating that unnatural appetite; 
not only with supplying the drunkard with the fuel of his vices, 
but with making the drunkard. 

*' In reference to the taxes with which the making and vending 
of spirits loads the community, how unfair towards others is the 
occupation of the maker and vender of them! A town, for in- 
stance, contains one hundred drunkards. The profit of makin|^ 
these drunkards, is enjoyed by some half a dozen persons; but 
the burden of these drunkards rests upon the whole town. The 
Executive Committee do not suggest that there should be such a* 
law; but they ask whether there would be one law in the whole 

211] rirru refort.-^1832. — ^appendix. 101 

statute-book, more righteous than that which should reqtiire those 
who have the profit of making our drunkards to be burdened with 
the support of them." 

Multitudes, there is reason to believe are now waihng, beyond the 
reach of hope, who, had it not been for ardent spirit, might have 
been in glory; and multitudes more, if men continue to fur^ 
nish it as a drink, especially sober men, will go down to weep 
and wail with them to endless ages. 

No. III. 

"But," says one, ''the traffic in ardent spirit is a lawful 
business; it is approbated by law, and is therefore right.'' But 
the keeping of gambling-houses is, in some cases, approbated 
by human law. Is that therefore right? The keeping of broth- 
els is, in some cases, approbated by law. Is that therefore 
right? Is it human law that is the standard of morality and 
raigion? May not a man be a notoriously wicked man, and yet 
not violate human law? The question is. Is it right? Does it ac- 
cord with the divine law? Does it tend in its effects to bring 
glory to God in the highest, and to promote the best good of 
mankind? If not, the word of God forbids it ; and if a man, 
who has the means of understanding its nature and effects, con- 
tinues to follow it, he does it at the peril of his soul. 

*' But," says another, '' if I should not sell it, I could not sell 
-90 many other things." If you could not, then you are forbid- 
den by the word of God to sell so many other things. And if 
you continue to make money by that which tends to destroy your 
fellow-men, you incur the displeasure of Jehovah. '* But if I 
should not sell it, I must change my business.'* Then you are 
required by the Lord to change your business. A voice from 
tlie throne of his excellent glory , cries, Turn ye, turn ye from 
this evil way; for why will ye die t 

" If I should turn from it, I could not support my family.'' 
This is not true; at least no one has a right to say that it is 
true, till he has tried it, and done his whole duty, by ceasing to 
do evil and learning to do well, trusting in God, acd found that 
his family is not supported. Jehovah declares that such as seek 
the Lord, and are governed by his will, shall not want any good 
thing. And till men hare made the experiment of ol)eying him 
in ^1 things, and found that they cannot support their families, 
they have no right to say that it is necessary for them to seA ar^ 
dent s])irit. And if they do say this, it is a libel on the divine 
character and government. There is no truth in it. He who 
feeds the sparrow and clothes the lily, will, if they do rights 
provide for them and their families; and there is no shadow of 
necessity, in order to obtain support, for them to carry on a busi- 
ness which destroy? their fellow-men. 

"But others vA\ do it, if I do not.^ Others will send out 
their vessels, steal the black man, and sell him and his children ii>- 

1^ ^ 


to perpetual bondage, if you do not. Others will steal, rob, and 
commit murder, if you do not; and why may not you do it, and 
have a portion of the profit, as well as they ? Because if you 
do, you will be a thief, a robber, and a murderer, like them. 
You will here be partaker of their guilt, and herealler of their 
plagues. Every friend therefore to you, to your Maker, or the 
eternal interests of men, will, if acquainted with this subject, 
say to you. As you value the favor of God, and would escape his 
righteous and eternal indignation, renounce this work of death; 
for he that sowcth death, shall also reap death. 

^' But our fathers imported, manufactured, and sold ardent 
spirit; and were not they good men? Have not they gone to 
heaven?", Men, who professed to be good, once had a multi- 
plicity of wives; and have not some of them too gone to heaven? 
Men who professed to be good, once, were engaged in the slave 
trade; and have not some of them gone to heaven? But can 
men, who understand the will of God, with regard to these sub- 
jects, continue to do such things now, and yet go to heaven? 
The principle which applies in this case, and which makes the 
difference between those who did such things once, and those 
who continue to do them now, is, that to which Jesus Christ re- 
ferred, when he said. If I had not come and spoken to them, they 
had not had sin; but now they have no cloak for their sin. The 
days of that darkness and ignorance which God may have winked 
at, have gone by; and he now commandeth all men, to whom his 
will is made known, to repent. Your fathers, when they were 
engaged in selling ardent spirit, did not know that all men, under 
all circumstances, would be better without it. They did not 
know that it caused three-quarters of the pauperism and crimes 
in the land — that it deprived many of reason — groatly increased 
the number and severity of diseases, and brought down such 
multitudes to an untimely grave. The facts had not then been 
t^ollected and published. They did not know that it tended so fatally 
to obstruct the progress of the gospel, and ruin for eternity the 
souls of men. You do know it, or have the means of knowing 
it. You cannot sin with as little guilt as did your fathers. The 
facts, which are the voice of God in his providence and manifest 
his will, are now before the world. By them he has come and 
spoken to you. And if you continue, under these circumstances, 
to violate his will, you will have no cloalc, no covering, no ex- 
cuse for your sin. And though sentence against this evil work 
is not executed at once, judgment, if you continue, will not lin- 
ger, nor will damnation slumber. 

The accessary and the principal in the commission of crime, 
are both guilty. Both by human laws are condemned. The 

Srinciplc applies to the law of God; and not oii!v drunkards, but 
runkard-makers — not only murderers, but those vho excite them 
lo commit murder, and furnish them with the kno vn cause of 

213] FIFTH REPORT. 1832.— APPENDIX. 103 

their evil deeds, will, if they understand what they do, and con- 
tinue thus to rebel against God, be shut out of heaven. 

Among the Jews, if a man had a beast, that went out and 
killed a man, the beast, said Jehovah, shall be slain, and his 
flesh shall not be eaten. The owner must lose the whole of him, 
as a testimony to the sacredness of human life; and a warning 
to all, not to do any thing, or connive at any thing, that tended 
to destroy it. But the owner, if he did not know that the beast 
was dangerous and liable to kill, was not otherwise to be pun- 
ished. But if he did know, if it had been testified to the owner 
that the beast was dangerous and liable to kill, and he did not 
keep him in, but let him go out, and he killed a man, then, by 
the direction of Jehovah, the beast and the owner were both to 
be put to death. The owner, under these circumstances, was 
held responsible, and justly too, for the injury which his beast 
might do. Though men are not required, or permitted now, to 
execute this law, as they were when God was the Magistrate, 
yet the reason of the law remains. It is founded in justice, and 
is eternal. To the pauperism, crime, sickness, insanity, and 
death, temporal and eternal, which ardent spirit occasions, 
those who knowingly furnish the materials, those who manufac- 
ture, and those who sell it, are all accessory, and as such will 
be held respooeible at the divine tribunal. There was a time 
when the owners did not know the dangerous and destructive 
qualities of this article-^when the facts had not been developed 
andpoblished, nor the minds of men turned to the subject; when 
they did not know that it caused such a vast portion of the vice 
and wretchedness of the community, and such wide-spreading 
desolation to the temporal and eternal interests of men; and 
althoagh it then destroyed thousands, for both worlds, the guilt 
of the men who sold it, was comparatively small. But now 
they sin against light, pouring doM'n upon them with unutterable 
brightness; and if they know what they do, and in full view of 
its consequences, continue that work of death — not only let the 
poison go out, but funiish it, and send it out to all who are dis- 
posed to purchase, — it had been better for them, and better for 
many others, if they had never been born. For, 

1. It is the selling of that, without the use of which, nearly all 
the business of this world was conducted, till within less than 
three hundred years; and which of course is not needfttl. 

2. It is the selling of that, which was not generally used by 
the people of this country, for more than a hundred years af\er 
the country was settled; and which, by hundreds of thousands, 
and some in all kinds of lawful business, is not used now. Once 
they did use it, and thought it needful, or useful. But by exper- 
iment, the best evidence in the world, they have found that they 
were mistaken ; and that they are in all respects better without 
it. And the cases are so numerous as to make it certain, that 



should the experiment be fairly made, this would be the case 
with all. Of course, it is not useful. 

3. It is the selling of that which is a real, a subtil, and very 
destructive poison; a poison, which by men in health cannot be 
taken, without deranging healthy action, and inducing more or 
less disease, both of body and mind; which is, when taken in 
any quantity, positively hurtful; and which is, of course, forbid- 
den by the word of God. 

4. It is the selling of that, which tends to form an unnatural 
and a very dangerous and destructive appetite; which, by grati- 
fication, like the desire of sinning in the man who sins, tends con- 
tinually to increase; and which thus exposes all who form it, to 
come to a premature grave. 

5. It is the selling of that, which causes a great portion of all 
the pauperism in our land; and thus for the benefit of a few, 
(those who sell) brings an enormous tax on the whole communi- 
ty. Is this fair.^ Is it just.^ Is it not exposing our children 
and youth to become drunkards? And is it not inflicting great 
evils on society.^ 

6. It is the selling of that, which excites to a great portion of 
all the crimes that are committed ; and which is thus shown to be 
in its effects hostile to the moral government of God, and to the 
social, civil, and religious interests of men; at war with their 
highest good, both for this life and the life to come. 

7. It is the selling of that, the sale and use of which, if con- 
tinued, will form intemperate appetites, which if formed will be 
gratified; and thus will perpetuate intemperance, and all its 
abominations, to the end of the world. 

8. It is the selling of that which makes wives widows, and chil- 
dren orphans; which leads husbands oAen to murder their wives, 
and wives to murder their husbands; parents to murder their 
children, and children to murder their parents; and which pre- 
pares multitudes for the prison, for the gallows, and for hell. 

9. It is the selling of that which greatly increases the amount 
and severity of sickness; which in many cases destroys reason; 
which causes a great portion of all the sudden deaths; and brings 
down multitudes, who were never intoxicated, and never con- 
demned to suffer the penalty of the civil law, to an untimely 

10. It is the selling of that which tends to lessen the health, 
the reason, and the usefulness, to diminish the comfort and short- 
en the lives of all who habitually use it. 

11. It is the selling of that which darkens the understanding, 
MAfs the coQSciance, pollutes the affections, and debases all 
tlie powers of man. 

12. It is the selling of that which weakens the power of mo- 
tives to do right, and increases the power of motives to do wrong; 
and is thus shown to be in its effects hostile to the moral govern- 
oiect of God^ as well as to the temporal and eternal interests of 


men; which excites men to rebel against him, and to injure and 
destroy one another. And no man can sell it without exerting 
an influence which tends to hinder the reign of the Lord Jesus 
Christ over the minds and hearts of men, and to lead them to 
persevere in iniquity, till, notwithstanding all the kindness of Je- 
hovah, their case shall become hopeless. 

No. IV. 
Suppose a man, when about to commence the traffic in ardent 
spirit, should write in great capitals on his sign-board, to be seen 
and read of all men, what he will do, viz. that so many of the in- 
habitants of this town or city, he will, for the sake of getting their 
money, make paupers, and send them to the alms-house ; and thus 
oblige the whole community to support them and their families; 
that so many others he will excite to the commission of crimes, 
and thus increase the expenses, and endanger the peace and 
welfare of the community ; that so many he will send to the jail, and 
BO many more to the state prison, and so many to the gallows ; 
that so many he will visit with sore and distressing diseases; 
and, in so many cases, diseases which would have been compar- 
atively harmless, he will by his poison render fatal; that in so 
many cases he will deprive persons of reason, and in so many 
cases will cause sudden death; that so many wives he will make 
widows, and so many ciiildren he will make orphans, and that in 
so many cases he will cause the children to grow up in ignorance, 
vice, and crime, and aller being nuisances on earth, will hrin^ 
them to a premature grave; that in so many cases he will pre- 
vent the efficacy of the gospel, grieve away the Holy Gho-st, and 
ruin for eternity the souls of men. And suppose he could, and 
should give some faint conception of what it is to lose the soul, 
and of the overwhelming guilt and coming wretchedness of him 
who is knowingly instrumental in producing this ruin; and sup- 
pose he should put at the bottom of the sign this question, viz. 
What, you may ask, can be my object in acting so much like a 
devil incarnate, and bringing such accumulated wretchedness 
npon a comparatively happy people? and under it should put 
the true answer, Money; and go on to say, I have a family to 
support; I want money, and must have it; this is my business, 1 
was brought up to it. And if I should not follow it, I must rhanore 
my business, or I could not support my family. And as all fart s 
begin to gather blackness at the approaching ruin, and all hearts 
to boil with indignation at its author, suppose he should add, 
for their consohition, ** If I do not bring this drstruction npon you. 
somebody else will" What would they think of him? v.JKjf 
would all the world think of liim? what oufcht they to think of 
him? And is it any worse for a man to tell the people bri'or* - 
hand, honestly, what he will do, if they buy and use iiis poi.-orj, 
than it is to ^o on and do it ? And what if they are not aware 
of the mischief which he is doing them, and he can accomplish 



it, through their own perverted and voluntary agency? Is knot 
equally abominable, if lie knows it, and does not cease from pro- 
ducing it? 

And ifthore are churches whose members are doing such things, 
and those churches are not blessed with the presence and favor 
of the Holy Ghost, they need not be at any loss for the reason. 
And if they should never again, while they continue in this 
state, be blessed with the reviving influence of God's Spirit, they 
need not be at any loss for the reason. Their own members are 
exerting a strong and fatal influence against it; and that too, 
after Divine Providence has shown them what they are doing. 
And in many such cases there is awful guilt, with regard to this 
thing, resting upon the whole charch. Though they have known 
for years what these men were doing; have seen the misery, 
heard the oaths, witnessed the crimes, and known the wretched- 
ness and deaths, which they have occasioned; and perhaps have 
spoken of it, and deplored it among one another; many of them 
have never spoken on this subject, to the persons themselves. 
They have seen them scattering firebrands, arrows, and death, 
temporal and eternal ; and yet have never so much as warned 
them on the subject, and never besought them to give up their 
work of death. An individual lately conversed with one of his 
professed Christian brethren, who was engaged in this traffic, 
and told him not only that he was ruining for both worlds many 
of his fellow-men, but that his Christian brethren viewed hu 
business as inconsistent witli his profession, and tending to coun- 
teract all efforts for the salvation of men: and the man, after 
frankly acknowledging th^t it was wrong, said that this was the 
first time that any one of them had conversed with him on the 
subject. This may be the case with other churches; and while 
it is, the whole church is conniving at the evil, and the whole 
church is guilty. Every brother in such a case is bound, on his 
own account, to converse with him who is thus aiding the powers 
of darkness, and opposing the kingdom of Jesus Christ, and try 
to persuade him to cease from this destructive business. And 
the whole church is bound to make eftbrts, and use all proper 
means, to accomplish this result. And before half the individual 
members have done their duty on this subject, they may expect, 
if the offending brother has, and manifests the spirit of Christ, 
that he will cease to be an offence to his brethren, and a stumb* 
ling-block to the world, over which such multitudes fall to the 
pit of woe. And till the church, the whole church, do their duty 
on this subject, they cannot be freed from the guilt of conniving 
at the evil. And no wonder if the Lord leaves them to be as the 
mountains of Gilboa, on which there was neither rain or dew. 
And should the church receive from the world those who make it 
a business to carry on this notoriously immoral traffic, they wiU 
greatly increase their guilt, and ripen for the awful displeasure 
of their God. And unless members of the church shall cease tt 

'] rirrH report. — 1S32. — appendix. 107 

ch, l>v their busin^^ss, that fatal error that it is rijrht for men 
buy and i:gc ardent spirit as drink, the evil will never be 
idicated ; intemperance will never cease, and the day of niil- 
mial glory never come. And each individual who names the 
me of Christ, is called upon, by the providence of God, to art 
I this subject openly and decidedly for him; and in such a man- 
IT as is adapted to banish intemperance and all its abominations 
arm the earth, and to cause temperance and all its attendant 
leuefits universally to prevail. And if ministers of the Gospel 
md members of Christian churches do not connive at the sin of 
fomishing this poison as a drink, for their fellow-men; and men 
irtio, in opposition to truth and duty, continue to be engaged in 
tkus destructive employment, arc viewed and treated as wicked 
men; the work which the Lord hath commenced and carried 
forward, with a rapidity and to an extent hitherto unexampled in 
the history of the world, will continue to move onward, till not 
a name, nor a trace, nor a shadow of a drunkard, or a drunkard- 
maker shall be found on the globe. 

Professed Christian: — You have been redeemed, not with 
silver, nor with gold, but with the precious blood of Jesus Christ. 
When all were dead, he died for all, that they who live should not 
lire unto themselves, but unto him that died for them and rose 
again. And the distinguishing mark of his people, is, that no 
one of them, liveth unto himself; and no one dieth unto himself. 
While they live they live unto the Lord, and when they die they 
die unto the Lord. And it is on tiiis condition only, that, living 
or dying, they can be the Lord's, in such a sense as to meet his 
approbation or enter into his joy. They must make it the grand 
object in their whole influence, to honor him, and promote the 
holiness and happiness of his kingdom; to glorify the God of 
heaven, and to do good, and good only, gs they have opportunity, 
to all men. And it is only on this condition, that they can be 
owned of him as his followers and friends in the great day; for 
he that is not for him is against him, and he that gathereth not 
with him, scattereth abroad. 

In the manufacture or sale of ardent spirit as a drink, you do 
not, and you cannot honor God ; but you do, and so long as you 
conitinuc it you will, greatly dishonor Him. You exert an influ- 
ence which tends directly and strongly to ruin, for both worlds, 
fonr fellow-men. Should you take a quantity of that poisonous 
liquid into your closet, present it bsfore the Lord; confess to 
him its nature and eficcts, spread out before him what it has 
done and what, it will do, and attempt to ask him to bless you in 
extending its influence ; it would, unless your conscience is al- 
leady seared as with a hot iron, appear to you like blasphemy. 
You could no more do it, than you could take the instruments 
©f gambling, and attempt to ask God to bless you in extending 
them through the community. And why not, if it is a lawful 
bonncBs ? Why not ask God to increase it, make you an 


instrument in extending it over the country, and perpetuating it 
to all future generations. Even the worldly and profane man, 
when he hears about professing Christians offering prayer to God, 
that he would bless them in the manufacture or sale of ardent 
spirit, involuntarily shrinks back, and says, ** That is too bad." 
He can see that it is an abomination. And if it is too bad for a 
professed Christian to pray about it, is it not too bad for him to 
practise it.^ If you continue, under all the light which God in 
his providence has furnished with regard to its hurtful nature 
and destructive effects, to furnish ardent spirit as a drink for 
your fellow-men, you will run the fearful hazard of losing your 
soul ; and you will exert an influence which powerfully tends to 
destroy the souls of your fellow-men. Every time you furnish it, 
you are rendering it less likely that they will be illuminated, 
sanctified, and saved; and more likely that they will continue in 
sin, and go down to the chambers of death. And could the 
quantities of spirit which you furnish come back and tell you 
the history of their effects, and trace their consequences down 
through future ages; could they open before you their resuhs, 
as you will see them in eternity, you would not, unless you are 
given up of God to hardness of heart and blindness of mind, con- 
tinue such an employment for all the wealth of creation. You 
would see with great clearncbs that you lessen exceedingly the 
prosp*^ct of your own salvation ; increase greatly the danger of 
the destruction of your children ; and exert an influence which 
tends strongly to perpetuate sin and death to all future genera- 
tions. And can you, while you continue knowingly to do this, 
without presumption, hope for heaven? What if you do not sell 
to drunkards, and thus assist in killing them? Do you not assist 
in making drunkards of sober men? And is it a less crime to 
assist in destroying sober men, than in destroying drunkards? 
What if you must change your business, provided you do not 
continue to sell ardent spirit? So must the makers of shrines 
for the goddess Diana have changed their business, provided 
hcV temple were deserted, and her worship despised. But was 
that any good reason why they should continue to be accessory 
to the perpetuating of idol worship? Could professed Chris- 
tians, for the sake of money, continue to do it, without being par- 
takers in the guilt of idolatry? And let it not be forgotten^ that 
covclouaness, which leads a person for the sake of money to ruin 
his fellow-men, is idolatry; and that no idolator hath any inheri- 
tance in the kingdom of Christ. ** Neither thieves, norcore/oti^, 
nor drunkards, shall inherit the kingdom of God." 

Long afler Jeroboam the son of ISebat was dead, God declared 
that he would visit with indignation, and afflict with sore and dis- 
tressing judgments, the people that were then living, for the in- 
iquities of Jeroboam, and his sin wherewith he made Israel ta 
.sin. Not that he would punish- them for the sins of Joroboani; 
b'll for their bclirving the doctrines which* he taught, and follow- 

219] FIFTH REPORT. 1832. APPENDIX. 109 

iog the example which he set them. He taught by example that 
it was right, and would be for their interest to worship idols; or 
to pursue their own way in opposition to the will of God. And 
the efiects of that fatal error were felt hundreds and thousands of 
vcars after he was dead ; and exerted an influence which tended 
to lead multitudes from generation to generation to the world of 
wo. And youT example, if you continue your present course, 
will produce similar effects. You are teaching by business, the 
most efficacious way in the world, that it is nght tor men, if they 
can make money by it, and the civil law docs not forbid it, to 
furnish ardent spirit as a drink for their fellow-men; and of 
course that it is right for men to buy, and to use it; a doctrine 
which has tended to form a great portion of all the intemperate 
appetites and to make a great part of all the drunkards in the 
world. It is a doctrine which is false, and which is fatal. It is 
marked in the providence of God, as a heresy, more destructive 
than almost any other; and it is now, there is reason to believe, 
destroying thousands and millions of souls. And can you, for 
the sake of money, continue to teach such a doctrine, and not be 
condemaed at God's tribunal? Nor will the effects of what you 
have taught oq this subject, stop with you. They will go down 
to your children, and children's children. Hundreds of years afler 
you are dead, men may be going down to death, and to hell, in 
consequence of what you are now doing. It is treason against the 
difine government, for men to teach by example that they may 
continue in a business which is in itself wrong, for the sake of 
making money. And no man can proclaim it, without raising a 
current, that may flow on ader he is dead, and bear all who shall 
follow it to the world of wo. And the more respectable the 
character of the man who shall teach this doctrine, the greater the 
mischief, and (he more tremendous the guilt. Hence one church 
member by propagating such a doctrine, may do more mischief to 
others, than many drunkards. If the drunkard-making business 
is to be continued, let it be done only by drunkards. It is a 
business too mean, too degraded, too immoral, too guilty, and 
loo destructive to be carried on by any sober man; and especial- 
ly bjr any professed Christian. 

It is always worse for a church member to do an immoral act, 
and teach an immoral sentiment, than for an immoral man; be- 
cause it does greater mischief And this is understood, and 
often adverted to, by the immoral themselves. Even the drunk- 
ards arc now stating it to their fellow drunkards, that church 
members are not better than they. And to prove it, are quot- 
ing the fact, that although they arc not drunkards, and perhaps 
do not get drunk, they, for the sake of money, carry on the busi- 
aess of making drunkards. And are not the men and their busi- 
ness of the same character? '* The deacon," says a drunkard, 
" will not use ardent spirit himself: he says * It is poison! ' But 
ibr six cents he will sell it to me. And though he will not furnish 



into his own children, for he says, * It will ruin them, 'yet he will 
fuini.-^h to mine. And there is my neighbor who was once as so- 
ber as the deacon himself; — but he had a pretty farm, which the 
deacon wanted; and, for the sake of getting it, he has made him 
a drunkard. And his wife, as good a woman as ever lived, has 
died of a broken heart, because her children would follov; their 
father." No, you cannot convince even a drunkard, that the 
man who is selling him that which he knows is killing him, is any 
better than the drunkard himself. Nor can you convince a so- 
ber man, that he, who, for the sake of money, will, with his eyes 
open, make drunkards of sober men, is any less guilty than the 
drunkards he makes. 

Is this, writing upon your employment "Holiness unto the 
Lord; " without which no one from the Bible can expect to be 
prepared for the holy joys of heaven? As ardent spirit is a poi- 
son, which when used even moderately, tends to harden the 
heart-, to sear the conscience, to blind the understanding, to pol- 
lute the affections, to weaken, and derange, and debase the 
whole man, and to lessen the prospect of his eternal life, it is the 
indispensable duty of each person to renounce it. And he can- 
not refuse to do this, without becoming, if acquainted with this 
subject, knowingly accessory to the temporal and eternal ruin of 
his fellow-men. And what will it profit you to gain even the 
whole world by that which ruins the soul ? My friend, you are 
soon to die, and in eternity to witness the influence, the whole 
influence which you exert while on earth, and you are to witness 
its consequence, in joy or sorrow, to endless bein^. Imagine 
yourself now, where you will soon be, on your death bed. And 
imagine that you have a full view of the property which you have 
caused to be wasted; or which you have gained without furnish- 
ing any valuable equivalent ; of the health which you have de- 
stroyed, and the characters which you have demoralized; of the 
wives that you have made widows, and the children that you have 
made orphans; of all the lives that you have shortened, and all 
the souls that you have destroyed. O! imagine that these are 
the only ** rod and staff" which you have to comfort you, as vou 
rro down the valley of the shadow of death; and that they will all 
moot you in full array at the judgment, and testify against you. 
What will it profit you, though you have gained more money 
than you otherwise would; when you have lefl it all far behind 
in that world which is destined to fire, and the day of perdition 
of ungodly men? What will it profit, when you are enveloped in 
the influence which you have exerted; and are experiencing its 
consequences to endles ages; finding forever that as a man sow- 
eth so must he reap; and that if he has sowed death, he must 
reap dtnlhl Do not any longer assist in destroying men ; nor 
expose yourselves and your children to be destroyed. Do good, 
and good only, to all as you have opportunity and good shal] 
come unto yuu. 


H. (P. 43.) 

mhJune, 1830. 

Measures are in progress to supply each faniiiy in this towu 
with the Circular of the A. T. S. and Ware's Address before the 
T. S. of Cambridge. Some other towns in this county are dis- 
tributing the Circuhir; and it is probable it will soon go into 

every house in the county. I feel under obligations to 

for their generous offer, and feel heartily willing to pay 

them in their own coin, — and will pay more than my share of the 
expense of supporting an agent who is qualified for the impor- 
tant duty — to be employed in the metropolis of the U. S. in go- 
ing from merchant to merchant who may deal in ardent spirits 
in any way; either as commission merchants, jinporters, distil- 
lers, or grocers. These are the men, who are commanders of 
the great army of retailers, not only in the great city, but through 
tho country; and not only commanders, but they fill the depots 
from which this desolating army are furnished with ammunition. 
If this class of human beings, who are styled gefUlemefif could by 
any means be persuaded to wash their hands from dealing in this 
'* mother of miseries,^' the retailers would be like the armies of 
the Philistines, when Goliah fell by i>hvid. — But so long as the 
little retailers can have such champicms as the most opulent mer- 
chants in Boston and New- York, persuading them to pprchase 
the article, and daily advertising all sorts and all quantities 
in the business papers, they will stand out in battle array against 
the eflbrts of Temperance Societies. I fervently believe, that 
the temperance reformation cannot progress farther in this 
region, until these men are made to sec and feel the evil 
of their deeds. To my certain knowledge, some of the 
officers of the oldest society in this state, within one year were 
large dealers in the poison, in Boston. With one hand they 
would hand out tracts on the evils of intemperance, or money to 
pay temperance agents, and with the other, hand out (perhaps 
to the same persons) bills of rum sufficient to make a hundred 
drunkards ! I pray Him who is able to make men fcely that the 
time may soon come when men who move in the highest circles, 
and where example rules the world, many of whom profess to be 
His followers, may see the gross inconsistency of their conduct, 
and renounce every species of the rum trade. The country 
dealers who yet make drunkards would be looked down, were 
they not sanctioned in their evil deeds by men of the highest 
standing in Boston and New-York. 

You know Gen. Washington pointed out the evils of short en- 
listments, and urged the enlistments of '* during war men.^' The 
temperance cause has suffered much from short enlistments. J 
hope you will urge the necessity to all who enlist in our great 
tnd good cause, of engaging during war. {Genius of Temp,) 



I. (P. 44.) 

The Pastoral Association, and the General Associations of 
Massachusetts, and the General Association of Connecticut and 
Maine, embracing more than five hundred Evangelical ministers 
of the gospel, at their last meeting, passed tlic following Resolu- 
tions, viz. 

1. Resolved, that in the judgment of this Association, the traf- 
fic in ardent spirit as a drink is an immorality, and ought to be 
viewed and treated as such throughout the world. 

2. Resolved, that this immorality is utterly inconsistent with a 
profession of the Christian religion; and that those who have the 
means of understanding its nature and effects, and yet coatinue 
to be engaged in it, ought not to be admitted as members of 
Christian churches. 

3. Resolved, that in our view those members of Christian 
churches who continue to be engaged in the traflic in ardent 
spirit as a drink, are violating the principles and requirements of 
the Christian religfion. 

"Among the means which the Lord has graciously owned 
and blessed during this year of jubilee, many of your reports 
fpecially commemorate the influence of Temperance Societies. 
It is now a well-established fact, that the common use of strong 
drink, however moderate, has been a fatal, soul-destroying bar- 
rier against the influence of the gospel. Consequently, wli«re- 
ever total abstinence is practised, a powerful instrument of re- 
sisting the Holy Spirit is removed, and a new avenue of access 
to the hearts of men, opened to the power of truth. Thus, in 
numerous instances, and in various places, during the past year, 
the temperance reformation has been a harbinger, preparing the 
way of the I^ord; and the banishment of that liquid poison, which 
kills both soul and body, has made way for the immediate en- 
trance of the Spirit and the word, the glorious train of the Re- 

The cause <^f temperance continues to extend and multiply its 
triumphs, notwithstanding the machinations of Satan, and the mad- 
ness of the multitudes, who are striving to demolish the onky bar- 
rier which can secure them from destruction. The testimony oi 
our churches, as to the signal success, which has crowned the 
efforts of the friends of this cause, the astonishing eflTect which 
has thus been produced upon public sentiment, and upon the 
habits and customs of the higher classes, and especially as to the 
unquestionable connection between total abstinence from ardent 
spirits, and the success of the gospel, is of the most decided and 
gratifying character. The formation of a Temperance Associa- 
tion in each congregation, has taken place extensively, with the 
happiest results. While, therefore, in view of these things, the 
frienda of temperance are called upon to thank Grod and take 

233] TOTTH KEPORT. 1832.-^APPElfDIX« 118 

courage ; let them remember that much, very much, remains to 
be done. Let them not remit their vigilance and activity ; for 
their foes never slumber. All the powers and resources of the 
kingdom of darkness are vigorously employed in opposition. 
Much indeed has been done, in staying this plague, among the 
more intelligent and elevated orders of society ; but all the en- 
ergies of Christian benevolence are demanded, to stem the tor- 
rent which is spreading misery, and guilt, and ruin, through the 
dwellings of labor and poverty. A great work is still to be 
efiected in the church. The sons of Levi must be purified. The 
accursed thing must be removed from the camp of the Lord. 
While professing Christians continue to exhibit the baleful ex- 
ample, of tasting the drunkard's poison; or, by a sacrilegious 
traffic, to make it their employment to degrade and destroy their 
fellow-men; those who love the Lord must not keep silence, 
but must lifl their warning voice, and use all lawful efforts, to 
remove this withering reproach from the house of God. Let all 
ear congregations become efficient Temperance Associations ; 
let all our ministers and elders be united, consistent and perse- 
▼eriog in this cause, and we may derive from experience a full 
persuasion, that the ravages of the direful foe will be arrested; 
that the rising race will be rescued from his deadly grasp, and 
thoB a most formidable obstacle, to the success of the Gospel, 
wSU at last be removed." 

(Hioilef of the General AnemUy of the Preebyteriea Cfaaraii 
in the United Statoi, 18S2.) 

J. (P. 48.) 

A correspondent in a Western State has sent ua the following 
fltatement. Its truth may be relied on. 

An owner of one of the principal taverns in -»— has been 
heard to declare, that since his knowledge, there had been be- 
tween three hundred and five hundred bar-keepers in that tavern, 
and out of the whole of them he knew but eight or ten, who have 
■ot ultimately become intemperate, two of whom are yet in that 
tavern. What an awful warning this ought to be to those pa- 
rents who put their sons to tavern-keeping ! What an enormous 
■anufactory of drunkards tUs tavern has been ! And yet one 
of the owners of it, who has kept it for the last ten or twenty 
jears, and who knows this appalling fact, still keeps it, and makes 
fnfunm of rel^on ! (A*, x. EvangtUit.) 




K. (P. 53.) 

Temperance Reform in China. — The Chinese authorities at 
Canton have caused proclamations to be pasted on the walls, 
forbidding the sale of wine or spirits to foreign seamen. This 
measure was much needed, as European and American seamen, 
in their fits of intoxication, have oflen disturbed the public peace, 
and sometimes so seriously as to cause the suspension of com- 
mercial intercourse, between China and the European Nations. 
In the present act we see the legislation of an Asiatic despot, 
directed to the promotion of the public good; we see a heathen 
government defending its subjects from the immoralities of those 
who claim to be Christians; we see a salutary guardianship of 
the morals of professed Christians and republicans, by a heathen 
monarch; and we see all this on the very site of a Christian mis- 
sionary station, designed to instruct these same heathen, in the 
pure precepts of our religion. Such a sight should make Amer- 
icans blush, and send Christians to their closets, weeping. {Jour, 

Ij. (P. 63.) 

Important Decision in Chancery, The Albany Argus contains 
the following extracts from the decision of Chancellor Walworth, 
in the case of Jacob Hiller, an idiot : — 

*' I have recently learned that many suits at law have been 
brought against idiots, lunatics, and drunkards, afler the appoint- 
ment of committees by this court ; and sometimes for debts con- 
tracted by them against the wishes of their committee, after their 
appointment. No debt contracted by the idiot, lunatic, or drunk- 
ard, under such circumstances, can be paid out of the estate; 
and if paid by the committee without the sanction of this court, 
although afler a recovery at law, he will not be allowed for it in 
the settlement of his accounts. In the case of an habitual drunk- 
ard particularly, if the committee find that any person is furnish- 
ing him with the means of intoxication, even gratuitously, he 
should apply to the court for an order, restraining all persons 
from furnishing the drunkard with ardent spirits, or with the 
means of obtaining liquor, upon pain of contempt." 

His Honor also directed the following clause to be added to 
all orders, hereafter to be entered, appointing committees of hab- 
itual drunkards : — 

'' And it is further ordered, that all persons be restrained firom 
selling to, or furnishing said habitual drunkard, or any person for 
him, with ardent spirits, or with the means of obtaining the 
same, without the express sanction of this said committee, under 

Stin of a contempt of this court. And said committee is hereby 
reded to serve a copy, or a notice of this order, on such of 

225J ilFTH REPOftT. 1832. APPENDIX. 115 

the retailers of ardent spirits and others in the neighborhood of 
.said individual drunkard, as he may think proper, to the end 
liiat they may not hcrealler plead ignorance thereof." 

The Commissioners of the town of Athens, Georgia, have im- 
posed a tax of ^500 on every person who shall retail spirituous 
ki']Uors. {^Charleston Courier.) 

The Board of Health of the city of Washington, have declared 
(he traffic in ardent spirit to be a nuisance, and passed the fol- 
lov/ing order with regard to it: — 

Tlie Board being fully impressed with the belief that the use 
<:f ardent spirits is highly prejudicial to health, and the corporate 
authorities having decided that this body possess full power to 
prohibit and remove all nuisances, and the late Attorney Gener- 
al, Mr. Wirt, having officially given it as his opinion that the 
Board of Health have, under the charter and the acts of the city 
councils, sufficient authority to do any, and every thing which the 
health of the city may require; 

Therefore, Resolved, That the vending of ardent spirit, in what- 
ever quantity, is considered a nuisance — and, as such, is hereby 
directed to be discontinued for the space of 90 days from this date. 
By order of the Board of Health. James Larnard, Sec'y. 

As the traffic in ardent spirit, as a drink, is a nuisance, not 
only while the cholera is raging, but at all times, because it is 
not only needless, but hurtful ; as it tends to produce numerous fatal 
diseases, and occasions an immense waste of human life, and 
also causes the ruin of many souls, it is, of course, a manifest 
violation of the will of God, for legislatures, magistrates or any 
body of men, to grant a license to any person or persons to en- 
gage in it. It is granting a license for the commission of sin; 
and as such will be viewed and treated by Jehovah, and ultimate- 
ly by all his friends. And even if it should a little longer con- 
tinue in some places to be approbated by human law, no man, 
under the cover of such a license, or any other, can continue to 
be engaged in it, without exposing himself, in proportion as the ef- 
fects of his business are understood, to the abhorrence of a vir- 
tuous community, and the indignation 'of the Almighty. 

In a number of counties in the State of Georgia, the members 
of the bar have formed themselves into Temperance Societies, 
CD the plan of abstinence from the use of ardent spirit. They 
luive addresses delivered on the subject during the sitting of the 
courts, and are accomplishing great good to the community. 
The committee would earnestly recommend that a similar course 
be pursued throughout the country; and request that all who 
arc disposed to promote tlicir own good or the good of their fel- 
low-men, would do the following things, viz. 


1. Abstain from the use of ardent spirit; from the furnishing 
and from the manufacture of it, and also from the traffic in it. 

2. That they would not in any way aid and abet in perpetuating 
this destructive employment. 

3. That they would unite with Temperance Societies; and 
ptrseveringly endeavor, by all suitable means, to lead all others to 
do the same. 

4. That they would make it a subject of united and unceasing 
prayer to the Author and Finisher of this good work, that He 
would guide all who are, or may be engaged in it, by wisdom 
from above; that their efforts may spring from love to the Saviour 
and love to men, and be continued till intemperance has ceased, 
that all future generations may experience tlie benefit, and the 
glory be given to God for ever. 

Should all the inhabitants of the United States cease to use intoxicating 
liquor, the following would be some of the beneficial zesults, viz. — 
t. Not an indiTioual would hereafter become a drunkard. 

2. Many, who are now drunkards, would reform, and would be saved from 
the drunkard's grave. 

3. As soon as those who would not reform should be dead, which would be 
but a short time, not a drunkard would be found, and the whole land would be 

4. More than three fourths of the pauperism of the country might be pre- 
vented ; and also more than three fourths of the crimes. 

5. One of the j^and causes of error in principle, and immorality in practice, 
and of all dissipation, vice and wretchedness, would be removed. 

6. The number, frequency and severity of diseases would be greatly lessened ; 
and the number and hopelessness of maniacs in our land, be exceedingly dimin- 

7. One of tlie greatest dangers of our children and youth, and one of the 
principal causes of bodily, mental and moral deterioration, would be removed. 

8. Loss of property, in one generation, to an amount greater than the present 
value of all the nouses and lands in the United States, might be prevented. 

9. One of the greatest dangers to our free institutions, to the perpetuity of 
our government, and to all the blessings of civil and religious liberty, would be 

10. The efficacy of the gospel, and all the means which God has appointed 
for the spiritual and eternal good of men, would be exceedingly augmented ; 
and the same amount of moriQ and religious effort might be expected to pro- 
duce more than double its present effects. 

11. Multitudes of every generation, through all future ages, might be pre- 
lented from sinking into an untimely grave, and into endless torment : tney 
jBHfiit be tnuuforniM into the divine image, and prepared, through grace, fos 
dM eatflMS joji of heaven. 

19. God wimkl be honored, voluntarily and actively, by much greater num- 
kffs ; and with greater clearness, and to a greater extent, would, through their 
IBstnunentality, manifest his glory. 


or THE 


In the last two Reports of this Society, the following truths were 
established, viz. ardent spirit, as a driok, is not needful, or useful. 
It is a poison, which injures the body and the soul. It deranges 
healthy action, and disturbs the functions of life. It blinds the un- 
derstanding, sears the conscience, pollutes the affections, and hard- 
ens the heart. It leads noien into temptation, and gives to evil 
peculiar power over their minds. It impairs, and often destroys 
reason. It tends to bring those who use it to a premature grave ; 
and to usher all who understand, or have the means of under- 
standing its nature and efiects, and yet continue to drink it, or to 
fiirnisb it to be drunk by others, into a miserable eternity. 

In view of these truths the following conclusions were drawn, 
▼iz. to drink ardent spirit, or to furnish it to be drunk by others, is 
a sin, in magnitude equal to all the evils, temporal and eternal, which 
flow from it ; and the men, who continue to do either will at the 
divine tribunal, and ought at the bar of public opinion to be held 
responsible for its effects. To the pauperism, vice, sickness, in- 
sanity, wretchedness and death, which are occasioned, they are 
accessory ; and as such will be treated when every man shall re- 
ceive according to his work. • 

The above truths were not only proved, but, by a varienr of 
considerations, were illustrated and enforced. Principles and facts 
were adduced, which, in view of the Committee, are adapted, 
wherever known and regarded, to produce entire and universal 
conviction. And the Committee would gratefully acknowledge 
die divine kindness, in giving to those Reports such general favor, 
and in causing them to produce such extensive and salutary effects. 
It was mentioned the last year, that the Fourth Report had been 
republished entire in England, that ten thousand copies of it had 
b«Bn printed in this country ; and also an edition in an abridged 
form of ten thousand copies more. Since that time, five thousand 
copies of the entire Report have been printed ; and of an abstract 
of it addressed to the head of each family in tlie United States, 
one hundred and seventy thousand copies. A secopd edition ei 
it has also been published in England. 


Of the Fifth Report, there have been published, entire, fourteen 
thousand copies ; and of that part of it on the immorality of the 
traffic in ardent spirit, forty thousand copies, making in all of the 
entire Reports and parts of them published in this country, about 
two hundred and 6lty thousand copies. This Report has also been 
republished in England under the supervision oi the British and 
Foreign Temperance Society, and has had an extensive circula- 

Copies of the Fifth Report, as well as the Fourth, have been 
sent to most civilized countries, and to many parts of the Pagan 
world. And wherever it has gone, it has drawn forth from intelli- 
gent and philanthropic men, strong testimony of approbation, and 
has produced most beneficial effects. 

A distinguished Civilian in one of our seaports, who has been 
active in its circulation, writes, " A more weighty document was 
never presented to tlie public ; and tlie best way to promote the 
cause of Temperance, is, to get the Reports of the American 
Temperance Society into circulation." He then mentions, that of 
the numerous vessels, engaged in at extensive trade with the Port 
in which he lives, three fourths are navigated without the use of 
spirit, and that three years ago rum was deemed as essential in 
navigating those vessels, as a compass or light m the binnacle. 
Another gentlemen, who is at the head of one of our public institu- 
tions, writes, "The Fifth Report is a noble production, and fuUy 
sustains the hich character of the Fourth. It ousht to find a 
place in every lamily in the United States." An emment Lawyer, 
remarks, " If the Fourth and Fifth Reports were put into every 
family, tiie very best effects must follow. The truth, as it is ex- 
hibited in these Reports, is mighty ; and, if it were only carried 
home to the hearts and consciences of the entire population of the 
United States, I am sure it must prevail." Another says, " No 
man of principle, who will candidly examine the fifth Report, can 
continue the traffic in ardent spirit, with a good conscience." 
Another remarks, "It exceeds in interest, weight, and power, 
either of the preceding Reports. If any professor of religion can 
read it, and continue the traffic in spirit, his hope, we fear, is as a 
spider's web." A venerable officer of a Christian Church, having, 
liice some other officers, deacons, elders, and even ministers of the 
gospel, long been deluded by a very moderate use of ardent spirit, 
into the dangerous and fatal error of believing that it is not wicked 
to drink it, withstood all attempts to induce him to abstain from it, 
or unite with the Temperance Society. He professed to be a 
friend of temperance, as ever^'^ decent man of course must do, or 
lose his character, but then a little stimulus was for him, he con- 
tended, under his peculiar circumstances, necessary ; or at least 
was not sinful. He was furnished by a friend with our Fifth Re- 

S29] SIXTH REPORT, 1633. 3 

port ; and after reading it, lie writes, " I have read this very inter- 
etting pamphlet tlirough. 1 need no further importunity. I am now 
fully determined to renounce tlie use of this destructive beverae;e, 
from this day, to the day of my death. Yes, I do renounce \X^ finally, 
totally. Pray add my name to your society." And the Committee 
would respectfully suggest to the friends of temperance, whether 
they can in any way do more for the cause of temperance and 
salvation, than by furnishing our Fifth Report to every praying, 
and rum selling or rum drinking christian, deacon, elder, and 
preacher in the United States. Should it hava the effect, which 
It had on that man, which it has Iiad on thousands, and which it 
win be likely to have upon every man, who, from the heart, prays 
" Thv kingdom come, thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven," 
it will remove one of the greatest obstructions to the cause of tem- 
perance, and render the efforts of tliose men to do good much more 

The British Temperance Magazine and Review says, " The 
Fifth Report of the American Temperance Society is a most in- 
teresting document. We are glad to inform our readers that it is 
now reprinting in London. A second edition of the Fourth Re- 
port is also published. It argues well for the Temperance cause 
here, that these interesting productions are so much in demand in 

An eminent writer in Europe says of the Fifth Report, " It em- 
bodies an array of facts and arguments, and tlie testimony of wise 
and good men, on the immorality of tlie traffic in ardent spirits, far 
surpassing in amplitude and strength, what is contained in any pub- 
lication on this subject in existence. It will be circulated far and 
wide ; and will undoubtedly be the means of inducing hundreds, 
and perhaps thousands, to abandon the immoral traffic, from prin- 
ciple, and thereby save them from temporal, and eternal ruin." 
And the Committee cannot but rejoice that such publications, dur- 
ing the past year, have to an unprecedented extent, been multiplied 
and circulated through this and other countries, and that the de- 
mand for them is constantly and rapidly increasing. It shows 
that the cause of Temperance is taking a deeper and firmer hold 
on the hearts of the people ; and that in proportion as knowledge 
and virtue are extended, will be tlieir efforts to promote it ; till 
intemperance, and its evils shall entirely cease. Many towns and 
some counties, have undertaken to put one of our Reports into 
erery family. This might be done throughout the United States. 

As the three first Reports were out of print, and were often 
called for, the Fourth Report contains the history of the Temper- 
ance Reformation from its commencement, and also a recapitula- 
tioo of the prominent facts contained in the previous Reports. That 
IQLeport, and also tlic Fifth, are constructed, not on the plan of be- 


ing merely annual or temporary Reports, detailing only local 
operations ; but on the plan of being general and permanent docu- 
ments ; developing great principles, and embodying facts of perma- 
nent interest, and of high importance in all ages, and to all coun- 
tries. It was for the purpose of showing the fundamental position, 
which the cause of Temperance holds, and its radical influence on 
the salvation of the human family, that this course was taken ; and 
for the purpose of awakening universal attention, and leading to 
universal, |>ermanent, and ever growing effort ; which is the only 
effort that is adapted to the magnitude of the subject, or will secure 
its inflnitely high, and momentous results. The Fifth Report is a 
continuation of the Fourth, and is paged accordingly, for the pur- 
pose of being bound together. Both are stereotyped, can be fur- 
nished in any quantity, and are adapted to universal circulation. 
The present is a continuation of those two Reports, is constructed 
and paged on the same plan, and for the same purpose. In no 
way, it is believed, can parents, at the same expense, do greater 
good to their children, or the friends of Temperance more exten- 
sively and permanently promote the cause, than by putting a copy 
of these Reports into every family. If read and regarded, they 
would change the habits of the nation; dry up many oi the deepest 
fountains of human sorrow, secure our youth from one of their 
greatest dangers ; and save immense multitudes from an untimely 
grave. The property, which would be saved, would, in one gene- 
ration, amount to more than the present value of all the real estate 
in the country; the means of intellectual and moral culture would 
be greatly augmented, and would be vastly more successful ; and 
a prospect be opened brighter than any human eye ever saw, that 
free, social, civil and religious institutions may be extended over 
all nations and perpetuated to all ages. 

The Committee have also the past year appointed two additional 
Agents, Mr. Charles Yale of the State of New York, and Rev. 
John Marsh of Connecticut. They have both accepted their ap- 
pointment, and entered upon its duties. Mr. Yale was appointed 
as a temporar}- agent for the valley of the Mississippi. He started 
from New York about the first of February, to go by land to New 
Orleans. He is expected then to visit St. Louis, and return by way 
of Cincinnati, to New York. His object is, to procure the forma- 
tion of a State Temperance Society, m each State, in which there 
now is none, to open the way and make arrangements for the 
universal and permanent circulation of information, to embody the 
friends of Temperance, and as far as practicable induce each State 
to employ a permanent agent, and in the various ways in his power 
promote the general cause. 

The Rev. Mr. Marsh is appointed as a General Agent ; and 
commenced his laboi*s on the 6rst of April, in Connecticut. After 

331] SIXTH REPORT. — 1833. 5 

iaboring for a time in that State, he will visit otlier parts of the 
country, and, in connection with other agents, assist the Committee, 
and the friends of the causi?, in extendiiig hy kind moral influence, 
the principles of Temperance, throughout the United States. 

Numerous Temperance Publications of various forms and sizes, 
edited with ability, have been issued and circulated extensively in 
▼arious parts of the country. And it is earnestly hoped that tem- 
perance publications may be multiplied, and supported ; till they 
arc established in every Slate ; and read and regarded by every 
family and every individual in tlie country. No course could be 
adopted, which would be more auspicious to the nation ; and none 
open a prospect of greater blessings to mankind. Many of the 
State Societies, and several of the County Societies have also, dur- 
ing the last year, employed agents, and witli the most gratifying 
success. The number of members of Temperance Societies have, 
in many cases, been doubled, and in some increased more than 
four fold. Living agents, and die press, operating on the whole 
mass of minds, aided by visible united example, are tlie divinely 
appointed instruments, for the illumination and renovation of the 
world. And never has there been a specimen of more triumphant 
progress, or an exemplification of the power of combined moral 
eflfort, which as a precedent, in its application to the human family, 
may be more important, than that exhibited by the Temperance 
Reformation. It is even now often quoted throughout Christen- 
dom, as a standing demonstration, that what needs to be done in 
our world, and what ought to be done, through grace, can be done ; 
and all that is needful, is, wise, united, energetic, persevering be- 
nevolent action, in dependence on God^ to secure, under Him, 
glorious and everlasting success. It has awakened new confidence 
ID millions of hearts, and nerved with new vigor millions of hands. 
For the exterminadon of deep and wide-spreading evils, it has 
drawn forth from millions, with a firmer purpose and more unfal- 
tering tongue, the declaration, " 1 will go in the strengdi of the 
Lord God, I will make mendon of thy righteousness, even of thine 

The weapons of their warfare being not carnal, and operating, 
not by force, orcoercion, but by light and love, on the conscience 
and the heart, are mighty through (Jod to the pulling down of 
strong holds. Trusting in him, they mount up on wings as eagles, 
they run and are not weary, they walk and are not faint. By 
effi>rt they renew their strength, and they move on with increasing 
enei^y from conquering to conquer. And if faithful, dieir efforts 
will not cease, or be diminished, or be unsuccessful, till the last 
vesuge of open iniquity shall iiave vanislied from die globe. 

In September the Committee issued die following Circular : 

** At a meeting of die Execuuve Committee of die American 
1 • 


Temperance Society, holden in Boston, Sept. 21, 1832, it was 
unanimously resolved, 

1 . That it is highly desirable that meetings of Temperance So- 
cieties and friends of temperance be holden simultaneously on some 
day that may be designated, in all the cities, towns and viUages 
throughout the United States. 

2. That Tuesday, the 26th day of February, 1833, be designated 
for tliat purpose. 

3. That measures be immediately taken to accomplish the 
abovementioned object. 

Tlie reasons which lead the Committee to invite the co-opera- 
tion of all their fellow citizens in carrying the abovementioned plan 
into effect, are the following, viz : 

1. It is strictly a national object ; and one in which persons of 
all denominations, sects and parties can cordially unite, viz : the 
removal of intemperance from our country. ' 

2. The means to be employed are in aU respects unexceptiona- 
ble ; and are adapted to meet the cordial approbation of all friends 
of humanity, viz : light and love, manifested in sound argument and 
kind persuasion, for the purpose of inducing all voluntarily to ab- 
stain from the use of £ira&nt spirit as a drink, and from furnishing 
it (or the use of others. 

3. The success which has attended past efibrts has already been 
the means of rich blessings to all parts of our country, and is spoken 
of with admiration through6ut the world. 

4. Philanthropists of the old world are now, on this subject, 
treading in our footsteps, and while they acknowledge their obliga- 
tions for the benefits, are extensively copying our example. 

6. Wherever the plan recommended by the American Tem- 
perance Society, viz : abstinence from the use of ardent spirit as a 
drink, and voluntary associations for the purpose of showing by 
united example its benefits, has been adopted, in Europe, Asia, or 
Africa, as well as in America, it has been highly efficacious, and 
followed with the most beneficial results, to the social, civil, and 
religious interests of man. 

6. A union as to the time of holding temperance meetings, in all 
the cities, towns, and villages of our country, would greatly increase 
the interest which is felt on the subject, would call forth tlie eflbrts 
of the highest and best talents in the land, and would greatly in- 
crease and extend the light, union, and efficiency on which, under 
tlie divine blessing, the complete and universal success of the object 

7. Facts seem to indicate that should temperance and its attend- 
ant virtues and blessings universally prevail, the cholera, that scourge 
of the nations, which has spread sackcloth round the globe and 
threatens to cover our land with mourning, would be nearly if not 

233] SIXTH REPORT. — 1833. 7 

fthogether unknown ; the deep fountain of human sorrow be dried 
up, and ever growing light, purity, and joy, under the means of 
divine appointment, with all who obey the divine wiU, would uni- 
versally prevail. 

The Committee therefore earnestly invite the co-operation of all 
State, and other Temperance Societies, and friends of temperance 
of every name, in securing temperance meetings in every city, 
town, and village in our country, on the abovementioned day ; and 
for this puipose they would respectfully request, 

1. That in all places in which there are no Temperance Soci- 
eties, immediately on the receipt of this Circular, there should be 
a Committee of Arrangements appointed to give public notice, select 
a speaker, or speakers, and take all needml measures for such a 

2. That in all places where there are Temperance Societies, 
the officers of such societies, would do the same. 

3. That ministers of the gospel of all denominations, would 
read this Circular from their pulpit, and use their influence to effect 
the design. 

4. That all editors of newspapers and periodicals would give 
publicmr to this Circular through the medium of their columns. 

5. That a Temperance Society on that day be formed in every 
place in which there is none ; and that efforts be made, previously 
to that day, and at that time, to have the present number of all 
Temperance Societies, if possible, more than doubled. For this 
end, and as a means to accomplish it, the Committee would invite 
the attention of all their fellow citizens to the fourth and fifth Re- 

E>rts of the Society, to the National Circular designed for every 
mily in the United States, and to the tract which is published by 
the Society, " On the immoralit}*^ of the traffic in ardent spirit," 
and request that they may have a universal circulation. The avails 
of said publications, will be devoted to tlie promotion of die cause 
of temperance throughout our country. 

Samuel Hubbard, President, 
John Tappan, 
George Odiorne, 
Heman Lincoln, ^Ex. Committee^ 
Justin Edwards, 
Enoch Hale, Jr. 

This document was extensively circulated, and was hailed with 
Joy by the friends of Temperance throughout the country. It was 
abo forwarded to the British and Foreign Temperance Society, 
and measures were promptly taken by them to secure meetings at 
the same time, for the same purpose, throughout Great Britain. 
Wherever the Circular went it met a prompt and lively response 


from the hearts of the temperate, and multitudes looked forward 
to the 26th day of February, 1833, as a day which would be 
marked as an era in the history of the Temperance Reformation. 
The prospect of beholding friends of humanity, without distinction 
of name, party, sect or country, assembling at the same time, for 
the same high purpose of uniting their energies for the moral eman- 
cipation of the world, was indeed a noble, a sublime spectacle : so 
novel, and at the same time so grand and imposing, as to awaken 
in many a bosom new anticipations, and raise from many a heart 
more fervent aspirations to the Author of all good, that he would 
grant to the enterprise his gracious benediction ; and hasten the 
time, when men of mercy and of might, tliroughout the world, 
shall simultaneously assemble, and with united hearts, before the 
throne of the Eternal, in his strength, unite their hands, and all 
their powers of body and mind, in one grand and evergrowmg 
effort for the salvation from sin and death, of the whole human 

On the 6th day of November, the Secretary of War issued 
from the War Office the following order : 



Adjutant GeneraPs Office^ > 
Washington J JSTov. bth^ 1832. J 
The General-in-chief has received from the War Department 
the subjoined Regulation, which is published for the informatioa 
and government of the Army, and all others interested : 

War Department, Nov. 2d, 1832. 

1. Hereafter no ardent spirits will be issued to troops of the U 
States, as a component part of the ration, nor shall any commuta- 
tion therefor be paid to them. 

2. No ardent spirits will be introduced into any fort, camp, or 
garrison of the United States, nor sold by any sutler to the troops. 
JNor will any permit be granted for the purchase of ardent spirits. 

Under the authority vested iii the President by the 8th section of 
the act of congress of April 14th, 1818, the following cbadgeswiU 
be made in the ration issued to the Army : 

3. As a substitute for the ardent spirits issued previously to the 
adcption of the general regulation of November 30th, 1830, and 
for the commutation in money prescribed thereby, eight pounds of 
sugar and four pounds of coffee will be allowed to every one hun- 
dred rations. And at those posts where the troops may prefer it, 
ten pounds of rice may be issued to every one hundred rations, in 
lieu of the eight quarts of beans allowed by the existing regulations. 

4. These regulations will not extend to the cases provided fer 

935] SIXTH REPORT. — 1833. -9 

by the act of congress of March 2d, 1819, entitled ''An act to 
regulate the pay of the Army when employed on fatigue duly," in 
which no discretionary autliority is vested in tlie president, nor 
to the necessary supplies for the Hospital Department of tlie army. 

Lewis Cass. 
R. Jones, Adj> Gen.^^ 

This change had for some time been anticipated, and by none, 
perhaps, more earnestly desired than by many of tlie officers of 
the army. And few orders have ever issued from the war de- 
partment more grateful to the people, or which have more generally 
met their approbation. The author of it will long be held in 
grateful remembrance, and will be noted in the future page of his- 
tory as a benefactor of his country. The result is highly auspi- 
cious. It saves an immense amount of property, and adds greatly 
to the health, the regularity, the happiness, and the strength of the 
army. Au officer of high rank and long experience, on hearing 
that another officer, who had been intemperate, was dead, said, 
** It would be better for the army and for the country if such men 
were all dead. They are only a burden and a disgrace." Young 
oflicers, and those who are looking forward to promotion, either 
in military, or civil life, would do well to remember tliis. Such 
aentiments are becoming common, and with regard to all depart- 
ments. One of our most distinguished jurists, and successful ad- 
vocates at the bar remarked, that, as witnesses in courts of justice, 
men who drink ardent spirit, do not now, and that they never will 
agaio, have equal influence with men who do not drink. It is 
conadered an impeachment of their character ; and lessens the 
credibility and weight of their testimony. It is impossible to make 
dther the court or the jury repose the same confidence in them as 
in other men. It is now understood, that even moderate drinking 
weakens the intellect, blunts the power of discriminating perceptibo, 
and if it does not, as is often the case, make a man dishonest, it 
renders him more liable to be deceived and to make mistakee. 
It is not possible for a man to be, in any degree, under the power 
of this mocker without being peculiarly exposed to deception. 
**No man, (says an eminent physician,) who has taken only a single 
glass, has all his faculties in as perfect a state, as the man who 
takes none. And there is no perfectly temperate physician, under 
the influence merely of a glass of wine, who has so steady a hand^ 
or can, with as. much prospect of safety and success, perform a 
hazardous and difficult surgical operation, as tl^ man who uses no 
iotoxicating drinks." And the community are Ibecoming every day 
nrare and more suspicious of men who drink, though only in mod- 
erate quantities ; and whatever they may be in other respects, are 
reposing less and less confidence in them. And every new devel- 



opemeni of facts shows that they have most cogent reasons for 
this. The time has gone by and will never return, when discern- 
ing men will, other things being equal, repose as much confidence 
in men who drink ardent spirit, as in men who do not. And (he 
more responsible the station, the greater reluctance they will feel, 
at placing in it even the most moderate drinker. Such men are 
dallying with the enemy ; admitting him to their bosoms and thus 
jeopardizing all the great interests with which they are intrusted. 
The records of stages, steam-boats and rail cars, as well as 
courts of Justice and Halls of Legislation, and the numerous de- 
falcations of incumbents of public of&ces, all bear testimony to the 
truth of these remarks. 

In a communication made to our Secretary by one of the largest 
Mail Contractors in the United States, he says, " We seldom have 
an accident worthy of notice, that we cannot trace to a glass of 
spirits^ taken perhaps to oblige a friend or a passenger who has 
urged the driver ' to take a little ; ' thus putting his own life and 
the lives of his companions in danger ; to say nothing of the loss 
of character and property to us." 

" We were going," said a gentleman, " from Baltimore to Phil- 
adelphia, in the staee. The day was cold, and the traveling ex- 
ceedingly rough. But we had a careful driver and fine horses, 
and we got on very well, till the driver stopped at a tavern and 
took something to drink. Almost immediately after we started, 
the horses became fractious." What was the matter ? The driver 
did not hold the reins as he held them before. The poison which 
for a pittance the tavern keeper gave him, and he drank, began to 
afifect his brain, and bis arms ; it ran along in its influence through 
the reins to the horses ; and the generous animals which had la- 
bored so hard and well for the public good, reined and goaded 
by a poisoned driver, became vexed even to madness. Descend- 
ing a hill the stage was overturned ; and the passengers, with 
broken bones and in imminent danger of death, experienced what 
huadreds of others have, that the vexation and the mischief of hav- 
ing poisoned drivers, and poisoning tavern keepers are not confined 
to horses. They affect most seriously the passengers, in all pub- 
lic conveyances ; and not only an immense amount of property, 
but hundreds of lives are sacrificed to an abominable custom. And 
it is hoped that the time is not distant when no poisoned man wiU 
be thought to be fit to take the direction of a stage, a rail car, or 
a steam boat ; and when it will be thought to be much less proper 
to entrust such an one with the momentous and complicatea coo- 
oems of the State and the Nation. 

A distinguished oflScer of the United States Government in- 
formed our Secretary, that the celebrated Author of the Declara- 
tion of American Independence after long, and painful experienoe 

237] SIXTH REPORT. — 1833. 11 

ill the discbarge of bis arduous duties, as Chief Magistrate of the 
nation, said witli great empiiasis, " The habit of using ardent spirit^ 
by men in public ofEce, has occasioned more injury to the public 
service, and more trouble to me,- than any other circumstance 
which has occurred in the internal concerns of the country, during 
my administration. And were 1 to commence my administration 
again, with the knowledge which from experience I have acquired, 
tbe first question which I 'would ask, with regard to every candi- 
date for public office, should be. Is he addicted to the use of ar- 
dent spint ? " 

This question now, by those in power who regard the public 
good, often is asked, and it will be asked witli greater frequency 
in time to come. Men will not trust their money, their children 
and their lives with poisoned men ; or make tliem the guardians, 
in any department, of their rights. Experience and observation 
will afiect all sober men, as they did tliat keen observer of men and 
things, who would make it the first question, '* Is he addicted to the 
use of ardent spirit ? " If he is, and men trust him with great 
public interests, and meet witli trouble^ they will meet what might, 
and ought to have been their expected reward. Can a man take 
fire in his bosoin and his clothes not be burnt ? or can he put it 
into the bosoms of others, and not burn them, and endanger the 
interests entrusted to them ? Many have been made drunkards, by 
men in public office, and many more have had intemperate appe^ 
tites formed or strengthened, and thus have been ruined, by the 
government itself. 

It b no less a matter of congratulation, that the government has 
at last ceased longer to be accessory to such evils in the army, 
than it is matter of grief and shame tliat they should have con- 
tinued so long. Millions of property have been lost, and thousands 
of brave men been helped by the country which they served, and 
not unfrequently put by its authority, into a dishonourable grave. 

The means of forming an unnatural and vicious appetite have 
been furnished by the government ; an appetite stronger than death, 
and more relentless than the grave ; and then, for crimes to which 
it led, the miserable victim, by that very government, has been put 
lo death. With one hand they have furnished him the poison ; 
and with the other taken away his life, for acting under its influence. 

A soldier in the last war, once a sober and respectable man^ 
by daily taking a little, acquired an appetite for it. That appetite 
he gratified, and under its influence deserted. He was taken and 
condemned to be shot. Just before his execution he said to the 
officer who visited him, " 1 owe my death to ardent spirit. It has 
ruined me ; I never violated the orders, or broke the laws, except 
when I had been drinking. I am now to die, and this it is which 
has killed me. And now, if 1 coujd only get a draught of it, 1 


should care nothing about death," And, said the officer, in relating 
the case to our Secretary, " He actually pleaded for whiskey while 
they wore taking off his irons, with as much earnestness as a sinner 
ever pleads for salvation." He was furnished with a pint, and, 
under its influence, he was plunged into eternity ; with the all con- 
suming appetite strong in death. And four filths of the capital 
crimes, and of tlie executiona in the army, in the navy and in the 
community have been occasioned by the use of spirit. We fur- 
nish tlie cause, excite to crime, and then put the criminal to death. 
But a change with regard to the army has at last been effected ; 
and one which if adopted and persevered in by the whole com- 
munity will tend to render drunkenness and crime in the army and 
out 01 it, as rare, as it is guilty, mean, and disgraceful. Alany are 
hoping and with high expectations, tliat a similar change will shortly 
take place in the Navy. Many of the officers and of the seamen 
most earnestly desire it. Most of the men in two squadrons have 
ahready voluntarily renounced entirely the use of spirit ; and the 
consequent improvement, in their habits, health, and happiness, has 
become a topic of common remark among the surgeons and other 

The Secretary of the Navy states, that the Schooner Experi- 
ment had her men selected with a view to a full experiment on 
thb interesting subject. And righdy, in view of the Committee, is 
she named Experiment ; for few if any vessels have ever made 
an experiment on a subject of greater importance to mankind. 
The Secretary also adds, " that by perseverance in holding out in- 
ducements to tlie voluntary abandonment of the use of daily poi- 
son, be trusts not only that the waste of human life, and the fre- 
quency and severity of punishment will be diminished, but that a 
great moral revolution will be permanently effected among a class 
of men, who have hitherto been too often considered irre- 

This testimony to ardent spirit as a poison, and to the fatal evils 
occasioned by the use of it, the Committee view as important; and 
they would respectfully suggest whether, in the present state of in- 
formation on this subject, it is not morally wrong, for legislators 
to wait, till seamen voluntarily refuse to accept the daily poison, 
before they cease to furnish it ? especially as it is known, from the 
testimony of surgeons and officers, that their furnishing it is the 
cause 01 that waste of human life, and that frequency and severity 
of punishment which die Secretary and thousands of others so 
deeply deplore, and wliich is such a foul disgrace to the American 
Navy ? and the/ would also suggest whedier it is not the duty of 
tbe gorenunent, without delay to cease to furnish it? Many of 
the officers have expressed, in strong terms, their abhorrence of 
U2e juracticej iiud to it have attributed by far the greatest portion 

939] SIXTH REPORT. 1833. 12' 

of their troubles with the men. And after it is known that, with- 
out any benefit, it causes more than one filth of the deaths, and more 
dnn four fifths of the crimes amon<; men wlio use it on the land ; 
and that it is no less hurtful in proportion to its use on tlie ocean, 
must it not be considered as a high immorality and as vicious le- 
gislation to continue to fui-nish it ? and will the people of this free 
country continue to consent to be tliu.s taxed, for the sake of fur- 
Dialling seamen, as a means, not of living, but of dying, with daily 
poison ? to increase their diseases, augment their dangers, demoral- 
lie their characters, shorten their lives, and ruin their souls ? Will 
they consent to continue to be taxed for tlie pur|K)se of multiplying 
more than fourfold the difficulties of Naval oflicers ; degrading the 
Naval service, and weakening tlie arm of National defence? 
Said an officer of high rank, who for his country had long and 
often braved the dangers of the deep, and faced tlie mouth of 
cannon, " If Congress will only cease to furnish ardent spirit for 
the Navy, we shall have comparatively no trouble with tlie. men, 
I have made the experiment, and I know, tliat when men cease to 
use ardent spirit, they cease to violate their orders ; and are al- 
most uniformly cheerful, healthy, respectful and obedient." And 
it is indeed humiliating and degrading, that the facts which have 
bem developed have not before now produced endre conviction , 
ud caused the pracdce of furnishing any class of citizens with ar- 
dent spirit to be universally, and forever abolished. Nothing but 
the bfinding and palsying effect on the public mind of the prac- 
tice itself can account for this gross and long continued outrage 
apoo the character and comfort, the healtli and usefulness, the 
Eves and souls of men. Still greater if possible is the violence 
which is done to every correct principle, and the gloom which is 
cast over every bright prospect, when this poison is furnished, as it 
XMnetimes has been, by candidates for public office, as a bribe to 
deetors. In this free country, raised by mercy high for aU nations 
to look at, and making for the world the momentous experiment, 
whether free institutions can be permanent and men to iuture 
ages are to be governed by law or the sword ; in this mighty, 
this stupendous conflict, where intelligence, and virtue, and morality, 
and religion, the religion of the BibUynre all, and in all, — the pre- 
tended patriot who sighed, " O that I were made judge in the 
land," has taken this poison and offered it to freemen to buy for 
bim their votes. And when charged with being so poisoned him- 
nlfas to be unfit for the public service, he has had the effronter)' to 
acknowledge in words and in deeds, tliat he loved it, and to declare 
before the world that if he could only have the votes of all in his 
tiatrict, who were in this respect like himself, he would not ask 
far more. And so enslaved have they sometimes been, that they 
bave put him into office, and continued him in it, till, not his con- 
•i 17* 


stituents, but drunkenness cast him out. The very beasts, on 
which some of them rode to elections, on their return, lightened of 
their burden, which could not ride, and much less could walk, 
stopped to gaze at tliem in the gutter. 

Men, born of sires whose blood flowed freely to purchase t])e 
rich inlieritance for their children, were bribed to be shves, by a 

!»rice which it would disgrace a slave to accept, and bound, not iu 
etters of brass but of mud, which they had not strength enough to 
break, and were doomed, while life remained, to wallow in the mire, 
an astonishment and a contempt to the most beasdy s|)ectator. 
The very dog was ashamed of his company, while his meanest 
feelings, as he, whom had he remained a man, he would gladly 
have continued faithfully to serve, gasped in death, assumed a 
moral grandeur, compared with the best of those which led the 
destroyer of his master, by poisoning electors, to bribe himself into 

Had the Genius of Liberty not herself been put to sleep by the 
lethean exhalations of that dark and putrid lake, her sword had 
leaped from its scabbard to avenge the first invasion like this ; and 
make an example, which as far, and as long as known, would for- 
ever, among freemen, prevent its repetition. But she was asleep. 
Her sleep however was not the sleep of death. The purifying 
breezes have gone over her, and she begins already to stir ; and 
in some cases she has opened her eyes. 

^' Nothing was more common a few years ago," says a distin- 
guished Civilian, ^' in our part of the country, than for candidates 
for public office to furnish electors with spirit. - They did it to ob- 
tain their votes ; and elections were scenes of dissipation, outrage 
and riot. But no such thing is seen now. So great has been the 
change since the formation of Temperance Societies, that tl)ere is 
not a man in the country, who, should he take that course, could 
be elected to any office." Let Temperance Societies become 
universal, and attempts to poison electors will no longer bribe their 
authors into office. The cry of " Sectarianism," or " Church and 
State," will not hide from tlie eye of freemen the cloven foot, or 
shield him who wears it from their indignant execration. 

Not a few associations have already been formed, whose mem- 
bers solemnly pledge themselves, not to vote for any man to any 
office, who at elections offers ardent spirit. The right of suffirage, 
in their view, is too sacred, and liberty too precious to be bartered 
away for rum, or whiskey. The false-hearted, traitorous pretend- 
ers to patriotism, who think thus to purchase its honours and 
emoluments, are in their estimation too base to be for a moment 
tolerated by freemen. They i^w it as. greater guih and mean- 
ness to buy votes with spirit, than with money ; and fraught with 
^ater dangers to the Republic. From supporting the man who 

141 J SIXTH RUFORT. — ) S.53. 15 

does it, to whatever party he mny helonfi;, tlioy are resolved to ab- 
stain. Total abstinence is ail that he will ev(T receive Iroin them. 
Let others treat him in the same mannor, h^t this becrome univer- 
sal, and the change uith regard to political rorniption will be as 
strongly marked, as the change witii regard to intemperance by 
abstinence from ardent spirit. Let no man be elected to public 
office whose qualifications and moral influenre will not he a public 
blessing, and the dark portenfous clouds which have been hovering 
arouii^I our horizon, and casting a broader and dec;)or shade ovor 
our national prospects, will he dispelled by that sun whose rising 
glories will grow brighter and brighter to the perfect day. 

The quaking apprehensions of the venerable patriot who poured 
oat his vouthful blood to establish our freedom, that he should out- 
five its continuance, would then be hushed ; and every christian 
bosom swell with high hr^pe of the speedy and i mi versa I extension 
and unchanging perpetuity of that heaven-born freedom which 
makes all who partake of it to be " free indeed." Nor is the at- 
tention of our countrymen confined to the connection between 
ardent spirit, and the political or temporal welfare of men. They 
are tracing and exhibiting its more momentous connection with 
their spiritual and their eternal concerns. 

The General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
composed of that denomination throughout the United Stales, at 
their last meeting, in addressing their churches, say, " God, who is 
the Author of nature no less than revelation, has abundantly pro- 
vided for the essential happiness and relative usefulness of man- 
kind ; but the experience of all ages and nations has given the most 
mdubiiable proolthat the use of ardent spirits is totally inconsistent 
with either; and, thus opposed to the benevolent intention of 
Hea\^n and provisions of nature, must be considered as a trans- 

Esssion of the will of God. The mischievous principle of ine- 
ety, of which we now speak, cannot be made to nourish and 
invigorate tlie body. It is, by the appointment of Heaven and the 
constitution of our common nature rendered incapable of producing 
such a result. Its conversion into chyle, after being received into 
tbe stomach, and its subsequent appropriation by means of the 
bkx>d- vessels, for the purpose of renewing and invigorating the 
body, are known to be impossible.'^ And after saying that few 
are aware of the insidious nature and great extent of the evil, they 
add, ** A large portion we fear of tlie most important and responsible 
business of the nation is often transacted under the influence in a 
mater or less degree of alcoholic excitement. And can those 
be innocent who contribute to secure such a result, whetlier bv the 
pestilential example of temperate drinking, as it is called, or the 
soil more criminal means of furnishing the poisonous preparation 
by manufacture and traffic for the degradation and ruin of others-' 


The man wlio drinks iiitemperately ruins himself, and is the cause 
of much dis*comfort and inquietude, and jUThaps actual misery in 
the social circle in which he moves ; hut manufacturers, and those 
who are engaged in the traffic in ardent spirit and other intoxi- 
cating liquors, do the work of death hy wholesale ; they are devoted 
hy misguided cnter[)rise to the ruin of human kind ; and become 
directly accessory, though not intended by them, to the present 
shame and final destruction of hundreds and thousands. And we 
gravely ask, with no common solicitude, can God, who is just as 
well as good, hold that church innocent which is found cherishing 
in her bosom so awful and universal an evil? The father and 
founder of methodism,* says, " It is amazing that the preparation 
and selling of this poison should be permitted, I will not say in any 
christian country, but in any civilized State." He denounces the 
gain of I he traflicker, as " the price of blood ;" and says, " Let not 
anv lover of virtue and truth say one word in favour of this mon- 
stfT. liCt no lover ol mankind open his mouth to extenuate the 
guilt of it. Oppos(^ it as you would op})ose the devil, whose off- 
spring and likeness it is. None can gjiin in this way by swallow- 
ing up his neighbor's substance, without gaining the damnation of 

And it has been publicly announced by leading men in that Con- 
nection, as their settled conviction, that he w^ho lives to see the 
year Ib^O, the time of the meeting of the next General Confcnnce, 
will witness the entire Methodist Connection throughout the United 
States, free from makers and venders of spirituous liquors. May 
their anticipations be realized and their zeal and success in this 
work quicken and animale others, till every Christian Church of 
every denomination, shall be free from this disgrace. And the 
Church that shall be last to put away this abomination may exp» el 
to be the last on which shall descend the dew, the rain, and the 
sunshine of Millennial grace. 

The General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United 
States say, " It is now a well cstablisned fact, that thecommoa use 
of strong drink, however moderate, has been Vi fatal, souhdestroijing 
barrier against the influence of the gospel. Consequently, where- 
ever total abstinence is practised, a powerftd instrument of resisting 
the Holy S|)irit is removed ; and a new avenue of access to tJie 
hearts of men opened to the power of truth. Thus in numerous 
instances, and in various places, during the past year the Tempe- 
rance Reformation has been a harbinger preparing the way of the 
Ijord ; and the banishment of that liquid poison, which kills both 
soul and body, has made way for the immediate entrance of the 
spirit and the word, the glorious train of the Redeemer. But, a 

• John Wefllpj. 

843J SIXTH hepokt. — 163], 17 

great work is ilill to be effected in ihe church. The sons of I^vi 
roust be purified. The accursed thing must be removed from the 
camp of the Lord. While professing Cliristians continue to ex- 
hibit the baleful example of tasting the drunkarfVs poison ; or, 
by a sacrilegious traffic to make it their employment to degrade 
and destroy their fellow men, those who love the I^ird must 
not keep silence, but must lift up their warning voice, and use 
all lawful efforts to remove this withering reproach from the house 
of God." 

Among the lawful efforts which the assembly declare that those 
who love die Lord are bound to make, manv ministers and elders 
have iiad no doubt, is the kind, open, decided expression to the 
churches and to the world of th(*ir conviction of the immorality 
of ike traffic in ardent spirit, and its utter inconsistency with die 
spirit and requirements of the Christian religion. 

The Presbytery of New York, therefore, at dieir meetlig in Octo- 
ber, declared, " that in their opniion, it is the duty of all men, and 
especially of those who profess the faiih of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
entirely to abstain from the use of ardent spirit as a drink, and from 
CrafHc in it as such," and ordered that diis opinion be communica- 
ted to dieir churches. 

The Synod of Albany, declared, " that in their judgment, the 
traffic in ardent spirit as a drink is an immorality^ and ought to be 
ffiewed as such throughout the tcorld ; " and remind the churches 
under their care of the sentiments of the General Assembly, on 
this subje'^t, which we have quoted. 

The Presbytery of Delaware expressed to their churches their 
heart-rending regret that any of the professed friends of the holy 
and benevolent Saviour, should exhibit die shocking spectacle of 
being eng:iged in the unholy and inhuman trafHc of retailing that 
which has filled the land with widows and orphans, with strife and 
contention, crime and death ; and through the influence of which, 
multitudes have been doomed to eternal darkness and woe. 

The General Association of New Hampshire, declared, " that 
diey believe the manufacture, sale, and use of that which kills the 
body and destroys the soul, and which if continued as in time past, 
will, in less than fifty years, send a million of our fellow men to 
the d run kjird's grave, and to the drinikard's doom, is utterly incon- 
sistent with the spirit of the gospel, and that no man, with his un- 
derstanding enlightened on this subject, can continue either, and 
yeigive evidence of being born of God." 

Tliey also declare, " that they regard it to be the duty of all 
churches to refuse admission to all such persons as shall continue 
to make^ sell, or use ardent spirit as an article of drink or luxury." 
Tliey then make of all such persons the following momentous in- 
ijiiiries ; " Is it not your duty to aid in the suppression of vice ? 


Can you continue a practice whic li ine\ ilably leads to sin, and he 
blameless? Can you feel for the salvation of men, and yet en- 
courage a habit that wrll certainly, in many cases, lead to the ruin 
of the soul? Can you love the Saviour, and yet be iniwillin:; to 
do so little as to abstain from spiriuious liquors to pronK)te his 
glory? In the day of judgment, when it shall appear lliai many, 
encouraged by your example to drink, became drut'.kards and are 
lost, can you expect to enter the kingdom? Will noi the blood of 
souls be found in your skirts? If you are not guilty of llie sin of 
intemperance, ought you not to sorrow that others arc; and will 
you not ab.stahi from ardent spirit to prevent it? If you are no! 
willing to make this sacrifice for Christ, can you have any of that 
love which led him to sacrifice himself for you? Oh reflect, and 
over every glass you drink, think of the mi liorw that the liquid 
you drink lias sent, and will send to hell. Oh thiuk of the judg- 
ment, and prepare to me(3t us there.'* 

The Genera) Associations of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and 
Maine, say, '•• that in their judgment the traffic in ardent spirit, a$ 
a drink, is an IninK>raIity, and that it ought to be viewed and treated 
as such throughout the world; tliat this immorality is utterly in- 
consistent with a profession of ll>e Christian religion; and that 
those who have the means of understanding it» nature and effects, 
and yet continue to be engaged in it, ought not to be admitied as 
members of Christian churches; and that those members of 
Christian churches who continue to be engaged in the traffic are 
violating the principles and requrrenients of the Christian religion " 
Simiiai' views have been expressed by multitudes of others, both 
in this and other countries, and they are becoming the con:mon 
views of enlightened and conscientious men throughout the world. 

The American Quarterly Temperance Magazine says, '^ We 
consider moderate drinkers as the main, if not the only cansp of 
tlje continued use of distilled liquors; but for then), the maiiufn: - 
turer and vender would soon disannul tlieir covenant with h:?]l, and 
abandon their traffic in death. What has alreadv been said of orr 
regular temperate drinker, is applicable to all. Their moral sense 
is debased; they are enslaved to appetite; they are in league 
against truth, reason, and revelation, uiih the enemy of their race. 
He once said, ' Eat, and ye shall not stuely die.' He now says, 
' Drink, and ye shall not smely die. ' They quaff the bowl and join 
in the response. This device is to be assailed and confuted a^ain 
and again, until public sentiment, which has been deeply vitiated 
and perverted, shall be corrected and restored to the due perform- 
ance of its office. Then shall the slaves of the enemy bear their 
master's brand on their foreheads; and it shall no longer remain a 
problem for critical solution, whether the fair honorable merchant, 
who only sells the liquor to the miserable drunkard whom his 

M5] SIXTH RilPUKT. ib'd.i. 19 

regular business has euticed to ruin, till he snatches the iast crumb 
of bread from his starving children, be more or less guilty tiian the 
legal victim of his cupidity ; nor whether the distiller be more or 
less culpable than the merchant. Public sentiment, once tolerably 
regulated and purified from the defilement derived from the same 
all-corrupting source, would soon solve all such difhcult questions. 
The reeling, nrofane, abandoned sot derives his arguments and his 
justification (or debasing himself und preying upon society, from 
the same fund with his more decently appearing companions and 
accomplices, the manufacturer and vender, and the whole com- 
pany of temperate drinkers. If a farmer, whose starving animalb, 
no less than his suffering family, designate, as with a snnboam, to 
what corps he belongs ; you shall hear him decide authoritatively 
against the reformation ; lest the coarse grains should remain a 
useless drug on the hands of the grower, and thereby injure the 
agricultural interest. The importer, the manufacturer and vender 
oi all grades from the wholesale warehouse, or splendid mansion, 
down to the occupant of the threepenny-glass hovel, all sympa- 
thise with him, and join in the argument. The cause of religion is 
Bcandalized by its professors ; the sateless, never dying appetite 
must have an apolog}', and one is soon found. With professions 
of good will to man, and obedience to the requirements of the gos- 
pel on their lips, with the victims of their cupidity before their 
eyes, in defiance of the plainest principles of the religion tiiey pro- 
fits, and in contempt of the authority of its Author, they too, hold 
the polluting cup to their neighbor s lips ; and for what ? to sus- 
tain and countenance themselves in the same indulgence ; or per- 
haps for the more vile, debasing and guilty object, of making gain 
by the unhallowed traffic. We do not read hternlly that the sen- 
tence, * Depart into everlasting punishment,' was predicated on 
the fact that the deUnquents had been the main instruments, by 
their exacnple or fraudulent practices, whether legalized or not, of 
filling the abodes of misery with the sick, the naked, the wounded, 
the friendless, and the hungry, as now is the fact with every one 
who bears an agency in procuring, diffusing, or, by his example of 
using mebriating liquors; no, theirs was the negative guih of not, 
according to their several ability and opportunity, administering ti) 
the relief and comfort of their fellow creatures." The application 
to the case in hand is too plain to be mistaken. If to him who 
sees his fellow creatures hungry, or naked, or sick or in prison, 
and does not, if in his power, minister to their relief, the infinitely 
merciful Saviour says, " Depart, ye cursed into everlasting fire ; 
prepared for the devil and his angels," what will he not say to 
those who continue knowingly and perseveringly to make it tiieir 
business to bring such evils upon them ? Can they expect to es- 
cape the withering indignation of Him, whose eyes are as a flame 


of fir^, anfl who is a jusl God as well as Saviour, vvijuii a fire shah 
be kindled iu his anger which shall burn to the lowest hell ; and all 
the proud, and all tliat do wickedly shall be as stubble ]" 

Said a member of Congress, at a meeting in the Capitol, " It has 
long been settled by the concurrent testimony of the most distin- 
guished physicians, tliat alcohol is a rank and deadly poison^-that 
m its effects it resembles arsenic, and iliat though slower in its 
operation, it is not less certain and destructive in its results. Ay, 
that it is infinitely more so ; that it poisons, destroys, kills both the 
body and the mind ; that the inevitable tendency of its use is the 
paralysation of the heahh, the destruction of the human constitu- 
tion ; the prostration of morals ; the accumulation of crime ; the 
augmentation of the sum total of human wickedness and human 
misery ; the derangement and stupefaction of the intellect ; the 
oblivion of every social and religious obligation ; the extinction of 
the love of honor in the human breast ; and the annihilation of 
every high and holy feeling of the soul, which elevates man above 
the brutes that perish, and allies him to God I Who is not, then, 
ready to exclaim, that the mere use, of this poison, is of itself a 
crime ? A crime, however, which sinks into insignificance when 
compared with that of making and vending it for the destruction o\ 
others — a crime that whitens into innocence when contrasted wit!) 
that of creating and pouring upon mankind this desolating stream 
of moral deatli, this cataract ol liaurd fire, to blast the rising glories 
of our country, and desolate the land. — ^Tinie was when these re- 
sults were eitlier untliought of or unknown ; when the making aint 
vending of this now well-known cause of disease and death, of 
crime and wretchedness, was either sustained by the voice of pub- 
lic opinion, or indulged without reprobation. But, light has come 
upon us. In that light a new law has revealed rtself. It is founded 
in moral justice, and is eternal. It is no longer unpublislied or 
unknown to the world. It has been written, as it were, by the 
finger of God, in glaring capitals of living light, in characters of 
unutterable brightness upon the margin of the heavens. All na- 
tions have read, and are preparing to obey it. It forbids man^ 
under tlie penalty of its eternal malediction — to deal in this poison. 
It forbids hirn to scatter it like * firebrands, arrows and death/ 
among the cliildren of his race. No one can longer plead igno- 
rance of its mandates, or of its penahies. No one can longer deny, 
that from this source, (the manufacture and traffic of this destruc- 
tive fluid) flows a train of evils, which embody every variety of 
human crime and human misery ; which convert the blessings of 
heaven into curses, and those of life into tlie tortures of disease — 
the madness of despair — the premature agonies of temporal and 
eternal death. Without this agency, all these vast and complicated 
evib would eeasie to exiAt. I'he rndividtiaU therefore, who tnauu" 

factiires or traffics in this poison, knomng and reflecting Upon the 
wide-spread ruin and desolation which result from his agencj in 
increasing its consumption, is, in the eye of Heaven, responsible 
for all, and richly merits the disfavor and reprobation of his coun-* 
try. Where, in the eye of eternal justice, is the difference between 
him who strikes die blow of death, and him who knowingly mad- 
dens the brain, and tempts and fires the soul to strike it? Where 
is the difference between him who by the sale and dissemination of 
tills subtle poison, causes four fifths of the pauperism, crime, sick- 
ness, wretchedness, insanity and death, which afSict the world ; 
tod him who does it by the manufacture and imiversal diffusion 
of * nwumatic cholera^ if you please, or by the administration of 
other poisons ? What matters it to the widowed wife and wretched 
orphan, whether you consign the husband and father to a prcma- 
tare grave by the midnight dagger, or by tlie lingering tortures of 
the drunkard's death ? The difference is only in the form : In the 
form did I say ? I correct myself. The enormity of guilt rests 
with a heavier weight upon the head of the death-dealing grocer. 
In the first case the destroyer inflicts upon the suffering survivor a 
bereavement unembittered with shame, and unstained by dishonor. 
While in the latter he superadds to the crime of murder, and to 
the destitution and loneliness of orphanage and widowhood, the 
wretclied inheriumce of poverty and disgrace. I repeat, there fore^ 
that it is DOW too late to deny either the criminality of this traffic, 
or the magnitude of the evils which result from it. I speak not of 
the gallows-chains, the gibbets, the alms-houses, the dungeons, and 
the penitentiaries, to whose ravening heights and hungry walls, the 
makers and venders of this poison are but the recniiting sergeants. 
I speak not now of fields turned to waste — of homes deserted— of 
hearths desolated — of happiness forever blasted, and hopes forever 
crushed beneath the withering tread of this fell destroyer. Nor 
wiU time permit me to point you even for a moment, to those scenes 
of grovelling dissipation, of frantic riot, of desperate revenge, and 
of brutal abandonment, from which the once kind husband and the 
father is sent home, transformed into an infuriated demon, to his 
trembling wife and famished children, the object alike of terror, of 
shame, and of heart-rending commiseration. I cannot speak of 
those truly tragical results of this inhuman traflic ; of those scenes 
of unutterable wretchedness and agony of soul, over which my 
heart has often bled, even in the far off peaceful wilds of the West ; 
of those scenes, in which I myself have seen this demon of de- 
atniction rising on his pedestal of broken hearts and blasted hopes, 
and, intent on gain, filling the very air with moral pestilence, blast- 
ing every noble and manly feeling of the human heart, and pouring 
from his poisoned chalice his fiery streams of ngony and despajr 
into the ooce happy and cherished circle of domestic peace and 



love. These are the scenes in which the effects of this most in- 
excusable traffic in ardent spirits are exhibited : these the scenes, 
where cruel and cold-hearted avarice, for the sake of a few paltry 
sixpences, palsies every healthful pulse of life, and sharpens every 
pang of death — where the grim master of the sacrifice himself, 
coming forth from his dark Aceldama of human blood, strikes down 
every hope that can cheer, and wrings every fibre that can feel, 
before he gives the final blow that sends the suffering victim to 
eternity. Can that traffic be justified by an enlightened and vir- 
tuous people, which thus alone holds out the chief temptation to 
intemperance, and strews the land with * beggars, and widows, and 
orphans, and crimes,' — which breaks up the foundations of social 
happiness, consigns millions prematurely to their graves, and fills 
the world with wailings, lamentations, and woe ? I answer, Ao. 
Policy, morality, patriotism, religion condemn it." 

Says an eminent European writer, " Let him who sells ardent 
spirit bring the practices of his daily calling to the standard of the 
Bible ; and when he stores his ship with this body and soul destroy- 
ing agent ; when he holds out its tempting symbols to his friends 
and to all around him ; when he knows its deleterious nature, and 
sees its demoralizing tendency ; when his hands are polluted in 
transmitting it to the hand of the drunkard ; — when husbands, and 
wives, and mothers, and children, are pining in indigence and 
hopeless sorrow caused by that very article which it is his business 
to retail, let him inquire whether he can be a participant in, or a 
cause of such scenes and yet be free from guilt. Let him inquire 
whether he can conscientiously go to his feeees, and pray for tlie 
blessing of God to rest upon, and to prosper the works of his hands. 
Let him inquire whether he seriously believes, that God will send 
forth his hogsheads of whiskey, or rum, or brandy to be a blcssins: 
to his fellow men ; or whether he can lie down on his pillow at 
night with a calm and tranquil mind, when he thinks on the n>is- 
erable and wretched beings whom he has been helping to destrov, 
and some of whom have passed into eternity under the influence 
of spirits provided for them within his door. Let him ponder well 
such passages of the word of God as these, and then let conscience 
give her verdict. * Woe to him that giveth his neighbor drink, 
and maketh him drunken.' ' Let no man put a stumbling block, or 
an occasion to fall in his brother's way.' ' Have no fellowship 
with the unfruitful works of darkness.' ' Let no man seek his 
own, but every man another's wealth.' * Whether therefore ye 
eat or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God.' '* 

And after quoting from n writer of our own country the decla- 
ration, that could each hogshead of whiskey which a Christian selk, 
come back, and as it enters his door tell him of the families it has 
made niiserable, the wives it has made widows, and the children it 

S49] SIXTH BEPORT. — 1833. 33 

bas made orphans, he would start back from the traflic as he would 
from the pit of perdition ; and after stating many horrible cases of 
its efTects upon those who sell, and those who buy, and saying that 
it seeins as if the same malignant spirit reigned every where in the 
bosoms of those who have sold themselves to strong drink, and 
that nothing appears too base or Satanic for them to perpetrate, he 
tdds, ^' Wiien will die moral man, and the Christian withdraw alto- 
gether from countenancing, either direcdy or indirectly, this system 
of iniquity ; and resolve neither to make, sell, or use these distilled 
liquors, which are so preeminently Satan's instruments of evil to a 
guilty world." 

Such b the voice of the press, both in this country, and in 
Europe. And the truth which it has uttered has commended itself 
to tlie conscience, and operates powerfully and efficaciously on the 

Multitudes have during the past year renounced the unhallowed 
and degrading trafSc ; and greater multitudes have been impressed 
with its awful wickedness and guilt. One man writes, " The pub- 
lications on this subject, if circulated and read, must drive every 
man of conscience out of this traffic, or drive him distracted. ' 
Auodier man remarks, '< Every man who is in dns traffic must re- 
nounce it or give up his religion ; for Christian character and rum- 
selling cannot any longer go together." Another man writes, 
** Makers and venders of ardent spirits have no souls ; if they had, 
and understood what they are doing, they could not continue in 
their present empbyment." 

These are indeed strong expressions ; but they show the current 
of public sendment, and the deep abhorrence with which reflecting 
men view that fatal employment. 

A respectable master mill-wright was solicited to repair die 
pumps of a disuUery ; but he refused, and said that lie could not 
witlii>ut a violauon of conscience, even in the way of business, aid 
ID expediting the manufacture of an article that was working such 
terrible desuruction among his fellow men. Another man was ap- 
plied to, to paint a sign that should show the passing traveller the 
£ce in which he could get the poison. But though dependent on 
business for his living, he prompdy refused ; and let die appli- 
cant know that he believed it to be morally vrrong thus to assist in 
destroying others. 

A miller who lived in a State that required by law, diat millers 
•hotild grind such grain as might be brought to them for that pur- 
pose, when grain was brought to be ground for distillation, refused 
to grind it. He would not have his mill prostituted to such a vile 
and loathsome purpose. He could not do it without a nolation 
of moral duty, and he felt bound, though it was a breach of htiman 
liW| to refuse. He did refuse, like a man who was not afraid to da 


right, riie destroyer however, continuing intent upon his gain, 
the man was prosecuted and fined. He applied to ilie Legisla- 
ture ; whereupon ihcy passed the following act, viz. " It is here- 
by enacted, — that an act entitled, * an act, relating to mills and 
millfrs,' shall not be so construed as to make any owner or occu- 
[jier of any mill, liable to the penalty therein named, who shall 
refuse, or neglect to grind any grain brought to such mill to be 
ground for the avowed, or apparent pur|X)se, of manufacturing 
such grain into distilled spirits ; nor liable to any suit or action for 
go refusing." And, says an energetic writer, speaking of this man, 
" He has done well, and has shown that a good, well informed 
conscience, resolutely obeyed, will make its possessor a benefactor 
to mankind. Time, place, occupation, circumstances cannot hin- 
der it. Though shut up in a grist-mill, busy in watching the fine- 
ness of Indian meal as it comes from between the slon^^«;, such a 
man may amend the legislation of States, and Empires, and hasten 
the march of mankind towards the enjoyment of all their rishis ; 
by just doing one duty after another, as they come along, without 
being deterred by fear of consequences." 

In another State a town applied to the Legislature for an art of 
incorporation. While the bill was before the lower house, a mem- 
ber moved to strike out the 3d section, which contained tl.c usual 
authority to town officers to grant licenses to retail spirituous 
liquors. An animated debate ensued ; and in which the advocates 
for licenses, assumed the same rights for the town in question to 
regulate its own morals, as bad been granted to other towns. The 
mover replied that the Legislature had no right to authorise liie 
granting of licenses for such a purpose. A noble sentiment, wor- 
thy to be written in letters of gold ; and destined soon to be the 
opinion of the world. He said that he considered it to be their 
duty as guardians of the public welfare, to take a stand on this 
subject. He did not legislate, with reference to the state of things 
in that town, which he presumed was not worse than in others, 
but he would oppose any. measure, whencesoever it proceeded, 
which tended to spread the pernicious influence of intemperance. 
And on the final question the motion to strike out prevailed by a 
large majority. 

The keeper of a little grog-shop in a narrow dirty lane, said to 
his acquaintance, '' These temperance folks are doing a deal of 
mischief. On Saturday night, the workmen, after getting tlieir 
wages, on their way home used to stop at my store and drink. I 
used on that night and the next day to take a hundred dollars, 
but now I cannot take ten." A deal of mischief to be sure, as die 
JCber ninety dollars now goes to support their starving families. 

And what a deal of mischief will legislators do, when they shall 
■D longer sanction by legislation the licensing of men to sell ar« 

S51J SIXTH REPORT. — 1833. :25 

dent spirit, aod thus to take on Saturday night and Sabbath day, 
a hundred dollars from starving families ; and instead of poisoning 
the father and rendering him a maniac, shall let him remain sober, 
to carry bread and clothing, peace and joy, to his wife and children. 

Another man, licensed to sell, and acting under the full sanction 
of legislative authority, had on hand a quantity of spirit. Finding 
DO opportunity to sell it, where it might not be drunk and destroy 
his fellow men ; and not being willing to do that for money, he turned 
it into the sea. He had rather lose it, than to have the drinker 
lose it, and with it, as he might should he drink it, lose his life, and 
his soul. Though he could get the money for it, he did not be- 
lieve it to be right in that way to make money ; because it tended 
to destroy others. He did not believe it to be right for him to teach 
the doctrine, as he would should he sell it, that men can without 
committing sin, buy and drink it. He did not believe it would be 
right, even should he appropriate the avails to the distribution of 
the Bible, or the relief of the poor. As Jehovah abhors robbery 
for sacrifice, he knew that he would not accept the fruit of a traf- 
fic which does more mischief than robbery itself. He therefore 
resolved to cleanse his hands and purify his heart from that covet- 
onsness, which leads men, for the sake of money, to desolate and 

Another man, who was convinced that it is wrong to make ardent 
spirit, to im|)orl or to vend it, was yet not so sure that there might 
not be a case, in whicli a cargo consigned to him, not from another 
co'intry but from his own, might be lawfully sold, as, if he should 
not sell it, some other man would, and his doing it would not in- 
crease the quantity in the country or the amount thai would be used. 
He had such a cargo, and after considerable doubt and hesitation, 
he soiri it and took the commission. But said he, after reflection, 
" 1 b'-lieve I ought not to keep that money." He chose not to re- 
tain It. And he appropriated it to the dissemination of informa- 
tion n^i to the natiTC and effects of spirituous liquors, for the purpose, 
as far €«s pnicticable, of convincing; all men that it is wicked to 
make, import, sell, or drink it. Should a man sell it, even on 
commission, though another man would sell it if he should not, he 
would Uiach by that act the fatally erroneous doctrine, that it is 
not wirk(Ml to buy and drink it ; — a doctrine which no man can 
teach, without being accessory to the evils, temporal and eternal, 
which it occasions. 

And this, with Christians and sober men, in proportion as they 
pxatnine the subject, is becoming more and more the deep and 
universal conviction. 

The Clerk of a Presbvterv writes, " We have within our hounds 
twenty-one churches ; and there is not an individual in either, who 
is in any way connected with the traffic in ardent spirit" There 
3 18* 


are ten such churches in the city of Boston, and twenty in the 
city of New York ; and the Committee are led to believe, more 
than a thousand in other parts of the country. The impression is 
now common that for men to profess religion and covenant before 
heaven and earth to do good as they have opportunity to all men, 
and then make it a business to manufacture, or sell, tliat which 
produces such unmixed and overwhelming evils, is solemn mock- 
ery. To go from the communion table to (he grog-shop, the 
liquor store, or the distillery, and pour out streams of death over 
tlie community, is an abomination in the sight of heaven, which the 
great Head of ihe Church, who died to redeem it unto himself, re- 
quires should be universally and forever done away. And those 
who, notwithstanding all the light which the church can now fur- 
nish as to the nature and effects of tliis trafTic, still continue in it, 
are viewed as unfit for her communion. And increasing numbers 
believe that they are forbidden by the sacred oracles to be acces- 
sory to the introduction of such persons into the visible church. 
Numbers of churches have been formed, with the understanding 
among the members that no such persons are ever to be admitted. 
Nor is this, as some suppose, adopting a new rule or test of ad- 
mission to churches, or one not recognized in the Bible. It is only 
the application of tlio principles and requirements of the scriptures 
correctly to this case, whereas in times past, through ignorance and 
error, they have not been so applied. The Bible does not indeed 
say, in so many words, that retailers of spirit, or distillers, shall 
not be admitted to the church. Neither does it say, that e:am- 
blers, or counterfeilers of the public coin, shall not be nd mined 
to the church. And yet Christians act, and long have acted as if it 
said so ; and they are forbidden to act otherwise. Why ? because 
those practices are immoral, and as really known to be such «is 
if they were mentioned by name, and denounced as immoralities in 
the Bible. So with the traffic in ardent spirit. 

If, with all the light which, from the Scriptures and from facts, 
the church can now furnish, a man does not renounce the traffic, 
he fails to exhibit that evidence of being a good man, which would 
justify others in receiving and treating him as such. 

Besides, as the business is immoral, if it must be continued, less 
mischief will be done if it is carried on only by men out of tlie 
church, than if it is carried on also by church members. And 
as most of the troubles which tlie churches have had with their 
members have arisen from this employment, they are bound in self 
defeace not to admit such persons to their communion. They 
have too many such in the churches already ; and they are bound 
not to increase the number. If they do, they will increase their 
weakness and their sorrows. This employment is one of the roost 
powerful obstructions to the efficacy of tlie gospel, and one of the 

153J stxTH REPOUT. — 1S33. 37 

creates^ hindrances to iUa 2>iilvndon of men* The greater the in- 
fluence of inen, who sanction a vicious employment, the greater 
the mischief. Regard, tlien^fore, to the good of others, requires 
them to take this course. TJiey cannot do otherwise without great 
evil, and great guilt. 

Some indeed suppose, ahhou^h it is a wicked employment, yet 
as some men will have spirit, and other men will sell it, it had bet- 
ter be sold by good men, than bad ; by professors of religion, 
rather than by others. This is a great mistake. Some men will 
have counterfeit money if th(*y can get it, and other men will make 
h, and others sell it ; some by wholesale, or on commission, and 
others by retail. And some will use it moderately and prudently 
themselves. They have done so perhaps for years, and do not 
see that it injures them, and may contend that there is no hurt in 
it, as they manage it. But is it no worse for this to be done by 
church members, than by the abandoned ? will it be better for pro- 
fessed Christians to be eosaged in wickedness, because they will 
do it more decently, and in a manner less outrageous to public 
feeling ? Will they not by doing it inculcate, by the whole weight 
of their character, that it is right, and thus give it respectability ? 
or else that they, although professors of godliness, will for money 
knowingly and habitually do wrong ? And would not either of 
these doctrines be a reproach to religion? and if taught by the 
practice of good men would it not do vastly more mischief than 
if taught only by notoriously bad men ? Who can doubt it ? Sa- 
tan himself, when there is a demand for it, and some men will 
carry it on, might delight to have members of the church, and the 
best and most influential men in the community, engaged in his 
most infernal business. And he might be willing even to be laid 
under some restrictions, if the business could be licensed, and thu5 
have the sanction of legislative authority. It would aid him by 
removing one of his greatest obstructions, arising from the con- 
scieaces of men, and from tlie convictions that his business is 
wicked, and that the end thereof is death. He might be willing 
that hb followers should even |)ay sometliing for a license, and that 
there should be, nominally at least, some penalty attached to out- 
rageous excess ; and he might plead that the best men in the 
community should carry on the business, because they would do 
it with more regularity. But would it promote the cause of virtue 
and the cause of God ? and would it lessen the power of the ad- 
versary ^ does he not know, that the more respectable he caa 
make a wicked employment, the greater will be the mischief? 

A notorious gambler at the head of a large establishment, the 
keeping of which was made penal, but into which, in violation of 
kw, public sentiment and conscience, many a youth and many a 
laaii, under the cover of night had stepped and been ruined, plead 


Strongly that such establishments, for the public good, should be 
licensed. He would be willing to pay, if needful, a thousand dol- 
lars a year ; and be willing too to be laid, nominally at least, under 
some restrictions, and to have some penalty attached to great ex- 
cess. He said, if such establishments were licensed they might 
be controlled, and be made to yield a large revenue to the gov- 
ernment. And such men, in such cases, can talk long and loud, 
about revenue, and regularity, and decency, and the public good ; 
and appear very patriotic ; while their business is undermining the 
pillars of the Republic, and is such as the great enemy of God and 
man would have it. But he did not add, that this would remove 
the odium of vice, without changing its character ; make the way 
to death more respectable, and thus draw a greater number into it. 
He did not add what, had he told the truth, and the whole truth, 
he must have added, that it would ward off from those sinks of 
iniquity the frown of public indignation, and stifle many a conscience, 
and remove the last barrier between many a soul and endless ruin. 
And let men who plead that a wicked business should be licensed, 
or be carried on by good men, not forget that they advocate the 
cause of the great destroyer. 

A vender of lottery tickets contrary to law, said, " It is a bad 
business, but then somebody will carry it on, and it ought to be 
licensed. The Legislature can then control it, and prevent a 
great deal of mischief ; and it might be a source of revenue to the 
Stale. Men will buy tickets, legislators make laws against it, 
and then come themselves, and buy the tickets. I have sold more 
than four hundred dollars worth of tickets to members of the leg- 
islature within four weeks. It ought to be licensed." So the 
men who carry on the system of public swindling, and their associ- 
ates reason. They too, would be willing, nay glad to pay for 
a 'license, for this would varnish over with legislative sanction, and 
in view of multitudes hide the odiousness of their high-handed ini- 
quity. But the people begin to think, that it is better for their 
legislators not to license the perpetrators of such iniquity ; but if 
they continue to injure the community, and nothing else will prevent 
it, to send them to the State Prison. The community have already 
begun to speak on this subject, and legislators have begun to hear.* 
May they continue to speak, in louder and deeper tones, till the 
practice of licensing iniquity, and thus throwing over it the shield 
of legislative sanction, and warding off public rebuke, shall univer- 
sally and forever cease. 

In the month of October the Committee of the New York City 
Temperance Society applied to our Secretary to assist them in con>- 
pleting a thorough Temperance organization of that city. A Society 

• ApfMBdiiR 

t65J SIXTH REPORT.— 1833. 39 

was organized in every Ward, and a Committee appointed in each, 
of from thirty to eighty men. A map of each Ward was procured, 
the Ward divided into districts, and each district committed to the 
care of some member of the Committee, who engaged to visit 
every family, put into it a Temperance Circular, and invite its 
members to join the Temperance Society. To a considerable 
extent, this was accomplished before the 26th of February, the 
day appointed for simultaneous meetings throughout the country. 
On thai day one of the largest and most interesting meetings ever 
known in the city, was holden at the Chatham Street Chapel, and 
was addressed by a number of eminent citizens, with great power 
and effect. From the Report presented on that occasion, it ap- 
peared, though only partial reports had been made, that the num- 
ber of members of Temperance Societies in the city was from 
fifteen to eighteen thousand ; and tliat they had been more than 
doubled during the last year.* The work is still going forward, and 
could an agent of the rizht character be permanently located in 
that city, and a system of effort be pursued to put information on 
this subject into every family, (he work of moral reform, so happily 
begun, might by the divine blessing be carried forward to a tri- 
umphant consummation ; and from that great fountain of weakh and 
influence, streams of life and salvation flow out over the whole 
country. Nor would the inhabitants of the city be among the 
least of the gainers. Let the population of that great and growing 
metropolis cease to use and vend ardent spirit, or to practise the 
Tices to which it leads, and the sad spectacle of two hundred thous- 
and dollars expended to support paupers and prosecute the crimi- 
nals, and an hundred thousand to meet the wants of sickness which 
it occasions ; fifty thousand people fleeing from dieir homes to es- 
cape the ravages of tlie Cholera, and the universal stagnation of 
business causing a loss of a million dollars more, and the woful 
sacrifice in three months of more than three thousand lives, would 
probably not again be seen. Ceasing to manufacture and sell 
death, its ravages to a great extent would cease. And let her hun- 
dred churches, like the twenty referred to, and the thousand in 
other parts of the country be freed from all members who stand at 
the fountain head and pour out streams of desolation over the coun- 
try J and let all who name the name of Christ, imitate his example 
ot doing good and good only as they have opportunity to ail, and 
Zion will arise and shine, her lieht being come, and the glory of 
the Lord, above the brightness of the sun, will break forth upon her. 
Violence will no more be heard in our land, wasting or destruction 
within our borders— our walls will be salvation, and our gates will 
be praise. 

In December, 1832, the Committee issued the following Cir- 
cular, viz. 

* Tbey have lince been increaied to more than 50,000, July, 18a&. 



** As the success of the Temperance cause depends upon the 
universal difRision of correct information among al) classes ol 
people, the Executive Committee of the American Temperance 
Society have thought proper to adopt the following Resolutions : 

1 . Hesolvedy That it is expedient that delegates from Tempe- 
rance Societies and the friends of Temperance in every part of the 
United States be invited to meet in Convention, to consider the 
best means of extending, by a genera] diffiision of information, and 
the exertion of a kind and persuasive moral influence, the princi- 
ple of abstinence from the use of ardent spirit throughout out 

3. That measures be imniediately taken to procure such a Con* 
vention, to be held in the city of Philadelphia on the 24th day of 
May, 1833. 

3. That each Stale Temperance Society be, and hereby is, re- 
quested to send three or more delegates, and each County Society 
to send one or more delegates to the proposed Convention. 

4. That it be recommended, that the appointment of delegates 
90 far as it shall be practicable, be made on the 26th day of Teb- 
rtiary next, the day already fixed upon for simultaneous meetings 
of the Temperance Societies and friends of Temperance, in all the 
cities, towns and villages throughout the United States. 

5. That in those States and counties in which no Temperance 
Society is organized, the friends of Temperance be, and they 
hereby are, requested to appoint in such manner as they shal) think 
proper, the same number ot delegates for each State or County, 
as are proposed in the 3d Resolution, to be appointed by the seve- 
ral State and County Societies respectively. 

6. That all editors of papers and other publications tbronghout 
our country, who are friendly to the cause of Temperance, be and 
they hereby are respectfully requested to insert the foregoing 
resolutions in their several publications ; and in such other ways 
as they may deem suitable, to use their influence to promote the 
object of the proposed Convention,-— vntverMt/ (AsUnence from 
the use of ardent tpirit. 

Samuel Hubbard, President. 
John Tafpan, 
George Ooiorne, 

Heman Lincoln, yEx. Committee.^ 
Justin Edwards, 
Enoch Hale, Jr. 

The call for this Convention has been greeted with joy in all 
parts of the country. Numerous delegates have already been ap- 

e>inted tliroughout the United States, and one appointed by thd 
ritish and Foreign Temperance Society has just arrived from 

857] SIXTH REPORT. — 1833. 31 

England to attend the meeting. High hopes are entertained that 
it will be a numerous and powerful meeting, and that it will give a 
new impulse to the cause of Temperance throughout the world.* 
Early iu February our Secretary visited the city of Washington. 
He was cordially welcomed by many members of Congress and 
others, and at the special request of members of both houses ad- 
dressed them on the sabbath, in the Capitol, on the subject of 
Temperance. The subsequent week, the House of Representa- 
tives liberally granted the use of their hall for the purpose of hold- 
ing a Congressional Temperance Meeting. This meeting was 
numerously attended bv members of Congress, citizens, and 
strangers ; and produced a highly salutary effect. 

The Hon. Lewis Cass, Secretary of War presided, and the Hon. 
John Blair, member of Congress from Tennessee was Secretary 
of the meeting. The throne of grace was addressed by the Rev. 
William Hammet of Virginia, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and Chaplam to Congress. 

Addresses were then delivered by the Secretary of War ; the 
Corresponding Secretary of the American Temperance Society ; 
The Hon. Eleutheros Cook, member of Congress from Ohio ; the 
Hon. George R. Briggs, member of Congress from Massachusetts ; 
Thomas Sewall, M. D. Professor of Anatomy and Physiology in 
the Columbian College, Washington, D. C; the Hon. Lewis Con- 
diet, member of Congress from New Jersey ; die Hon. Andrew 
Stewart, Member of Congress from Pennsylvania; the Hon. 
WiUiam Wilkins, United States Senator from Pennsylvania ; the 
Hon. John Reed, member of Congress from Massachusetts ; the 
Hon. John Tipton, United States Senator from Indiana ; and the 
Hon. Theodore Freelinghuysen, United States Senator from New 
Jersey ; and the following Resolutions were unanimously adopted, 

Resolved^ That the success of the cause of Temperance in this, 
and other countries, affords high encouragement to the friends of 
morality to persevere in their eflbrts till intemperance and its evils 
are banished from the earth. 

Resolved^ That the manufacture of, and traffic in ardent spirit 
ought to be discountenanced and abandoned, as incompatible with 
the obligations of social and moral duty, by every patriot, and es- 
pecially by every Chrisdan in the country. 

Resolved^ That total abstinence from the use of ardent spirit, as 
a drink, is the only security to individuals aeainst its ruinous con- 
sequences, and gives the only sure pledge oi the ulumate success 
of the cause of Temperance. 

Ruclvedf That the use of ardent spirit tends to produce disease 



and premature death ; and that there is no ease in which it is iD* 
dispensable, even as a medicine, and ki which there may not be an 
adequate substitute. 

Resolved, As the sense of this meeting, that the Kberties and 
welfare of the nation are intimately and indissolubly connected with 
the morals and virtue of the people. And that, in the enactment 
of laws for the common benefit, it is equally die duty of the Legis- 
lative body to guard and preserve the public morals firom corrup- 
tion, as to advance the pecuniary interest, or to maintain the civil 
rights and freedom of the community. 

The following resolution was to have been presented by the 
Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn, member of Congress from Massachu- 
setts, but he was prevented by sickness from attending the meeting. 

Resolved, That the aboliuon of the use of ardent spirit dirougb- 
out the army, has been highly salutary; and that its abolition 
throughout the navy, while it would strengthen the arm of iiationnl 
defence, would elevate the character and increase the respectability 
and happiness of that interesting and important class of our citizens. 

Resolved, That the adoption of the principle of abstinence from 
the use of ardent spirit, by superintendents oi public works, propri- 
etors of rail roads, steamboats, stages, &c. with regard to all in 
tlieir employment, would increase the vahie of their services, as 
well as the comfort and safety of the community. 

Resolved, That the use of ardent spirits and the tmresirained 
traffic in them, direcdy lead to the introduction amongst us, of crimes 
and vice in various forms, and to the overthrow of that purity and 
virtue of the people upon which depend the permanence of our 
free institutions, and, therefore, ought to be discouraged and re- 
sisted by every friend of civil and religious liberty throughout tlie 

Resolved, That as a means of universal success, the friends of 
Temperance are bound to redouble their efforts by tbe agency of 
the press, and by all other practical means to enlighten the under- 
standings of their fellow men, and awaken their attention to this 
great and important cause. 

Resolved, That it be earnestly recommended to all who adopt 
the principles of the Temperance reformation, or who widi to pro- 
mote it, to add the influence of their names and examjdes as mem- 
bers of Temperance Societies, and in all proper ways to promote 
the formation of such societies, until they snaU become untrersal. 

Resolved, That the Temperance reformadon is fondamental in 
its influence, upon all the great enterprizes, which have for thdr 
object the intellectual elevation, the moral purity, tbe social hap- 
pmess, and the immortal prospects of mankmd. 

The Hon. Felix Grunay, United States Senator from TenneS' 
see, then rose and said, that be had been highly gratified, and even 

iS9] BtXTH BBPOHT.— 1833. S3 

delighted widi the meeting. But, said Mr. G. let us not stop here. 
Let the facts and arguments which have here been presented, go 
oat from this place over the land. Let them be printed and cir- 
culated universally. Let it be seen by the whole American peo- 
ple, that men in high places, men whom the people have elevated 
to represent them m the Congress of the United States, are the 
friends, the patrons, and the active, zealous, and persevering pro- 
moters of the cause of Temperance. Let them see that this bless- 
ed cause has taken possession, even of the Capitol, and that it will 
iudd possession ; and from this elevated s)K>t, this strong hold of 
Eberty, will extend itself over the whole country. He then ex- 
pressed his readiness to aid in publishing the addresses which had 
been delivered, and in their circulation through the land. 

In the able and powerful addresses which accompanied the 
above resolutions, the duty and utility of entire abstinence from the 
use of ardent spirit, and from the traffic in it, were strongly illus- 
trated ; and also the benefits, which should this course be adopted, 
would result to our country and the world. Tlie addresses have 
since been published in an octavo pamphlet of forty-eight pages, 
and in other forms ; and have been circulated extensively through 
the country. They have awakened new interest and brought 
many new and powerful auxiliaries to the Temperance cause. Od 
the 26th day ol February, a meeting of members of Congress was 
bolden in tlie Senate Chamber for the purpose of forming a Con- 
eressional Temperance Society. The Hon. William Wilkins, 
United States Senator from Penn^^^lvania, was called to the chair, 
and the Hon. Walter Lowrie, Secretaiy of the Senate of the Uni- 
ted States, was appointed Secretary of the meeting. The meet- 
ing was opened with prayer by the Rev. John Proudfit of Penn- 
sjmrania. After discussion and deliberation, a Society was formed 
on the basis of entire abstinence from the use of ardent spirit, and 
from the traffic in it, called. The American Congressional 
Temperance Societt. Members of Congress, and all who have 
been members of Congress, officers of the United States Govern- 
ment, civil and military, and heads of departments, who practicaUy 
adopt the great principles of the Society, by signing the Constitu- 
tkm, or addressmg a letter to the Secretary expressive of their 
wish to do so, may become members of the Society. The Society 
is to have an annual meeting during the sessions of Congress, and 
the Executive Committee are, from time to time, to take such 
Deasores as will render the Society most extensively useful to the 

At this meeting, and also at the previous meeting inthe Representa- 
^*s HaU, the high responsibilities resting on members of Congress 

• ApfwidisD. 


and upon all men in public office was exhibited in strong and 
glowing colors ; and also their duty to set an example of mora/ 

Srtty, as well as integrity ; an example which the people may safely 
low, and which will make rulers what alone they were designed 
to be, ministers of God for good to the people. And the Com- 
mittee cannot but expect from this high and patriotic example, the 
most extensive and beneficial results. The rulers of a ^reat na- 
tion, in the halls of legislation recognizing their high moral obliga- 
tions and forming themselves into an association for the purpose of 
doing good by example and kind moral influence, to th^ country 
and the world, is indeed a noble, a sublime spectacle ; and worthy 
of imitation by the rulers of all States and nations on the globe ; 
and one which we trust will be speedily and extensively followed. 
On the 1 5th of March, a Society on the same plan, was formed at 
the State House by members of tlie Legislature of Massachusetts. 
His Excellency the Governor, is President ; His Honor Lieuten- 
ant Governor, the speaker of the House of Representatives, and 
two distinguished laymen are Vice Presidents ; and many ojf the 
legislature have already joined the Society. All persons, who are, 
or wIk) have been members of the legislative, executive, or judicial 
branches of the government, and who practically adopt tlie princi- 
ples of entire abstinence from the use of ardent spirit and from the 
traffic in it, mav become members. It has already accomplished 
much good. Let similar societies be formed in the legislature of 
each State, and by friends of temperance throughout the land, and 
that foulest, deepest blot upon the human character, that most 
withering blight of human hopes, that mighty obstruction to the 
efficacy of the gospel, and to the intellectual elevation and moral 
purily of man will be no more. 

The simultaneous meetings on the 26th of February were attend- 
ed by great numbers and with intense interest, not only throughout 
the United States, but in London and various other places in Great 
Britain. Much valuable information was communicated, and a 
powerful impulse given to the cause. 

At the meeting of the British and Foreign Temperance Society, 
John Wilks, Esq. member of parliament, said, *^ When they (bund 
that the number of criminals in the year amounted to 195,000, and 
that the number was perpetually increasing, notwithstanding the 
efforts of legislation, and tnat this increase of crime is attributable 
to intemperance and the use of ardent spirits, they roust feel the 
absolute necessity of an effectual remedy. And what could be so 
efficient as the simple process recommended by this Society^— 
persuasion and example. 

'' They were met that day, and it was deUghtful to think of it, 
purely because the great philanthropists of America, throughout 
the whole United States, were also met to oBsr their coogratda- 

961] SIXTH REPORT. — 1833. 35 

lions to each other, and acknowledge their obligations to their 
Divine Master. Hundreds of thousands were that day congregated 
firom their most northern regions to their most southern parts, and 
we are assembled with them to thank God and uke courage. 

** To America, we kx>ked with honest pride, and not there alone, 
but to Sweden, where we were told the monarch — a monarch who 
had led armies to and through the field ; fell spirits unnecessary to 
give energy to the vigorous, or bravery to the brave, and had pub- 
lished his proclamation that his subjects should abstain from bran- 
dy, which had been to them as it had been to us, not an angel of 
mercy but of death. Go to the Cape of Good Hope ; tliere the 
testimony of Dr. Phillip informs us that gin-shops no longer ex- 
ist. A vast improvement was perceptible in the morals of the 
people, and the same results were obtained which we desire to see 
accomplished here. At the Sandwich Islands, we found that when 
some recent navigators proposed to give the natives hogsheads of 
ardent spirits, the king replied, ' No, we will not accept your pre- 
sent. Break your casks, and let their contents mingle witli the 
green sea ; or give them, if you please, to your hogs, but they shall 
not be drunk by real men.' Such a sentiment might become the 
Sovereign who sits on our own imperial throne, and let us hope 
that it may yet be heard in our own dominions. ^ Give ardent 
spirits to the hogs, but they are not what ought to be bestowed, or 
received by enlightened or real men.' Such were the encourage- 
ments from every part of the world, and under such circumstances 
as these, he, for one, was glad that they had accepted the invitation 
of their American brethren, and had assembled with them to ofier 
thanks for the past, and to resolve that their future attempts should 
correspond with the greatness of the evils and the importance of 
the cause. We felt no jealousy in reference to America ; out 
language was the same ; our origin the Siime ; we sprung from 
the same parent ; our love of liberty was the same ; and our divine 
religion was the same. While, then, our Temperance S^xieties, 
and Bible Societies, and Missionary Sociedes existed, there was a 
bond of brotherhood between America and us, which no national 
prejudice, or political intrigue, could break." 

The Hon. gentlemen concluded by proposing the following reso- 
lution :-^^ That this meeting view with feelings of lively interest 
the efibrts made by American philanthropists, to correct the public 
opinion and practice with regard to the use of distilled spirits as a 

''The Bishop of Chester seconded the motion. He thought 
die term philanthropists was well applied to the resolution. Those 
were the greatest philanthropists who attempted to remove the 
greatest evils, and to introduce the greatest benefits ; but they be- 
came still greater philanthropists wiien they did tlus by means of the 


boldest measures in the face of the greatest opposition. This was 
bdeed a bold idea, but, like other bold measures, entered upon 
with right views and principles, it had succeeded as a measure so 
introduced and supported would, having been introduced on right 
views and priiiciples. Therefore he called those philanthropists 
who were pursuing this course ; and he rejoiced with the honora- 
ble member who had just sat down, that England had received this 
benefit from America. It was indeed a gratifying tiling for a pa- 
rent to receive a present from a distant child. America was a 
grown-up child, it was true, but she was such a child as England 
would not forget, and he trusted she would not forget the stock 
from whence she sprung. She had returned a benefit which some 
twenty-five years ago she received from England : she then re- 
ceived the noblest institution which he thought the world had ever 
seen — the British and Foreign Bible Society. That Society 
America borrowed from England, and now the latter borrows the 
Temperance Society from America. The Bible Society had 
taken deep root, and flourished there ; so he trusted the Tem- 
perance Society would vegetate and prosper here, so that we might 
find the benefit we had received from America Was not inferior to 
that she had received from us. This was the true intercourse 
which ought t« take place between nations. This was the real 
rivalry they should exercise, and thus promote good works ; and 
he trusted those benefits would extend farther and farther, until 
they overspread the most distant nations. Sweden and Prussia 
had caught a flame which he hoped would soon spread to other 
countries, till, stimulated by our example, it reached the farthest 
shores of Europe, Asia, and Africa." 

P. Crampton, Esq., Solicitor-General for Ireland, said, " On 
all occasions he felt it his duty, as he did his pride, to bear his 
testimony, however humble, and raise his voice, however feeble, in 
support of Temperance Societies, the good and holy cause in which 
they were engaged. He did not think it necessary, on this occa- 
sion, to enter into details ; he felt convinced himself, and he trusted 
it was the conviction of all present, that in proportion to the con- 
sumption of ardent spirits, was the amount of poverty, wretched- 
ness, crime, madness, disease, and premature death ; and to thb 
he might add, would be found obstructions to the reception and 
promotion of evangelical truth. He was satisfied that every maa- 
ufactory for spirits was a manufactory of poison ; that every spirit 
store was a magazine of death ; and that every person who was 
concerned in the trade of making, or buying, or selling spirits, was 
distributor of disease and death. It had been proved to a derooo- 
stration, that all the natural evils to which man was subject, were 
far exceeded by those produced by intemperance. It was the great 
' ' of sm and misery; die chief agent of the enemy of 

A3^ SIXTH REPORT. — 1833. 37 

iORds : but the object of this Society was to baDish it ; to stay the 

^MBUlence ; and to arrest and extinguish the conflagration ; and 

could any Christian man oppose it, or connive at tlie existence of 

4tt cause of roiserv ? Was it not the bounden duty of every man 

iho professed to be the friend of humanity, morals, and religion, 

10 concur in this object and assist in this design ? He felt this 

nbject to be great and important, and did not hesitate to describe 

it 18 one of the ^atest discoveries and blessings ever revealed to 

men ; and the historians of after times would do that justice to its 

progress which it would deserve.'' 

The attention of a great portion of the world has been aroused 
to this subject, and multitudes have inquired with regard to ardent 

girit, ** Is it right for me to use it?" And, says a philanthropic 
uropean, '* The moment a man of conscience seriously asks the 
quesnon, Does the use of ardent spirit on the whole do good, and is 
it right for me to drink it? the work is half done." The reasons, 
tlie subsiandal reasons are all on one side. And the great object 
is, to present those reasons, and lead all men, in view of endless 
being, to ask the quesdon, each one for himself, to be decided as 
God and an enlightened conscience shall direct. Is it right for me 
to drink ardent spirit 9 Two millions in our country, and multi- 
tudes in other countries, who have examined this subject, have 
answered, No. A million have united in Temperance Sociedes, 
and pledged themselves not to use it, or furnish it, and in all suita- 
ble ways to discountenance the use of it, throughout the community. 
The number of these sociedes in the United Slates exceeds five 
thousand, and more than twenty of them are State sociedes, at the 
head of which, in many cases are the first men in the community. 
More than two thousand men have ceased to make it, and more 
than six thousand have ceased to sell it. Tiiey do not believe it to 
be right, however common, or however much money they might 
make by it, to prosecute an employment so manifestly cursed of 
God, and so notoriously destructive to the best interests of men. 
Seven hundred vessels now float on the ocean, in which it is not 
used ; and though they visit every clime and at all seasons of the 
year, make the longest and most difiicult voyages, and not unfre- 
quently circumnavigate the globe, the men are uniformly better, 
and in all respects, than when they used it. Seventy-five out of 
ninety-seven vessels from New Bedford sail without ardent spirit. 
It has become common ; and so great is the increase of safety to 
tbe property in such cases, that insurance Companies find it for 
Chetr interest to insure those vessels diat carry no spirituous liquors 
at a less premium than others. 

And says the English Temperance Magazine and Review, " We 
did hope that our countr}* might be the foremost to set an exam- 
ple to the world in this respect. But we have been disappointed, 
4 19* 


America, that country which has just sprung into existence, and 
which those who have so industriously nattered our self-love, have 
done all in their power to teach us to despise, has stepped before 
us. Not only are ships, which are sailed on Temperance princi- 
ples, in demand by merchants, but the rate of insurance has been 
so much lowered on them tliat a merchant in Liverpool sailing a 
vessel to New York, would save a con;^derable sum by effecting 
the insurance in New York rather tlian in Liverpool ; so that the 
road of virtue is the way to wealth as well as to happiness ; and 
liowever grating it may be to our feelings, we must follow in the 
wake of America." 

So with regard to manufacturing establishments, and other kinds 
of property. Many officers of Insurance Companies and guardians 
of public interests in various departments, when men msike appli- 
cation, now ask the question which Jefferson said be would ask 
with regard to candidates for public office. " Do they drink ardent 
spirit ? If they do, however moderately, they find it needful to 
beware. A master of a vessel, or the owner of that, or other 

Eroperty, is not able perhaps to effect an bsurance according to 
is mind. There seems to be an unaccountable indifference, or 
an egregious excess of caution on the part of the officers and agents 
of Insurance Companies. He wonders what is the reason. 
But were his olfactory nerves unscathed, or a mirror placed before 
him, he would be at no loss for the reason. It is with vessels 
often, as with stages, and steam boats. When the fire and the 
tempest rage within, they are wrecked, overturned or exploded. 
The drinking driver, engineer, captain, sailor, and workman cause 
more waste of property, and more loss of life, than all the elements 
ot providence. It isa tornado within that does the mischief; and 
it needs no eagle eye to see the character, or the guilt of those 
who are instrumental in raising it ; and no spirit of prophecy to for^ 
tell that the time is at hand when no provident man will have the 
cause of it, on board his vessel. More than five thousand drunk- 
ards have also ceased to use intoxicating drinks ; and are, as 
every drunkard who adopts and pursues this course will be — sober 

There is no tendency in the government of God to make drunk- 
ards ; and it is not possible for any person who lives under it to 
become one, except through his own guilty instrumentality, or that 
of others. And even if a man has become a drunkard, and sunk 
to the lowest depths of degradation, let that man cease, by bis owa 
wickedness, to perpetuate that degradation, and the providence of 
God will make him sober, and will infallibly keep him sober, to 
the day of his death, on the simple condition, whicn we must think 
is most reasonable, that he shall just refrain from making himself 
by his own voluntary wickedness, a drunkard. And were thevi 

•ft] 8I>LTH REPORT. — 1833, dlf 

» nnn to exert an influence for making drunkards in opposition 

I that of God, there never would be one. Let all men make it 

lor object! to imitate him, and drunkenness will cease from 

nder heaven. Wherever they do this, il does cense. And the 

nod instrumentality of leading drunkards to become .sober men, 

■ exannple ; united , consistent, and persevering example. This 

il indeed the grand engine for the moral renovation of the world ; 

ind never has its deep and all-pervading power been more con- 

niruously manifested than in the entire reformation of more dinn 

Dfc thousand drunkards, within five years. From one hundred 

and thirty-seven towns in Maine, returns are made of four hundred 

tnd fifty drunkards, who are now sober men. An equal number 

in proportion to the population tliroughout die State, would make 

more than a thousand ; and throughout the United States, more 

than thirty thousand. Drunkards were lately thought by all, and 

ore by many thought now, to be beyond the reach of any moral 

inflaence. But let all sober men set an example, united, public 

and persevering, which drunkards may safely follow, and the 

world will be convinced of its mistake and even drunkards by 

thousands and tens of thousands not only become sober, but be led 

lo glorify God. 

Among tlie midtitude of cases, known to the Committee, they 
mil mention only three. One was a man of respectable employ- 
ment, character and property, with an amiable and intelligent wife, 
and a number of lovely children. He became a drunkard, lost his 
property, and sunk to the lowest depths of inebriety and debase- 
loent. The family experienced all the heart-breaking evils com- 
mon in such cases ; and some that were very peculiar. For more 
than ten years, Uiey struggled hard amidst an almost unheard of 
complication of trials, till the case appeared to be hopeless ; when 
after many fruidess removes from place to place, and changes of 
many kinds, they removed about dnrty miles into a nciglibourlKX)d, 
in which no individual sohi ardent spirit, and no one drank il. 
And wlien diis solitary drunkard looked around and saw not an 
bdividual, who would touch die drunkard's poison, except himself. 
and ail were far happier than he, he said, what thousands of drunk- 
ards under similar circumstances would say, 'Mf other peofile can 
do without, I can.'' He had no idea of being singular and sustaio- 
iqg all the odium of drunkard making, and drunkenness alone. 
Ik resolved to be like other people. And when our Secrctaiy 
him, he had taken nothing that intoxicates for three ^ears ; 
a respectable man, and his family were in comfortable circun:>- 
ataoces. *^ That " said a gentleman of his acquaintance, ** is one 
of the trophies of the Temperance Reformation. For ten years 
a woman in the United States perhaps suffered more than diat 
; but for three years, her house has been the abode of 


peace and joy." But, says one, " I don't beliere a drunkard 
fvas ever reformed. I have seen such cases, where they have 
broken off for a time, but they have all gone back, and have gene- 
rally become worse than before." That many who for a time 
break off, go back, there is no doubt. But why do they go back ? 
Because some sober men set them the example of using tliat which 
carries them back ; and some perhaps urge them to use it, or for 
a mere pittance of worldly gain, will sell it to them, and thus en- 
tice them to do, what no drunkard can do and reform, drink the 
drunkard's poison. Such men are their destroyers. Every 
drunkard will live and die a sober man, if he drinks nothing that 
intoxicates ; but, if he uses distilled, or fermented liquors, he must 
expect to die a drunkard. And those who by example or bua- 
ness are accessory to his use of it, are sharers in his guilt ; and 
will unless they repent be partakers in his plagues. But the idea 
that drunkards in great numbers will not be radically and perma- 
nently reformed, if sober men will set them an example, which 
they may safely follow, is entirely without foundation, and contrary 
to conclusive evidence. 

A gcntieman in one of our cities accosted our Secretary, as he 
was walking in the streets, and said, " There is one thing, which, 
as you go about the country, and speak on the subject of Tempe- 
rance, 1 wish you to impress particularly on the minds of sober 
men. They must set an example, which drunkards may safelv 
follow ; and if they will do that, and not avoid the drunkard, or 
pass him by and neglect him, but go to him, and treat him kindly, 
and say, Come now, though you are wretched, and your family are 
wretched, and while you continue your present course you never 
can be any better, yet you are not lost. Break off the use of spirit, 
and you will find many that are ready to help you. They often 
think they are lost, and that if they should reform nobody would ever 
eare for them, and they never could be any thing. I know how 
they feci, 1 have had full experience. And it will affect them ex- 
ceedingly, to find that they have friends, and that people feel kind 
toward them, and wish to help them. There is another thine. 
I want to have it impressed on their minds, that they may breu 
off entirely, and at once, and it will not kill them. They often 
tliink that should they break off suddenly it will kill them and the 
devil tries to have them think so, and it is the doctrine of some 
people. But without the least danger titey may break off at once. 
And there is no other way. If sober men will all set them the ex- 
ample, treat them kindly, and as tiiey break off help them into 
business, it will be the salvation of thousands. I hope sir, yoa 
will bear this in mind. The Lord bless you, in your great and 
good work. Good bye." To be tiius accosted by a stranger 
au'akened a desire to know who and what he was. Meeting a 

S67] SIXTH REPORT. — 1833. 41 

merchant, the Secretary made the inquiry. ^* Oh," (said the 

merchant,) " his name is . He used to he picked up in the 

street here, and carried home a number of times in the week, 

dniok. He is now the Casliier of Bank, a very respectable 

and roost excellent man." His employment is of course sufUcient 
evidence of his entire reformation. And of the correctness of his 
riews on this subject we have a most striking exhibition in tlie fol- 
lowing facts. 

As our Secretary was passing in the public stage from Baltimore 
ID Washington, a genteel looking stranger accosted him, saying, 
" How does the Temperance cause prosper now? " " It goes well,** 
said the Secretarj', " where they do the needful work; but it will 
not go in any place wilhotit labor." " It is making great progress,** 
said the stranger, " in our part of the country. It is niost sur- 
prizing what it is doing. It is saving many, even of tlic drunkards. 
There was a case of a man in my employment that has inter- 
ested me very much. He is a mechanic, of the first order ; was 
married into a respectable family, and was once a man of pro- 
perty. But he lost it, and became a drunkard. He had a largo 
lamily of sons and daughters. His wife struggled long an<l hard 
to sup)K)rt them, and sustain the family. But it was too much ; 
she Slink under it. For more than a year she had been confined 
lo her room, the greater part of the time to her bed ; and was 
evidently sinking to the grave. Not un frequently they were en- 
tirely destitute of provision ; and what was earned hy the father 
and sons was expended for liquor; till they sunk so low tluit no- 
body would trust them. His boys seemed to be stupid, and to 
have in a measure lost their minds by dissipation. They would 
undertake a Job of work as quick for a shilling, as they would foi 
a dollar. Ihey seemed hardly to know the difTercnce, and when 
they got it, they would spend a dollar for spirit, as quick as a sliil- 
Kng. They sometimes worked in the factory ; but they were so 
stupid, tliat the overseer would not trust them to mend a hand or 
oil a gudgeon, or do any such thing. You could put no confidence 
in diem. And the mother being sick and no one to take care of 
uny thing, they were most wretched — and seemed to have no re- 
solution, or desire to do any thing, except just to get the means of 
intoxication. I met the doctor one day, as he came from the 
house, and I asked him, ' What is the matter of that woman ? ' and 
he said, ^ Nothing. She has no disease upon her. It is trouble, 
nothing but trouble, and their destitute wretched condition. And 
that will sink her to the grave, if she cannot be relieved.' So I 
thought of it, and resolved that I would make one more effort to 
save them. I knew that in my business there was hardly a man 
in the country that would do belter than he, if he would only keep 
sober. One day I went to him, when he was sober ; and I told 


hiniy You know that you are wretched, and your family are 
wretched. Your wife is sick, and will no doubt die if she cannot 
get relief. And the great cause is trouble. And you never can 
be in any belter condition unless you break off entirely the use o( 
spirit. If you will do that, I will take you and yoor boys into my 
employ. I will eive you so much and pay you every week, and 
in such a time 1 will raise your wages. You may yet be a re- 
spectable man, and support your family well, and be comfortable. 
But it is all on the condition that you do not drink intoxicating 
liquor. If you do, I will have nothing more to do with you ; you 
know I don't have it in my establislunent. The man thought of it 
and he seemed to be affected. I treated him very kindly. He 
finally said he would do it ; and came to the resolution that he 
would break off that very day. The next day he went to work, 
and did very well about a month. His boys too began to im- 
prove ; they treated him more respectfully, and were more kind 
to one another. But at the close of the nM>nth he came to me 
and said he could not get along ; his creditors were calling upoa 
him every day, and he could not pay them and support his Cim- 
ily. It. was a gone case with him, and he had as good give up 
&rst as last. His creditors, you see, wliom he owed for spirit, and 
wlio before could not get their pay, as he had gone to work and 
was earning something, thought that now was their time to get 
tlieir money, and they were constantly calling upon him. I told 
him. Never mind, keep to work, you are doing weH. I will niise 
your wages. And when your creditors call, send them to me ; I 
will take care of them. And he again went to work. They soon 
began to have things more comfortable in their family, the mother 
began to get better ; and the boys did improve most wonderfully. 
Tiiey began to feel that they had some character, and being better 
fed, and clothed, and treated with attention, it had a wonderful 
effect upon them. The (amily were soon .clad ao as to attend 
public worship ; the children were fitted out to the sabbath schools, 
and tlie younger ones sent to school during the week. 1 went lo 
the house last autumn and found it well stored with provisions ; 
they had a large pile of wood, enough to last thro^ich the winter ; 
the mother was about the house well, and you can t think what a 
change there was in the appearance of things. The father and 
mother, and one of the sons have become hopefully pkHis, and are 
members of the Church. One of the sons a few clays ago bought 
his time of his father, till he is twenty-one, and gave him three hundred 
and 6fty dollars. And if he continues as he is now doing, he will 
earn the money, support himself, and gain several hundred dollars 
beside. And these boys, which were so stupid that they coukl 
hardly do any thing, are now anK>ng the most active, ingenious and 
enterprising youth 1 ever saw ; they can do almost any thing. I 

t09J SIXTH REPORT. 1833. 4S 

have a case of a few little things in my pocket, which they have 
manufactured. See there," (showing a number of implement^ 
which they had wrought of the most beautiful pro|K)rtions, and ex- 
quisite workmanship^ " those are wholly of their own manufacture. 
And I have paid their father already, tor his labor and theirs, the 
present year, between thirteen and fourteen hundred dollars. Oii« 
this Temperance Reformation is one of the noblest things in the 
world." Our Secretary, on hearing this, could not but advert ta 
Che declarations of die Cashier referred to-— '^ Treat them kindly, 
and tell them to break off now entirely and we will help you. Oh ! 
it will be like life from the dead to (hem. And tliey may break 
off at once, it will not kill them. There is no other way." All 
experience testifies, and the Committee, had they the power, would 
echo the declaration round the globe, '' There is no other way.** 
And though there be other ways that seem right to some men, the 
end thereof are the ways of cleath. That man, and thousands of 
others like him, dirough grace are now safe, on one condition, viz. 
that they continue not to take any intoxicating drink. But if tliey 
drink any quantity of any thing that intoxicates, they may expect 
to die drunkards. And the use of these drinks by sober men, will 
inake multitudes of them drunkards, and roll the burning, descH 
lating curse over future eenerations. It is to prevent this, to save 
all tliat can be saved of the drunkards, and pour the tide of life, 
light and joy, over their families ; and to prevent all youth, and 
sober men, from becoming drunkards, or engulphing any more 
families in the fathomless abyss of the drunkard's woes, that the 
Committee began, have prosecuted, and intend perseveringly to 
continue their arduous labors. It is for the purpose of saving 
nnbom millions, from becoming, through their own guilty instru- 
mentality, and that of others, intemperate ; and entailing its curses 
to endless ages. It is for this purpose that they labor, by light and 
love, to convince the understanding and impress the hearts of all, 
that to drink ardent spirit, or to furnish it as a drink for others, is 
tin. And it having been decided, by a court from which there is 
no appeal, that the wages of sin is death, they would continue 
eamesdy to beseech all men, for their own sakes, and especially 
for the sake of others, entirely and forever to renounce it. Aad 
the immutable and eternal principles of the divine government, the 
explicit, unerring declarations of the divine word, and the migh^ 
and august developments of divine providence, all ensure ultimate;, 
universal, and triumphant success. 





The American Ternperance Society, at the conrmenceinent, 
took the ground that to drink ardent spirit is morally wrong; and 
in their Reports they have exhibited the reasons which demoo' 
itrate its truth. Millions in this country have embraced this truth, 
and are now acting under its influence. Its influence has also 
been extended to other countries, and great nombers in foreign 
bnds are imitating our example. 

The next position taken by the Society, was, that it is wicked to 

make ardent spirit, or to furnish it to b^ drunk by others. Tlii» 

too they accompanied by legitimate and abundant proof ^ and it has 

been embraced ; as whole counties in which it is now a violation 

even of human law to sell it, and of a thousand churches in which 

there is not a man who prosecutes tlie business, and thousands of 

other churches that are struggling to throw off the mighty incubus, 

abundantly testify. It is shown also by the existence of more 

than six thousand Temperance Societies, embracing more than a 

million of members } pledged to abstain from the drinking of ardent 

spirit, and from the traffic in it, and also to use all suitable means 

to cause this to become universal. The means by wliich such a 

result may be expected, is the universal conviction that tlie drinking 

of ardent spirit, or the furnishing it to be drunk by others, is nti ; 

an offence against God, and injurious to the temporal and eternal in- 

terests of men. Whatever tends to produce this conviction, tends 

to promote the Temperance Reformation ; and whatever tends to 

' prevent the one, tends to hinder the other. Perhaps nothing now 

stands more in the way of producing this conviction, and causine it 

to become universal, than the fact, that the traffic in ardent spirit 

b authorised by law ; and thus receives the sanction and support 

of legislation. This is a public testinK)ny to the world that the 

sale of ardent spirit, and of course the drinking of it, are right ; a 

fundamental and fatal error, destructive in its effects to the life that 

now is, and to tliat which is to come. The next thing to be ac- 

*complished therefore, is, by the universal diffusbn of inforroatioa 

and the exertion of kind moral influence, to produce throughout 

the community, the conviction, that the laws which authorise thtf 

traffic in ardent spirit as a drink, by licensing men to pursue it, are 

morally wrong ; opposed in their influence to the laws of God ; 

and that the public good, instead of requiring that some men should 

sell ardent spirit, utterly forbids that this should be done by any ; 

3flJ SIXTH REPOBT. — 1833. 49 

and that no men or body of men who understand, or have the 
means of understanding this subject, can be instrumental in making 
such laws without the commission of sin. And as such laws are 
maraUy wronz, they never can be politically right, or beneficial, or 
expedient. While Jehovah lives, righteousness, and that alone will 
exalt a nation ; sin in any form, and especially if sanctioned by law, 
will be a reproach, and a nuisance to any people. That this b 
plainly and strongly the case with the traffic in ardent spirit, and that 
the laws which authorise it are morally wrong, and in their influ- 
ence opposed to the will of God, is manifest from the following 
considerations, viz : 

I. Ardent spirit is a poison, and the drinking of it is not needful 
or beneficial to men. Even the moderate use of it is positively 
hurtful ; and b a violation of the laws of health, and of life. Cn 
course, no man has a natural right to furnish it, or to wish for 
laws which shall authorise him to do it. And no man acquainted 
with the subject ean be instrumental in making laws which shall 
authorise others to do it, even in a savage state, without guilt. Such 
laws would legalize sin, and violate the law of God. 

II. No man acquires a right to make such laws by entering into 
society ; and no body of men by the establishment of civil govern- 
ment. The only legitimate object of government is to protect, 
and to benefit the community. It has no right, any more than in- 
di/iduak, to injure that community : or to pass laws which autho- 
rise others to do it. And if it does, it violates the divine will ; and 
she individuals who compose it, will, at the divine tribunal, and 
ought at the bar of public opinion, to be held responsible for the 
e^cts. The personal responsibility of each individual for the in- 
fluence which he exerts, is in no case merged in the general mass ; 
or swallowed up and lost in the responsibility of the body. Each 
one is bound by obligations which he can never throw off, in what- 
ever situation or capacity he may act, to honor God, and do the 
greatest good of which he is capable to mankind. In no case has 
be a right to injure others or be instrumental in making laws which 
will authorise them to do it. It would be having a right to do 
wrongj which carries on its face evidence of falsehood. 

HI. The authorising of men by law to traffic in ardent spirit a& 
a drink, is inconsistent with the temperance of the community. 
Temperance is the moderate and proper use of things beneficial, 
and it is abstinence from things hurtful. Ardent spirit being one 
of the hurtful things, temperance with regard to this, is abstincice, 
perpetual, entire, universal abstinence. But by authorizing men to 
sdl it, and professing to do this for the public good, legislators de- 
clare* that to buy and drink it is right, and useful. This is not 
only false, but promotes intemperance. To use a thing which is in 
in nature hurtful is mtemperance, no less really than to use a ben* 



eficial thing to excess ; and is often more injurious ; especiallj 
when the use of it, as in the case of ardent spirit, even in snnall 

Juantities, tends to a constant increase. To teach the doctrine 
len by legislation, that it is right to drink it, in any quantity, is to 
Eomote intemperance ; to inculcate a doctrine which tends to 
rm intemperate appetites, and which lies at the foundation of a 
great portion of all the drunkenness in the world. It does im- 
mense injury in another way, by increasing the difficulty of con- 
vincing men that to drink ardent spirit, or to furnish it to be dnrak 
by otliers, is sin. Many see no difference between what is legal, 
and what is right. With them, the standard of right and wrong is 
human law. If a thing is legal and they wish to do it they take it 
for granted that it is right. Show that it dishonors God, and de- 
stroys men, and is therefore wrong, they meet you with the fact 
that it is legal, and therefore conclude that it is right ; and thus they 
ward off tJie conviction, which tliey would otherwise feel, of its 
enormous wickedness and guih. They tell you that it is allowed 
by law ; that tliey have gotten a license and paid for it ; that this is 
a land of liberty; and begin to clamor about their rights to increase 
the taxes, demoralize the character, destroy the heahh, shorten the 
lives, and ruin the souk of men ; or else, which is more common, 
contend in opposition to facts that their business does not do this. 
*' If it did," sa^ they, '' legislators would not license it. They 
know what is right, and as they have made laws, authorizing it, 
and as they expressly say, for the public good, it is riglit, legally, 
and morally right for us to continue to sell it,— all its consequences,'^ 
which they acknowledge are tremendous, " and all that temperance 
people say to the contrary notwithstanding." This, were legisla- 
tors right in authorising the traffic, would be true ; and it would 
present a barrier to the triumph of Temperance, which would be 
absolutely and forever impregnable ; and it would roll the burning 
current of desolation and death over man to all future generations. 
And the fact that legislators, as well as rum-sellers and mm drink- 
ers act as if it were right, and as if the public good required that 
some men should continue the traffic, presents one of tlie greatest 
obstacles to the progress of the Temperance Reform. It prevents 
in the minds of thousands, the conviction of the demoralizing char- 
acter, the deadly effects, the enormous injustice, the gross oppres- 
sion, the high-handed immorality, and the tremendous guih of that 
desolating tniffic. Were it not for the ramparts which legislation 
has thrown around it, the pressure of public indignation, as light 
and virtue increase, and facts are developed, would sweep it away ; 
or sink it into the abyss from which its fires, snaoke, and sten^, 
would no more escape to annoy and desolate the earth. 

IV. Laws which authorise the licensbg of men to traffic Hi 
ardent runint, violate the first pnnciples of political economy, and 
ire highly injurious to the wealth ol a oatioa^ 

973] SIXTH REPORT. — 1833. 47 

Tlie weahh of a nation consists of the wealth of all the individu- 
als that compose it. The sources of weahh are labor, laiid, and 
capital. The last is indeed the product of the two former ; but as 
h may be used to increase their value, it is considered by writers 
on political economy, as one of the original sources of national 
wealth. Whatever lessens either of these, or their productiveness 
when employed upon each other, lessens the wealth of the coun- 
try. Capital may be employed in two ways ; either to produce 
new capital, or merely to afford gratification, and in the production 
of that gratification be consumed, without replacing its value. The 
first may be called capital, and the last expenditure. These will 
of course bear inverse proportions to each other. If the first be 
large, the last must be small, and vice versa. Without any change 
of the amount of wealth, capital will be increased by the lessening 
of expenditure, and lessened by the increase of expenditure. Al- 
though tlie manner of dividing makes no difference with the pre»- 
ent amount of national wealtli, it makes a great difference with the 
Aiture amount ; as it alters materially the sources of producing it, 
the means of an equal, or increased reproduction. 

For instance, a man fond of noise and excited agreeably by the 
hearing of it, pays a dollar for gunpowder, and touches fire to it. 
He occasions an entire loss of that amount of property. Although 
the powder maker and the merchant, may both have received their 
pay, if it has not benefited the man, to him it has been a total loss ; 
and if the sale of it was no more profitable than would have been 
the sale of some useful article, it has been an entire loss to the 
community. And if by the explosion the man is burnt, partially 
loses his reason, is taken off for a tin)e from business, and confined 
by sickness to his bed, must have nurses, physicians, he. the loss 
is still increased. And if he never recovers fully his health, or 
reason, suffers in his social affections and moral sensibility, becomes 
less faithful in the education of his children, and they are more ex- 
posed to temptation and ruin, and he is never again as able or 
willing to be habitually employed in productive labor, the nation 
loses equal to the amount oi all these put together. And if his ex- 
ample leads other men to spend, and to suffer in the same way, 
cbe loss is still farther increased ; and so on, through all its effects. 

And even though the powder maker and the merchant have 
'.nade enormous profit, this does not prevent the k>ss to the com- 
munity ; any more than the enormous profit of lottery gamblers, or 
counterfeiters of the public coin, prevents loss to the community. 
\or does it meet the case, to say that the property only changes 
bands. This is not true. The man who sold the powder made a 
i>rofit of only a part even of the money which the other man paid 
•or it; while he lost not ^»»lv thi' wlu)ie, liut vastly more. The 
wnole Oi liie ong.noi co i was only u Stauli nan of the loss to the 


buyer, and to the nation. The merchant gained nothing of the 
time, and otlier numerous expences, wliich the buyer lost ; nor 
does he in any way remunerate the community for that loss. 

Suppose that man, instead of buying the powder, had bought a 
pair of shoes ; and that the tanner and the shoemaker had gained 
in tliis case, what the powder-maker and the merchant gained in 
the odier ; and that by the use of the shoes, though they were 
finally worn out, the man gained twice as much as he gave for 
tliem ; without any loss of health, or reason, social afiection, or 
moral susceptibility ; and without any of the consequent evils. 
Who cannot see that it would have increased his wealth, and that of 
the nation, widiout injury to any, and have promoted the benefit 
of all. 

This illustrates the principle with regard to ardent spirit. A man 
buys a quantity of it, and drinks it ; when he would be, as is the 
case with every man, in all respects better without it. It is to him 
an entire loss. The merchant may have made a profit of one 

Suarter of the cost, but die buyer loses (he whole ; and he loses 
le time employed in obtaining and drinking it. He loses also, 
and the community loses, equal to all its deteriorating effects upon 
his body and mind, his children, and all who come under his in- 
fluence. His land becomes less productive. The capital of course 
produced by his land and labor is diminished ; and thus the means 
are diminished of future reproduction. And by the increase of ex- 
penditure in proportion to the capital, it is still farther diminished, 
till to meet the increasingly disproportionate expences, the whole is 
often taken, and the means of future reproducdon are entirely ex- 
hausted. And as there is no seed to sow, there is of course no fu- 
ture harvest. This is but a simple history of what is taking place in 
thousands of cases continually ; and of what is the tendency of the 
traffic in ardent spirit, from beginning to end. It lessens the pro- 
ductiveness of land and labor, and of course diminishes the amount 
of capital ; while in propordon, it increases the expenditure, and 
thus in both ways is constantly exhausting the means of future re- 
production. And this is its tendency, in ail its bearings, in propor- 
tion to the quantity used, from the man vvho takes only hb glass, 
to the man who takes his quart a day. It is a palpable and gross 
violation of all correct principles of political economy ; and from be- 
ginning to end, tends to diminish all the sources of national wealth. 
" Oh," said a merchant in a large country store, 'Mt is a horri- 
ble business. When I set up my store at this cx)mer, diere were 
within a mile, a great number of able, thriving farmers ; but now 
about half of them are ruined ; and many of them were ruined at 
mv store. And there is not a store in the country that sells ardent 
spirit, but what tends to produce similar results. Oh, it Is a hor- 
rible business." And are not tlie laws which sanction it horrible 

i75] 8I1TH REPORT.— 1833. 49 

laws ? Do they not tend by tlieir whple influence to render the 
business respectable, to pernediale it, and permanently to produce 
such results r results none tlie less horrible because produced ac- 
cording to law ; and which stamp the law that saiiciions the busi- 
ness which produces them, with the dark, deep and mdelibie im* 
press of vice ? 

Nor was it by any means the greatest of the evils, that those 
farmers were ruined. In many cases too, their children were ru- 
ined ; and tlie community was deprived of the benefits which they 
might otherwise have conferred upon it. Nor was this all, but 
many of ihem were thrown as a public burden into the alms-house, 
to be supported by a tax on the sober and industrious. Another 
part were corrupung the children and youth, and demoralizing so- 
ciety by the influence of their loathsome and pestiferous example. 
Was not that merchant then prosecuting a business which, toward 
the community, was palpably imjust ? And are not the laws 
which sanction it, equally unjust ? What moral right have legisla- 
tors to pass laws, which enable men legally to injure their fellow 
men, to increase their taxes, and expose their children to drunken- 
ness and ruin ? 

And what was the effect uhimately on the merchant himself? 
We say ultimately ; because it does not follow, even if he for a 
time mcreased his profits by selling spirit, that it would ultimately 
promote his benefit. A passer of counterfeit money, may some- 
times inciease his present profit; but it does not follow that it will 
ultimately promote even his pecuniary interest. 

The permanent, valuable customers of that merchant, were con- 
stantly diminishing, as their ability was diminishing to purchase his 
goods, or to pay for them. Their farms were growing up to briars 
and thorns, the enclosures were falling down ; their buildings were in 
ruin, their implements of husbandry scattered, or worn out ; their chil- 
dren were at the grogshop or the scene of revelry and dissipation, 
and their whole interest was withering under the indignation of the 
Almighty. Of course, should they buy they had next to nothing 
with which to pay. Many died insolvent, and the merchant not 
unfrequently lost in bad debts from his rum customers more than 
his profits. And as the value of property around him diminished, 
as is generally the case around those deatli-fouutains, the value of 
his custom dnninished. 

Said another merchant, who has made a great estate, but never 
sold a drop of spirit, " When you shut up a grogshop, or tear it 
down and build on the spot a respectable store, it is surprising 
how rapidly property in tlie neighborhood begins immediately to 

Suppose that the merchant first referred to had so!d only to pro- 
ductive consumers; and such articles, as in the consumption 
6 20* 


would more than have replaced their value ; as was the case with 
the shoes, as is the case wiili needful clothing, provisions, and other 
useful things. The property of the farmers would have been con- 
stantly increasing, and of course the value of their custom to the 
merchant, and of their wealth to the community. Their children 
with increased advantages, might more than have filled the place of 
tlieir fathers, and thus, without injury to any, the good of all been 
promoted. The enormous taxes, for the support of paupers, and 
the prosecution of criminals, with which the community were bur- 
dened, might have been prevented ; and also the peculiar expo- 
sure of the rising generation to drunkenness, death and hell.* 

So with all fanners and all merchants, and all other classes of 
men throughout the country. The traffic in ardent spirit is a curse 
to the whole community ; a cancer on the vitals of all the sources 
of national .wealth. Even if the present profits of those who sell 
to unproductive consumers were more, vastly more than those who 
sell only to productive consumers, as the property of their custom- 
ers diminishes, and of course their ability to purchase, their future 
profits must be less. On the other hand, the ability of productive 
consumers, who replace what they consume with something of 
greater value, constantly increases; and of course their value as 
customers. They can purchase next year, not only as much as 
they have purchas<;d this, but more ; equal to the value of the addi- 
tion which they have acquired, or a proportion of it. And tlius 
what they consume becomes a source continually of increased re- 
production, not only to them, but to the nation.f 

On the other hand, what is consumed but not replaced by some 
thing of a greater, or an equal value, is ultimately lost — and is, to 
that amount, a loss to the country. Whatever causes an increase 
of unproductive consumption therefore, causes a decrease of na- 
tional wealth. And this evil attaches in a high degree and to an 
enormous extent, to the traflic in ardent spirit. If the property 
which the consumers pay were burnt, all would acknowledge it to 
be a total loss ; though the merchant and the distiller and the grain 
grower might all have received their pay. But it would in that case 
be a loss vastly less than it is now. It is now not only an entire loss, 
but it diminishes, as we have seen, beyond ahnost any thing else 
the sources and the power of future reproduction. It is therefore 
not only a source of great present loss, but also a prevention of vast 
future gain. It diminishes in both ways, the wealth of the nation, 
and to an amount, equal, 

1 . To the whole sum which consumers pay for ardent spiiit ; 
estimated by those who are best acquainted with the subject at about 
$60,000,000 annually. 

* Appendix E. t Appendii F. 

S77J SIXTH BEPORT. — 1833. 51 

2. The loss of all the time which it occasions. 

3. The diminished productiveness of land, labor and capital. 

4. The loss of health and reason ; and all the expenditures which 
it occasions. 

5. The cost of supporting the paupers, and prosecuting the crim- 
inals occasioned by it. 

G. The property lost in consequence of it by casualties on the 
land and on the ocean. 

7. The shortening of human life and the consequent loss of hu- 
man labor ; amounting in all, as all acquainted with tlie subject 
admit, to a sum much greater than the cost of the liquor. One 
hundred million dollars a year is a sum far hrss than is lost to the 
United Stales by this destructive traffic. And yet this, and the 
(iiiiiituition of future gain which it occasions, would in one genera- 
tion amount to u sum greater than the present value of all the real 
estate in the country. And this loss, to a vast extent, is borne by 
those w ho are least able to bear it, the laboring classes of the 
community. It may not be amiss to advert for a moment to the 
beneficial uses to which this money might be applied ; uses bene- 
ficial to the individuals, and to tlie nation. It would purchase 
4,000,000 sheep at $2,50 each - - $10,000,000 

400,000 head of cattle at $26 each - - 10,000,000 
200,000 cows at$ 20 each . . - 4,000,000 

40,000 horses at $100 each - - - 1,000,000 
600,000 suit of men's clothes at $20 • 1 0,000,000 

1,000,000 boys' do. at $10 - - - - 10,000,000 
600,000 womens' do. at $J0 - , - ^ 5,000,000 
1,000,000 girls' do. at $3 - - - - 3,000,000 

1,200,000 barrels of flour at $5 . - . 6,000,000 

800,000 do. beef at $10 - - - - 8,000,000 

800,000 do. pork at $12,50 ... - 10,000,000 
3,000,000 bushels of com 50 cts. - - - 1 ,500,000 

2,000,000 do. potatoes at 25 cts. - - - 500,000 

10,000,000 lbs. sugar at 10 cts. . - - 1,000,000 

400,000 do. rice at 5 cts. - - - - 200,000 

and 2,000,000 gallons of molasses at 40 cts. a gallon - 800,000 

It would also build, 
1000 churches at $5,000 each - - - $5,000,000 

support 2000 ministers of the gospel, at $500 each 1 ,000,000 
build 8,000 school houses, at $500 - - - 4,000,000 
furnish 500,000 newspapers at $200 - - 1,000,000 

and establish 5,000 parish libraries at $600 each, 3,000,000 

—and all in a single year. This might be repeated, year after 
year, making in one generation of diirty years, thirty times the 
above amount. 
WIk) then in our land need to be poor, or wretched ? And what 


need to hinder this land, as soon as its population might wish, from 
becoming Immanuel's land ; its peace flowing as a river, and its 
righteousness and blessings as the waves of the sea ? 

But the loss of property, great as it is, and enough to stamp the 
laws which authorise the business that occasions it, with everlast- 
ing execration, is still among the least of its evils. 

V. The traffic in ardent spirit as a drink impairs the health of 
the nation. Health depends on one great law ; viz. The action of 
certain agents, upon their appropriate organs in the human body ; 
which agents and organs, '* the product of the Divine hand," are 
so perfectly adapted one to the other, that in view of all their con- 
seauences to endless bein^, their author himself pronounced them 
to oe, " very good ;" perfect, good enough to satisfy the mind of 
Jehovah. Light, for instance, was made for the eye ; air for the 
lungs ; and food, nourishing food and drink, for the digestive or- 
gans ; causing by dieir operations the functions of vision, respn*ation, 
nutrition, and the various movements on which health and life de- 
pend. But for what organ in the human body was ardent spirit 
made ? There is none. 

What organ in the human body needs its stimulus in order to 
perform in the most perfect manner, healthy action ? There is 
none. What gland can extract from it the least pordon of nutri- 
ment, or any thing which can contribute to health, or be in any 
way useful m the animal economy ? There is none. The anatom- 
ist, the physiologist, the chemist and the physician examine with 
the minutest care every part throughout the whole body, and they 
can find none^ (rod has made none, and there is none. Nor is 
there an organ whose healthy action is not disturbed by ardent 
spirit ; and which does not instinctively reject it. The blood by its 
circulation conveys to each part of the body the materials of which 
it is composed, while each organ by its Creator is endowed with 
the power of selecting from the mass what it needs for nourish- 
ment, and the performance of its appropriate functions, and of re- 
jecting the refuse to be thrown out of the system. " The blood is 
therefore a sort of common carrier, conveying from part to part 
what is entrusted to it, for the common benefit." When obliged 
to carry spirit, it presents it on its way, as it does other materials, 
to each organ ; and each starts with mighty efibrt, not to welcome 
and receive, but to repel it. And if not crippled by the overpow* 
ering force of the enemy, it succeeds ; and rejected, not suffered 
to stop, because it is worthless, the carrier, though vexed with its 
burden, is obliged to take it on to die next ; rejected by tliat, it 
must carry it on, till, rejected by all as a common nuisance, " it b 
seized upon by the cmunctories, the scavengers of the system, and 
unceremoniously excluded." This is not for any want of kmdness 
in the system toward friends, but because ardent qiirit is an enemy ^ 

279] SIXTH REPORT. — 1833. 63 

a mortal enemy. It woulil je treason to harbor it, and suicide 
to use it. Nature, through unerring laws stamped by the Di* 
vine hand, true to herself and her God, is incapable of such an 
offence ; and till poisoned and perverted by tlie enemy, will never 
submit to it. On every organ it touches, spirit is a poison ; and as 
such it is chased from organ to organ, marking its course widi irregu- 
larity of action, and d'lsturbance of function ; exciting throughout the 
system a war of extermination, uU the last remnant of the intruder 
is expelled from the territory. Till vital power is prostrated the 
enemy can never have a lodgment. And if, through decay of or- 
ganic vigor, by the mighty force of the intruder, or the long con- 
linuance of the war, and by perpetual successions of new recruits, 
h cannot be expelled, the work of death is done ; the last citadel 
of life surrenders, and the banner of universal ruin waves over all. 
Tliousands of such conquests are made every year, and of territo- 
ries more valuable than all the material wcuUh of creadon. Before, 
the prospect was like Eden ; and after, a land of sepulchres, with 
uncovered, putrid carcasses of drunkards, sending up in clouds 
their poisonous exhalation, wafting contagion and death through the 

To sanction by law the recruiting and equipping of such an ene- 
my, and the sending of liim out to desolate the fairest portion of 
God's heritage, is an outrage upon all principles, not only of pa- 
triotism, but of humanity, which bids defiance to parallel in tlie 
history of legislation. It is an outraee almost too gross for sober 
consultation. It would seem to be hardly possible, in view of its 
fruits, that it should be tolerated, we will not say in any christian, 
but in any civilized State. Even paganism, under the first rays of 
civilization, has almost instinctively denounced it.* And were it 
not for the pestilential moral atmosphere which it produces, and 
tlie deteriorating and stupifying effects which that atmosphere 
occasions, its continuance would seem to be liardly possible ; or 
its removal need any thing more than its own doings. 

It is now known from tlie evidence of facts, Uiat more than one 
in ten over wide regions of countr}', who have used ardent spirit, 
and more than one in five who have mixed and sold it, have, them- 
selves, become drunkards, and so wicked as often not to live out 
half their days. It is known also from the highest and most abun- 
dant medical authority, that more dian one in five of the men who 
have habitually used it, have been killed by it ; and that multiuidcs 
who were never intoxicated, and never tliought in time past to be 
intemperate, by the habit of using it, even moderately, have short- 
ened life many years ; and that it tends in its whole influence from 
beginning to end, to induce and aggravate disease, and to bring all 

* Appendix G. 


who drink it to a premature grave. There is no reason to doubt, 
that of the last generation in the United States, it cut off more than 
thirty million years of human probation, and ushered more than a 
million of persons, uncalled, into the presence of Grod. 

The last year its deadly influence has been still more strongly 
marked, especially over those regions which have been visited by 
the Cholera. In the city of Albany, with a population of about 
twenty-five thousand, of whom three hundred and thirty-six, over 
sixteen years of age, died of the Cholera, of the five thousand 
members of Temperance Societies there were only two deaths ; 
showing that such persons were not one fortieth part as liable to 
death, by that disease, as other persons. Of the rest of tlie popu- 
htion one in sixty died, while ot the members of Temperance So- 
cieties, only one in twenty-five hundred. 

Of about six hundred who were brought to the Park Hospital in 
the city of New York, but about one in five called themselves 
even temperate drinkers. And many of them, after they recover- 
ed, were soon intoxicated. The number was extremely small, 
who died of that disease^ who had not for two years used ar- 
dent spirit. Some such cases there were ; but they were strongly 
marked exceptions to the general rule. Said a distinguished gen- 
tleman in that city, after paying special attention to this subject, 
** facts abundantly authorise the conclusbn, that had it not been 
kr the sale and use of spirit, there had not been Cholera enough 
in the city of New York to have caused the cessation of business 
for a single day." 

And says another gentleman of that city, " a quantity of Spirit 
was taken from a certain store in the morning, and distributed to 
a number of grogshops. In the evening the workmen assembled 
and received their accustomed quantity. The next morning one 
and another, and another were carried by my door to the hospital, 
and in the afternoon were taken to the Potters Field. And so from 
day to day, disease and death followed round after ardent spirit, 
seizing upon those who drank it, and hurrying them to destruction, 
till so obvious and striking was the connection, that some even ojf 
the sellers, seared as were their consciences, said, This will never 
do ; the way from the grogshop to hell is too short ;" and aban- 
doned the business. ' Others shut up their shops and fled. ^' In my 
neighborhood," says another gendeman, *' there was not a retailer 
left ; they were actually afraid to encounter the dangers of their 
own business." It made the arrows of death fly so thickly around 
them, that they dare not risk it. Had they been sure that those 
arrows would strike only their neighbors, they might have been 
willing to stay and drive the business. But when there was dan- 
ger that the shafts from their engines of death would strike them- 
selves, they closed their doors and fled. How many lives had 

afSl] SIXTH BEPORT. — L833. 55 

heen spared, how many families saved from ruin, and how many 
evils averted from the community, had they never returned, and 
their cholera manufactories remained closed forever. 

How many who were consigned the last summer to an untimely 

!;ravey and we fear to a miserable eternity, had now been in the 
aod of the living, and prisoners of hope, had none been found 
reckless enough to keep such establishments open. But some 
there were who professed to be friends of humanity, who continued 
with a steady hand to deal out the poison. And as their customers 
might not live to come again, they sold them instantly, on die spot, 
what they would buy. When the husband fell, and the children 
were seized, they sold his widow the cause of death ; and when 
the ndghbors came to bury the children, their widowed mother, 
with what the runv-seller furnished her, was found intoxicated on 
the floor. On the day that was set apart for humiliation, fasting, 
tod prayer, that (jod would sp-nre his people and not suffer the de- 
stroyer any longer to smite them, one, lest praying, though it should 
not make him leave off sinning, should at least for a day deprive 
him of its gains, kept his liquor store open, and sold to all who 
would purchase, till the time for public worship. He tlien hastened 
to be m his place, and join, apparently, with devout gravity, in 
supplication to the Lord, that he would keep off the Cholera ; 
aod when public service was closed, he hastened again, as if to 
make up lost time, to his store ; and spent tlie day in furnishing a 
chief cause of Cholera to all who would buy. li he did not pro- 
duce as much Cholera on that day as on other days, it may be 
Attributed, not so much to his prayers for its prevention, as to the 
time which they hindered him from furnishing its cause. And if 
prayers are answered, not according to words, but to deeds, instead 
of having lessened the number of the dying and the dead, his may 
have increased it ; and they may increase too the awfulness of his 
retribution, when he who, on probation sells deatl), shall, without 
repentance, reap also death. 

Were retailers of spirit in their own persons and families to bear 
aO the evils which they occasion to oUiers, they would soon close 
their business. Or were these evils all concentrated on the heads 
of legislators, they would cease to make laws which should au- 
diorise the business that produces them. 

Instead of ^' An act, entitled an act, to regulate the sale of spirit 
tor the public good," any longer disgracing the statute book and 
fidaiing the community, they would see that the proper title for 
every such act, when determined by its consequences, is, ^^ An act 
lor the destrucdon of mankind.'' cut would it be anv more dread- 
ful for the man who sells ardent spirit, or the man who makes the 
law which authorises the sale of it, to endure these evils, than it is 
for the commiuity ? 


Suppose a man who buys a gallon of a man authorised by law 
(o sell it, should under its influence go into the family of the 
man who made the law, and for a few days take the direction, and 
do what he now does in his own family ; break the looking-glass, 
turn over the tables, strike the children with the tongs, and their 
mother with the chairs ; and to save their lives, make them flee, 
naked and barefoot, through the snow, to the neighbors for help ; 
and suppose that this is a common fruit of the law which authorises 
the business ; would he make such a law again ? And would he 
not raise both hands, his voice, and his heart, to have that which he 
has made repealed ? or so modified as no longer to sanction such 
a business ? 

Or suppose again, tkat the intemperate appetites which the legal 
traffic forms, and the cases of drunkenness and death to which 
they lead, instead of being, as they now are, scattered through the 
community, slK>uld all be in the families of the legislators, of spirit 
venders and their nearest friends ; and that they should have to 
endure all the sickness and sorrows, and heart breaking wretched- 
ness, wliich they occasion, and which they wiU occasion to endless 
being, would they any longer sanction the cause ? or would any 
one, because he could da it legally, perpetuate it ? Though the 
evils would be no greater if they were all endured by them than 
when endured by others, yet who can doubt but that they would 
be great enough, and be felt to be great enough, to stamp the cause 
of them, and the sanctioning by law of the bu^ness which produces 
Uiem, with everlasting abhorrence. Who can doubt but that the 
licensing of such a business would cease at once, universally and 
forever ? Oh, if that would cause it to cease, and nothing else can, 
what an unspeakable benefit would it be to the world, and what 
an inestimable saving of property, character, health, reason, life 
and soul, to all future generations, could these evils, past, present, 
and to come be all concentrated, and poured out, for a time, in one 
dark, desolating current on the heads of legislators and venders 
of spirit. But the Committee, with all their hearts, would depre- 
cate such a thing ; and rejoice with inexpressible delight, that a 
fellow feeling for others' woes will certainly, unless this cause be 
abandoned of God, lead to the same glorious resuh. 

VI. The traffic in ardent spirit, tends to derange the intellect, 
and to corrupt the morals of the nation. 

In all cases in which ardent spirit deranges healthy functions of 
body, it tends also to disturb regular action of mind and to corrupt 
the feelings of the heart. It iniures the one, not less than the 
other. This is the effect not only of a very free use of it, but of 
all use of it. It is its tendency from beginning to end, in propor- 
tion to the qTiantity taken, and to tlie power of (he system, to with- 
stand its natural efl^cts. As it courses its way through the blood* 

283] SIXTH RSPORT. — 1833. 67 

vessels, it enters even tlie capillaries of the brain, that tender and 
delicate organ which forms tlie link between matter and mind, irri- 
tating, poisoning, and stupifying tiiat heart and soul of mental vigor. 
A man buying according to law, of a man who sells that which 
legislators by law sanction, and drinking only as much, reasoning 
as legislators do, '^as the public good requires," becomes so 
blockish that his neighbors and his acquaintance begin to whisper 

one to another, " What is the matter of ? how he has lost bis 

mind. Not long ago he was one of the first men in the neighbor- 
hood^ but he is becoming an idiot." What is the matter ? He 
has been doing what legislators, by the high sanction of law, say 
is for the " public good," drinking regularly ; not to intoxication, 
that would be bad, the law forbids it ; but only as much and as 
often, as in his estimation, judging from his feelings at the time, did 
him goo4 ; only enoueh, this time, to make him feel well, and the 
next to make him feel better, and so on, ^^for the public good^^^ till 
he has become, not only a blank but a blot in creation ; and has set 
an example adapted to blast the excellence and wither the pros- 
pects of his children, and children's children, to the end of time. 

The use of ardent spirit tends also to derange healthy mental 
action, in another way, by its irritating effect on the nerves. And 
this leads, in many cases, to total insanity ; as tlie records of every 
lunatic asylum in Christendom testify. The drinking of it, the 
▼ending of it, and the laws which sanction it, all, by their natural 
and constant effects, tend to weaken the understanding, blunt the 
perception, and derange the intellect of the nation. 

They tend also to harden the heart, sear the conscience, pollute 
the afiections, and corrupt the morals of the people. Hence the 
wonderful fact, that three fourths of the crimes which are prose- 
cuted, are committed under the influence of spirit ; not under its 
influence when taken to intoxication, but when taken moderately, 
and often in no greater quantities than the law contemplates. That 
use of it* which the law sanctions, by its violation of the laws of 
nature and of God, is carrying on continually a process as exten- 
sive and as criminal as its effects, of bodily and mental, physical, 
intellectual and moral deterioration; tendmg to change gigantic 
strength to pigmy weakness ; celestial order to infernal discord ; 
and heavenly purity, light and love, to hellisli pollution, darkness 
and bate. 

Through sin, man has already in himself the elements of dis- 
order, the seeds of death. This makes them vegetate, grow rank, 
and produce a speedy and superabundant crop. It generates im- 
pure thought ; and excites unhallowed feeling. It kmdles polluted 
desire, fires abandoned purpbse, and fiendish malignity. 

The harmony established by tJTc divine hand between the men- 
tal and moral powers^ the appetites of the body and the passions 



of the soul, having by tran^ression been ))roken, and reason and 
conscience often through sin been brought into vile and hateful 
subserviency to appetite and passion, ardent spirit increases that 
subserviency, renders it more entire and perpetual. It operates on 
all the powers of man, but satan-like, on diflerent powers, in totaUy 
opposite ways. The understanding, already too weak, it weakens 
still more ; the conscience, too torpid, it renders more torpid still ; 
and the heart, already hard, it makes still harder ; and the affec- 
tions polluted, it pollutes still more. While the appetites, already 
too keen and headstrong, it makes sull more so ; and the passions 
it vitiates, strengthens and inflames. The man, already reckless, 
it makes still more reckless ; saying, '^ Let us eat and drink, for 
tomorrow we die." Thus it comes in, with its whole influence in 
every stage of its operation, to aid the great adversary in the de- 
struction of men. Depraviiv it depraves, pollutes evei\ pollution, 
and makes vileness itself still more vile. All the mischiefs which 
sin and Satan have occasbned in the soul, it increases ; while with 
a mighty force, it counteracts all the beneflcent designs of Jehovah 
for its deliverance from sin and hdl, and its restoration to the dig- 
nity and beauty of his image ; the light and purity, the bliss and 
glory of heaven. Thus, by a twofold process, throughout its whole 
course, increasing voluntary wickedness, and counteracting the 
means of divine appointment for its extinction, it is working out the 
eternal damnation of men. 

Here is the philosophical reason, the rationale of the facts, that 
ten times as many in the United States who drink ardent spirit, in 
proportion to the number, are idle as of other men ; ten times as 
many who drink it commit crimes, as of those who do not drink it ; 
and ten times as many in proportion to the number, who do not 
drink it, become hopefully pious, embrace the gospel and confess 
the Saviour before men, as of those who do. The opposite in all 
respects to godliness, and its grand opposer, it is unprofitable unto 
all things, destructive to the lite tliat now is, and also to that which 
is to come. Whether we look at the body or the soul, at time or 
eternity, in the light of principles and facts, we see upon it the broad 
image of death. This results from its nature, from the nature of 
man, and from principles deep in the government of God, all per- 
vading, irresistible, and which will be as durable and unchanging 
as the eternal throne. So long as the traflic continues which vio- 
lates them, the result, by laws established by the divine hand, must 
be death ; and the legislation which sanctions it, have inscribed 
upon it in broad capitals foi' creation to look at. Opposition to 
THE laws of God. And its consequences, with a voice like the 
noise of many waters, and of mighty thundcrings, will break on 
every ear m creation, saying, " The way of transgressors is hard.** 
Father, mothery brother, sister, hasband. wife, children, all are 

985J SIXTH REPORT. — 1833. 59 

nciificed ; God, Christ, beaven, the sou], eternity, every thing 
dear and every thing momentous for both worlds are madly spum- 
ed away in that state of mind which this foul spirit is, from its 
nature, adapted universally to produce. Can there be a doubt but 
that the vending of it to be drunk, and the laws which sanction it, 
are taicked; and tend to array a might}' influence against the in- 
flnence of the Son of God ? 

Only a small quantity, taken so prudently as to leave a man 
the possession of his reason and the control of his limbs,' is, never- 
theless, adapted to bar the mind to good and to open it to evil. Mo- 
tives to tlie one it weakens, and to the other it strengthens. In di- 
rect and palpable violation of what the Saviour inculcates, as the 
proper desire and daily petition of every soul under heaven, it leads 
men into temptation and delivers them to evil. Taking '< day by 
day," not ** dailv bread," but poison, and of the most deceitful 
and malignant kind, that Divine Agent who loathes it, and all its 
eflfects as an utter abomination, and who would otherwise illumin- 
ate and purify and save with an everlasting salvation, is grieved 
away. The unrighteous and filthy not only remain, but be- 
eoaie more unrighteous, and more filthy ; till, having been often 
reproved, and hardened their necks, they are suddenly destroyed, 
anld God saith, ** without remedy." 

Over wide regions of country, where the facts are known, and a 
part of the people abstain from the use of ardent spirit, and from 
the traffic in it, and a part do not, — as the Committee behold ten 
times as many in proportion to the number, of one class enlisdng 
apparently under the banners of Immanuel, as of the other ; and 
see the number from one, as light increases, constantly and rapidly 
increasing, and from the other as constantly and rapidly diminishing, 
-^faey cannot but feel, that the laws which sanction the traffic 
and use, and proclaim them to be right, are radically and mor- 
ally wrong ; offensive to the Saviour, and hostile to the temporal 
lod eternal interests of men. And they cannot but most respect- 
fully and kindly, earnestly and perseveringly entreat the legisla- 
tors of our country, by the rich mercies which he has so bounti- 
fally bestowed upon it, and by the agonies which he so freely en- 
dured for our race, and the glories which he so graciously proffers 
them, no longer to sanction these iniquities ; or say by legislation 
that diey are either useful or right. As He poured out life to re- 
deem them, and would have all men come to the knowledge and 
bve of his truth, and be his obedient and glorified people, they 
would beseech legislators no longer to do what tends so power- 
My, extensively, and fatally to hinder it. As there is joy in hea- 
ven over one sinner that repenteth, and a new burst of praise breaks 
finth at the proclamation of a soul born of God, what must be the 
\ the indignation and wrath in that world at the continuance 


and encouragement of what is known, with all who come under its 
influence, to tend infallibly and forever to prevent it ? If those who 
have been wise to turn men to righteousness shall shine as the 
brightness of the firmament and as the stars forever and ever, 
what shall they be who have been instrumental in preventing it, and 
sinking those who might have risen from glory to glory, into the; 
bhckness of darkness forever. 

The Committee would not apply what they say, to the days ot 
darkness and ignorance that are past, but only to the continuance 
of the evil in future, when, and where the facts on this subject are, 
or might be known. 

What they ask of legislators is, that they will not by legislation 
hinder the progress of die Temperance Reformation, or sanction 
by law that which opposes it ; but let its friends, in dependence on 
God, by the universal diffusion of information and kind moral in- 
fluence, unobstructed by law, carry it onward from conquering to 
conquer, till there shall not be a drunkard, or a drunkard-maker, 
or a legislator who sanctions the business that produces either, 
under heaven. 

This Reformation first had to meet the numerous and mighty 
army of moderate and respectable drinkers ; but diey soon gave 
way, and their ranks were broken ; a million deserted the enemy, 
and came over in triumph to the temperance cause. 

It next had to meet the more formidable array of church mem- 
bers, headed by many a deacon, not a few magistrates, and some 
preachers, in word at least, of the gospel. They were equipping 
the enemy, furnishing him witii provisions and implements of war. 
As his numbers by desertk>n and death were diminished, they were 
with fearful rapidity raising up new recruits ; and tempting those 
who had deserted and seemed for a time to have clean escaped 
from the destroyer, back to fight again under his standard. The 
battie here was more serious. The characters engaged gave im- 
portance to the conflict. But this mighty phalanx has also been 
broken. They are flying in multitudes, not away from, but to the 
ranks of Temperance, and becoming, many of them the first and 
the bravest, the most self-denying and devoted in the promotion oi 
the cause. Having before not only slain their thousands, but, un- 
wittingly, fastened the poisoned arrow in the heart of tens of thou- 
sands more, they are doubly anxious sofUy to extract it, and point 
the agonizing and often dying sufferer to the balm in Gilead, and 
die physician tiiere. 

Under the Captain of Salvation the conquest has advanced, till 
it now meets, in open day, the thoroughly disciplined, and k>ng 
tried bands of legislators. 

The great contest, which is to decide whether this work of mer- 

%y is to go immediately and rapidly onward, to its consummauoD, 

isio be .w'lthihem; not (or the purpose of a conquest over themi 

887] SIXTH REPORT. — 1833. G: 

but for the purpose of reaching those who lie entrenched beh::i(i 
them; around whom is thrown the mighty rampart of legislation. 
and before whom are drawn up in solid column, the mighty pha- 
hnx of legislators ; and who with such a front, bid defiance to 
those who would be their benefactors, and pour the swelling tide of 
mercies down upon tlieni and their children nftcr them through all 
generations to die end of the world, and onward to eternity. 

The Committee would state explicitly, that tliey do not address 
legislatures as bodies, but they address legislators as individuals ; 
each of whom has a soul, and like each one of the people is re- 
sponsible to the same high tribunal of public opinion here, and of 
unerring rectitude hereafter, and who, as a part of the people, is 
himself and his children after him, to bear the blessings or the 
woes of his legislation ; and they say to them. We have no wish for 
any contest with you ; we deprecate such a thing ; we see among 
you many of our friends, and when disbanded and acting as indi- 
▼iduaky the friends and helpers of our cause. With thousands we 
rejoice in the aid thus afforded by your example and influence. But 
as legislators you are organized, and on the wrong side. You li- 
cense the enemy ; and it is under your flag that he makes his 
depredations upon all that is dear and lovely in possession, and all 
that is fair, and excellent and glorious, in prospect. You have 
thrown around him the mighty breastwork of your sanction, and 
staod yourselves in front. It is only through your bodies that 
he can now be reached, and when the shafts strike him, the dense 
medium through which they pass breaks their force ; and with the 
dueld of your sanction, their point is warded off, and execution pre- 
TCDted. While his shafts, dipped in poison, and nerved by legis- 
lation, are flying and spreading destruction on every side. 

Legislators, Friends, called to be Benefactors, and to do good 
IS you have opportunity, we most affectionately and earnestly, as 
the destinies o(^ our country, of the world and its unborn millions 
ire at stake, beseech you to remove yourselves, and your legisla- 
tion out of the way. Let the fire of light and love break unob- 
structed, in its naked and all-subduing brightness, on the heart of 
the enemy behind you, and the victory shall be ours, shall be yours ; 
and the joy, tlie joy of all ; and the glory of all, be given to Him, of 
whom, and through whom, and to whom are all things ; while the 
iiruits of the victory shall flow down witli ever growing richness and 
fertility, fulness and beauty, to endless ages. 

The only reason why it was ever thought proper to license any 
one to sell ardent spirit, and thus teach by law the propriety of the 
traffic, was the erroneous idea, that to drink it moderately is use- 
M ; and therefore right. But as the drinking of it moderately, 
would strongly tempt men to drink it immoderately, and many, if it 
were sold to them, would be ruined, and become a nuisance to 
6 21* 


society, legislators thought to guard against these evils, by providinz 
that none should sell it except respectable men ; and no more of 
them than the public good required ; and that they should seU 
only to such men as would not be injured by it. 

fiut as it is now known that all who drink it are injured by it, 
and that the public good, instead of requiring, forbids that any 
should sell it; and that licensing it, while it authorises, and perpet- 
uates the traffic, does not and cannot prevent its evils, the whole 
foundation of that legislation which authorises and licenses its cod- 
tinuance is entirely swept away. It has nothing to stand upon ; 
and were the traffic not upheld by the rum party, and those who 
hope to make money by it, it would fall of itself; and under the 
long accumulated and mighty weight with which it has burdened 
the community, it would sink to rise no more. Let legislators and 
all respectable men cease to sanction it, and the last relic which 
makes it even tolerable in a civilized community, will be removed. 
None will engage in it but the abandoned, who carry the mark of 
infamy on their foreheads, and who are hastening rapidly, to their 
own place. 

But it is said, '^ The licensing of the traffic is a source of rev- 
enue to the State, and therefore the public good requires it.'' This 
revenue is much like that of the woman who sold her grain and 
her rags to purchase whiskey for her children. She said it was 
cheaper to keep them on whiskey, than on bread ; and as it made 
a market for her rags, it was a source of profit ; in governmental 
language, of revenue. Her garments and those of her children 
were soon nearly all rags, and all sold ; when her revenue had be- 
come such that she and her children, as a public burden, were 
obliged, by a public tax, to be supported at the ahnshouse. 

This well illustrates the principle and the effect of raising revenue 
from ardent spirit. What are the facts ? In the county of Balti- 
more, Maryland, the support of pauperism, nearly the whole of 
which was occasioned by the sale and use of spirit, cost in 11330, 
more than $21,000. From which, deduct between eight and nine 
thousand, the revenue obtained, leaving between thirteen and fotir- 
teen thousand dollars, in that single item, to come fix>m the same 
source with the support of the woman whose revenue was so im- 
portant, the pockets of the people. To this also ought to be added 
m balancing the account, the cost of crimes, idleness, dissipatioot 
sickness, and the various other evils occasioned by H. And will 
not the people, for the sake of being relieved of the burdens, be 
willing to dispense with the revenue r Is there a man in the com- 
munity, unless a rum-seller, or drinker, or one who hopes to make 
money, or obtain influence by the use of spirit, who wiD wish to 
retain it? If so, let him be called to bear in his own person and 
family tiU the evib which it occasions* and he will change his nund. 

989] SIXTH REPORT. — 1833. 63 

The warden of the prison in Baltimore stales that 2322 crim- 
inals were the same year commiltt'd to that prison; and lliat 121 of 
them were intoxicated, when ihey were brouglit there ; and that in 
his opinion, eight tenths of the whole were intemperate men. 

The expenses of the city of New York in 1832, as stated in liie 
Report of llie Comptroller, were $893,880 29,— §085,385 74 of 
tvhich were raised by a direct tax. The support of the criminal, 
pauper, and civil establishment cost $315,782 98; and the Cliul- 
cra, in addition to all public and private charities, and individual 
expenditures, cost $102,575 85,— making $418,358 83 ; by far the 
greatest proportion of which, as well as almost innumerable other 
evils, were the fruits of about 3000 spirit venders, licensed to deal 
out the poison to about 210,000 souls. And what do these men 
pay ns a compensation for the enormons mischiefs which they 
occasion? $22,157. And, say a most respectable commidce of 
gentlemen in that city, after investigating this subject, " We, the 
people, pay about $400,000 more than we should if no drams were 
sold or drunk in the city. Suppose that only half of the expenses 
of Cholera were occasioned by drinking, and five sixths of the 
criminal, police, and pauper establishments ; and one half of the 
salaries of officers, it would amount to $302,099 15, which is now 
paid as a tux for licensed vices; over $10,000 taken from the 
earnings of the people for every licensed grogshop which pays $10 
into the treasury." What right have legislators to make laws, 
which in their operation thus tax the community, and take away 
the hard earnings of the people ? 

The grand jury of the city and county of New York, after care- 
ful examination, say tliat they have come to the deliberate conclu- 
non, that if this source of vice and miserj' were at an end, three 
quarters of the crimes and pauperism of the city would be pre- 
vented, together with an incalculable amount of wretchedness, that 
does not come under the cognizance of law. And they add, " It 
it our solemn impression that the time has now arrived ivhcn our 
public authorities should no longer sanction the evil complained of, 
by granting licenses for the purpose of vending ardent spirit; 
thereby legalising the trofficj at the expense of our moral, intellect" 
Mol and physical power y 

Of 653, who were in one year committed to the house of Cor- 
rection in Boston, 453 were drunkards. And the overseer states, 
that many of tlie others who were committed as vagabonds, might, 
with equal propriety, be called drunkards ; and that his opinion is, 
diat there were not ten among the whole who were not in the habit , 
of the excessive use of ardent spirit ; that intemperance is almost 
die sole, cause of all the commitments, that those who were com- 
mitted as pilferers were almost all drunkards, and that pro^aDi>' 
they would not pilfer if they could not procure rum with the arti- 
cles which they have stolen. 


Is it not manifestly vicious for legislators to sanction a busi- 
ness which produces such results ? 1 hey are elected by tlie peo- 
ple, and sent to legislate for the purpose of preventing crime, not 
producing it. And a vast portion of all their lime is now occupied 
in making laws to punish crimes, which their own legislation pro- 
duces. And the people are taxed millions of dollars annually, to 
sustain the burden occasioned by that legislation. Will the people 
of this free country longer endure it ? They punish the criminals, 
and legalise the traffic that makes them. Like the fadier, who, to 
prevent his son from swearing, swore that if he did swear, he would 
visit him with his wrath ; and with about as much wisdom as the 
man, who, when asked what should be done by fathers to keep 
their sons from being ruined by ardent spirit, answered, " Why, 
they must drink it all themselves." 

They build prisons, and license men to c^rry on the trade diat 
fills them ; erect lunatic asylums, and furnish their tenants ; tlie 
people build almshouses, and the magistrates license pauper- 
making manufactories to fill diem, augment fourfold the public 
burdens, and tenfold the personal and domestic wretchedness oi 
the country. And when the people rise, as they now often do, 
and will more often in future, and vote tliat they will not have such 
nuisances among them, the county commissioners, or some petty 
officers clothed with a little brief authority, come in and gravely 
declare, that "the public good require them;" and thus again 
load the community with burdens. This is legal oppression, legis- 
lative tyranny ; and it leaves behind it a deep and stinging sense 
of injustice. A few retailers have the profit of making paupers, 
and the people have to support them ; and then when they com- 
plain of the palpable injustice, to be told, " The public good re- 
quires it ! " This is too much ; and it needs no spirit of prophecy 
to announce that the time is not distant when men born to be free, 
who have the power and the heart to be free, will not endure it. 

A few men, for their own pecuniary profit, will not long be suf- 
fered, under the sanction of law, thus to burden the community. 

Of 3000 persons admitted to the workhouse in Salem, Mass., the 
superintendent states, that in his opinion 2900 were brought there 
directly or indirectly by intemperance. The superintendent of the 
almshouse in New York states, that the number of male adults in 
the house is 672, of which there are not 20 that can be called so- 
ber men; that the number of females is 601, and that he doubts 
whether tiicre are 50 of them, tliat can be called sober women. 

In the city of Boston, for six years, there were upon an average, 
247 commitments annually to a single prison, for drunkenness ; and 
95 drunkards were committed to the penitentiar}', in a single month. 

A distinguished jurist in the city of New York, acquainted with 
the courts, stated, that he could find but three cases of murder 

291 1 ' SIXTH REPORT. — 1S33. ' 05 

committed in that city for fifteen years, except under the inlluonce 
ofliquor. Legislators hang murderers, rind license the business 
thai makes them ; but not without beconiino;, if tliey know what 
tbey do, sharers in the guilt. Tliey e\pend millions to prevent 
disease, and license the business which produces it, and renders it 
doubly fatal ; but not without being accessory to tlie consigning of 
multitudes to a premature grave, and a miserable eternity. 

Is it not true then, and may not long afflicted and sulfering hu- 
manity lift up her head widi exultation, diat the time is approach- 
ing, when, in the language of the chancellor of the State of New- 
York, " reflecting men will no more think of erecting and renting 
grogshops as a means of gain, than they would now think of poi- 
soning the well from which a neighbor obtains water for his family ; 
or arming a maniac to destroy his own life and die lives of those 
around him?" And may we not add, when reflecting legislators 
too, will no more think of sanctioning die one by law, than diey 
would now think of sanctioninu; the other ? And when there shall 
not be a christian legislator under heaven, whose countenance 
would not turn pale, and whose tongue would not cleave to die 
roof of his mouth, should he attempt to speak in favor of it. In 
the city of Washington, the revenue from die sale of ardent spirit 
was about $6000 ; and the loss, as estimated by Judge C ranch, 
occasioned by it, was probably not less, all things considered, dian 
$100,000. Revenue then does not require the sale of ardent 

But it is said, and grave legislators sometimes echo die declar- 
ation, " It ought to be licensed, and die use of it encouraged, to make 
a market for the coarse grains, in order to promote the agricultural 
interests of die country." But wdiere the drinking of spirit prevails 
most, agriculture, other things being equal, uniformly flourishes 
least ; and thus, like every show of argument on that side, it is to- 
tally opposed to facts ; as w-cll as to reason, religion, morality, 
patriotism, and even to humanity. 

Many grain growers \\i\\ not now sell to distillers. They deem 
it a crime to feed those fountains of death, yet dieir grains find a 
market, and they are often among the most prosperous men in their 
ricinity. It does not appear, diat any more dismal prospect than 
that of others, is opening before their children. 

In the year 1810 it was esdmated that between five and six 
million bushels of grain were distilled in the United States. Sup- 
pose ill 20 years it was doubled, and that in 1830, 12,000,000 
bushels were thus destroyed ; and that this, to the growers who of 
^HMirse obtained dicir pay, was worth 50 cts. a bushel, $0,000,000. 
The annual cost of crime and of pauperism produced by the use 

* Appendix H. 

6 * 



of ardcnl spirit has been estimated at $7,050,000. Subtract from 
this the price of the grain, and you have from tliese two items 
alone, a loss of $1,500,000. Say the Committee of the New 
York State Society, " Since the fanners have begun to open their 
eyes to the evils growing out of the turning of the staff of life into 
a substance to destroy it, and have made use of tiicir coarse grains 
for bread stuffs, or to feed their cattle, tlicy have steadily advanced 
in price." And tliey calculate that the change produced by the 
Temperance Reformation, now saves the State of New York sev- 
eral million dollars a year. 

L(H all farmers use their grains to increase the number and value 
of their horses, cattle and hogs ; not to diminish the number and 
value of men, and they will find it to be, to tlieniselves and their 
country, great gain. 

Others say, " The object of licensing is not to encourage the 
sale and use of spirit, but to restrain and prevent it." To this there 
are two answers. The first is, it docs not restrain and prevent it 
It has been tried effectually, for more than half a century ; and its 
•fruits have been manifested in the living wretchedness, and in the 
dying agonies of more than a million of men. Notwithstanding all 
such restraints and preventions, the evil constantly increased, till it 
had well nigh proved our ruin. The other answer is, the licensing 
of' sin is not the way to prevent or restrain tV, hut it is the xcay to 
sanction and perpetuate it ; by declaring to the community tltat, if 
practised legally, it is right ; and thus preventing the efficacy of 
truth and facts in producing the conviction that it is wrong. 

Rut says one, " Ry saying that none except respectable men 
shall sell ardent spirit, and they only in limited nutnbcrs, we do 
not say that for them to sell it, is right. Would a law which should 
forbid men to ride horseback, upon worldly business, on the Sab- 
bath, be saying, or would it imply, that for them to journey on that 
day for such a purpose on foot would be right ?" Supj)osc it would 
r.ot ; but suppose also that legislators should go farther^ and make 
a law, that as many as the public good should require, and should 
pay a dollar, should have a legal right to travel in that way, on 
. woridly business, on the Sabbath ; and that certain men should be 
appointed actually to license a number in every neighborhood for 
that purpose, and should license them, notwithstanding all reasons 
and remonstrances against it ; would it not be saying, and by the 
whole weight of legislation, in opposition to truth, that it is morally 
right for those men to travel as the law prescribes ? or else, that 
legal 1 ight and moral right are in this case, in opposition ? And 
would it not be declaring also, in opposition to trutli, that the 

Eublic good requires this ? and thus tend to increase die difficulues, 
y moral means, of convincing men that it is wicked ? Who can 
doubt but that it would operate, and from die nature of the case 

293] SIXTH REPORT. — 1833. 67 

must operate in this manner ? So with the laws that sanction and 
approbate the traffic in ardent spirit, and imply that the public good 
requires it. They teach a falsehood ; not in time past understood 
and designed by legislators, but on tliat account, none the less Hilse. 
Nor did tlieir ignorance, and that of the community in tliose days 
of darkness, hinder its desolating ejects. 

" The law," says Judge Piatt, " which licenses tlie sale of ardent 
spirits, is an impediment to the Temperance Reformation. When- 
ever public opinion and die moral sense of our community shall be 
so far corrected and matured as to regard diem in their true light, 
and when the public safety shall be diought to require it, dramshops 
will be indictable, at common law, as public nuisances. ^^ 

Suppose a law should be enacted providing that none should 
counterfeit the public coin, or be authorised to pass counterfeit 
money, in small quantities, except men of a certain character ; and 
that no more of them should bo permitted to do this, than certain 
other men, who might, or miglit not be interested in its circulation, 
should judge would be for die public good ; and that they should 
not be auUiorised to pass it to drunkards, as h might injure them, 
woidd it not be sayinc, that for those men to do it, as die law pre- 
scribes, is right i Would it not present a mighty barrier in the 
way of convincing them, by moral means, that it is wTong ? And 
suppose, in some rare cases, the license should be withheld from 
those who had passed it to drunkards, would that prevent die mis- 
chief? Apply this principle to any other vice. And that it does 
apply with all its force to the traffic in ardent spirit as a drink, 
which tends only to injure mankind, is most manifest. 

But says another. If you do not license men of conscience to sell 
it, men of no conscience, in such great numbers, will sell it, that 
the evil will be ovenvhelming. But it is not necessary to license 
counterfeiters to prevent die community from being deluged with 
base coin. It is not necessary to license gamblers, or swindlers, in 
order to prevent the community from being overwhelmed with their 
mischief. No more is it needful to license men to sell ardent spirit. 
If wicked men, in opposiuon to the influence of moral means, will 
prosecute a wicked nusiness, which corrupts our youth, wastes our 
property, and endangers our lives; the community, in diis free coun- 
try, this land of liberty, have the power and the right, without 
licensing iniquity, to defend diemselves from its evils. This opens 
the door J ana the only door, which truth and duty ever open for 
legislation tvith regard to sin ; not to license and sanction iij but 
to defend the community from its mischiefs ; and in such a manner 
as is best adapted to deter the xdclced from transgression^ and 
promote as far a^ practicable their good and the good of the comr 
munity. And this is the change in legislation with regard to the 
m of trafficking in ardent spirit, which the cause of temperance, cf 


patiiolism, of virtue, and of God, now iniperiously demands. Treat 
this vice, as other vices are treated, and there will be no difficulty 
in branding it with infamy. 

Let legislators, chosen by tlie people and respectable in society, 
license any sin, and it tends to shield that sin from public odium ; 
and to perpetuate it, by presenting for it a legal justification. " He 
thai justifieth the wicked, and he that condemneth the just ; even 
they both are an abomination to the L#ord." 

Let all sanctioning by law of this abominable traffic be forever 
abandoned ; and if the rising indignation of a deeply injured, and 
long suffering community does not sweep it away, and men are 
still found base enough to continue to scatter the estates of tlieir 
neighbors, to fill our almshouses with paupers and our penitentiaries 
with convicts, to make wives more than widows, and children doubly 
orphans ; to decoy our youtli, and sink them to a premature and 
an ignominious grave. — the people, if they choose, by the arm of 
legislation can undertake the holy, righteous, and indispensable 
work o( self defence. And as all political power is in their hands, 
it will be found to be a work which is practicable. The wisdom 
of legislators chosen without the aid of ardent spirit, and the pa- 
triotism of statesmen who do not use it, or rely upon it for sup- 
port ; but who rely on the righteousness of their cause, the good 
sense and virtue of their constituents, and the gracious aid of their 
Cxod, will be abundantly sufficient to the exigency of the case. If 
necessar)' to protect our property, our children and our lives, and 
there is no other, or no better way to do it, how perfectly easy, 
and how perfecdy just, whenever the people generally shall desire 
it, to indict at common law the keeping of a grogshop as a public 
nuisance ; or to provide by statute that those who make paupers 
shall support them ; and those who excite others to commit crimes 
shall themselves be treated as criminals. And in ihe necessar}', 
the magnanimous, tlie glorious work of legal self defence from an 
evil, which, in defiance of public sentiment, of reason, religion, hu- 
manity, and of God, would roll over earth a deluge of fire, and 
annihilate the hopes of the world, legislators may expect, in pro- 
portion as die subject is understood, the united and cordial support 
of all good men. 

The point to be decided, to be decided by legislators of these 
United States, to be decided for all coming posterity, for the world, 
and for eternity, is, 

Shall the sale of ardent spirit as a drink be treated in legisl€^ 
ttonj as a virtuej or a vice f Shall it be Ncensed, sancdoned by 
law, and perpetuated to roll its all pervading curses onward mter- 
minably ? Or shall it be treated, as it is in troth, a sin ? And if 
there shall in future, be men base enough to continue to commit 
ity shall the community, in self defence, by wise and wholesome 

295] SIXTH REPOBT. — 1533. 69 

legislation, as far as practicable and expedient, shield themselres 
Grom its evils ; and if tliese evils must, tlirough the uiciwodiiess of 
men, continue to exist, let them fall as leniently as the public sifcty 
vrill permit, alone on the heads of ilieir authors ?* 

On the decision of this questioii, to a zreat extent, lianas the 
endless destiny of countless millions. lu England, Ireland, and 
Scodand ; Sweden, Denmark, and Russia ; Germany, India, and 
China ; Africa, and the islands of tiie sea, men are now awaking 
from the slumber of ages, and on this subject are following our ex- 
ample. They look to us, ask for information, acknowledge their 
obligations to our priority, and cheer us onward. Their vjice seems 
to rise as on die wings of the wind, and to cry from the four quar- 
ters of the earUi, Ye who were blessed widi the power, a;id heart 
to be free, and to commence the world's emaiicipation, sup not, or 
falter till it is finished. Aid not by example, or business, or lawsy 
what you labor to remove. Sanction not, by legislation, tJie con- 
tinuance of the burden under which creation has so long groaned^ 
and which she is now agonizing to dirow off. Cheer her, and 
help her ; or at least let her have the full benefit of her own efforts, 
the efibrts of her friends, and the aid of her God ; and tiirough the 
grace of Himthatworketh all in all, His people shall be free, eter- 
nally free; and the glor}* shall be given to Him, to wiiom it is aU 
due, forever. 

* In 1773, it wai repreKnted to the I^Ulature of MaMachwettii, that spirit, 
dirtiUed through leaden pipes, was unwholesome, and hnrtfal. A law wu there- 
tare pawed that no penon should use such pipea?, and no artificer make theni for the 
porpose of being used in db<tilliog, under penalty of one hundred pounds. Aaaay 
msfltera were appointed, who were put under o.ith, to examine, and prove to the 
bat of their abilities, all pipes that were used indi'itillin^, and if any one was found 
10 contain alloy of lead, or base metal, they were tu jiive notice to the distiller, who 
Wk« forbidden to use it ufierwards, under penalty uf one hundred pounds. (.Mass. 
Laws. Vol. II. p. 1001. Boston lid. lbU7.) 

Why might they not use leaden pipes, if ihey wore cheaper than othen, and bj 
laing them they would make more money ? Ijec:iu<.* they uere iiijuriuus to health, 
ftod endangered men's lives. They were therefurc forbidden to use them under 
peoally of one hundred pounds. But what was the injure- done to health, and what 
the ]os8 of human life, by the use of leaden pipes, compared with tliat occasioned 
bf the sale of ardent spirit ? And shall legislators forbid the one, and license the 
•Cher ? Can they continue, aAer the poisonous nature and destructive effects of 
■ident spirit are known, to license the sale of it without great guilt ? If they do 
eootinae to do it, will they not, at the divine tribunal, and ought they not at the hn 
af public opinion, to be held responsible fur its effects ? 
'Let the people, who have long been suffering its destructive elfects, jodge. 



A. (P. 7.)- 

Extracts from the Speech of Gerrit Smith, Esq. 

After spending a few minutes upon other and preliminary top- 
ics, Mr. Smith proceeded to say, that he was aware, that the 
American Temperance Society, on account of its censures of the 
manufacturer and vender of ardent spirit, had been charged with 
a departure from its original object, and a violation of its consti- 
tution. He admitted, that a grand object within the scope of the 
constitution and labors of the Society, is that of bringing our fel- 
low men to refrain from drinking ardent spirit; but he did not see 
why in addition to the direct efforts made for the accomplishment 
of this object, we might not also seek to remove the hinderances 
to this accomplishment. Now, the manufacture and sale of ar- 
dent spirit constitute confessedly a very great hinderance to the 
work of inducing our fellow men to quit the drinking of it; and 
this hinderance the Society very naturally and reasonably labors 
to remove. Could a Society, that should require its members to 
abstain from purchasing lottery tickets, be expected to preserve 
silence on the subject of lottery offices? Could a Society, formed 
to discountenance gambling at cards or billiards, be expected to 
look with unconcern on the allurements of gambling houses ? No 
more can a Society, formed to dissuade men from drinking ardent 
spirit, look with indifference on the attractions and snares of the 
rum shop. As, in the one case, the lottery office and the gam- 
bling house irresistibly invite thousands to purchase tickets, and 
to stake their money at cards or billiards, who, but for their sight 
of these resorts, would never have fallen into this folly; so is it 
in the other, that men drink ardent spirit, because of the inviting 
facilities for getting it, and so is it, that whilst these facilities ex- 
ist, our direct efforts to promote total abstinence will be measur- 
ably, if not fatally counteracted by them. Such views we must 
certainly admit to be just, unless we deny what the bible and our 
hearts and our observation teach us about the power of tempta- 
tion. « « # 

One view of this business, and on which its advocates lay great 
stress, is, that it employs a great amount of labor, and forms no 
inconsiderable item in the industry of the nation. It is true, that 
it does so. But, instead of crediting the business with any thing 
on this account, we bring up its employment of ten thousands of 
our citizens as a strong argument against it; for their emploj- 


men! is upon an object utterly valueless. I am aware, that the 
notion is somewhat prevalent amongst us, (I believe we are in- 
debted to European political economists for it), that the employ- 
ment of labor by government or by wealthy individuals, even if 
it be upon an object absolutely worthless, is nevertheless a praise- 
worthy liberality and of general benefit. The doctrine, in my 
\'iew, is unsound at all times and every where. But, even if it 
could be sustained in its application to one of the densely peopled 
states of Europe, how plainly inapplicable is it to our own coun- 
try, where population is sparse, and the demand for labor for 
useful objects great and incessant. But, if wc cannot spare la- 
bor for objects, our only objection to which is that they are use- 
less, how can we justify its diversion to objects not only perfectly 
useless, but as pernicious as useless? — And it is surely too late 
to deny that this character belongs to the distillation and sale of 
ardent spirit. The proposition, that the thousands of farmers and 
manufacturers and venders in our country, who are engaged in 
ministering to the filthy appetite of the drinkers of ardent spirit, 
should relinquish their business, and employ their time and cap- 
ital in bringing common stones from the Kocky mountains to scat- 
ter over the Union, could, as easily as their present business, be 
defended by the political economist. And to go a step farther, 
and to bring into view the pernicious properties as well as the 
worthlessness of ardent spirit; if these persons were to bring 
loads of venomous serpents, instead of stones, to scatter over our 
whole land, they could be justified as easily for such strange 
work, as they can be for their present business; and to extend 
the parallel still further — if each of these serpents were armed 
with mortal stings, as well for the soul as for the body, then would 
such strange work still more closely resemble their present busi- 
ness. • ♦ ♦ 

There is one consideration, which shows conclusively, that 
this business of making and selling ardent spirit does not aug- 
ment the wealth of the nation. We not only drink nearly all we 
manufacture, but we buy largely of other nations to answer the 
demands of our rum thirst. If we manufactured spirit for other 
nations, as we grow tobacco for them, worthless as are both the 
poisons, and clearly as they both should be, and yet will be, on 
every Christianas list of contraband goods; we might, perhaps, 
in that case, find the business more profitable; but we drink them 
ourselves; and therefore whatever is gained from the business by 
any individuals amongst us is gained from the pockets of their 
countrymen. The vender, who sells to h!s rum drinking neigh- 
bor a gallon of spirit, gets, it may be, his profit of a shilling; but 
that shilling and the whole residue of the cost are so much loss 
to his neighbor. Would that this covered the whole loss of the 
unhappy man, who drinks it! That one gallon, it may be, drowns 
his soul in perdition i * # * 

As things now arc, every nine sober men in this nation are bur- 


dened with the partial or entire maintenance of a drunkard ; for 
every tenth roan is a drunkard; and drunkard and pauper, as we 
know, are well nigh interchangeable terms. And not onlj are 
the sober charged with the maintenance of the drunkard, but their 
contributions to public objects are greatly increased by the gen- 
eral inability of the drunkard to contribute to them. For in- 
stance, are there churches, school-houses, colleges, academies, 
roads, bridges to be built? ministers of the gospel and school 
teachers to be supported? taxes to be paid? then the nine have 
to represent, and to pay for, the ten. # *c 11= 

All admit, that a dense population is very important, if not in- 
deed indispensable, to the success of manufactures. How great- 
ly, therefore, would this interest suffer in our country by the loss 
of one tenth or one twentieth of our families? But this loss has 
virtually taken place. Drunkenness has disabled, has struck 
down, this proportion of our families; and, instead of contribut- 
ing to our national industry, they are heavy drawbacks on it. 
Now the magic, that would convert our 300,000 drunken men 
into 300,000 sober men, would do more for the wealth, not to 
speak of the other valuable interests of our country — would ex- 
ert more powerful and happier influences upon all the sources of 
our economical as well as moral prosperity — than the imagina- 
tion can conceive. Total abstinence is this magic. Banish ar- 
dent spirit from the land, and this mighty and blessed change is 

But the farmer says — ** I could not get as high prices for my 
corn and rye, if the distilleries, that are now my best market for 
them, were broken up;" and a present and definite gain out- 
weighs in his mind the indirect and more distant, and therefore 
but partially credited losses, which he suffers by distilleries. But 
this present and definite gain is unreal. Break up the distille- 
ries; let the traffic in ardent spirit cease; and no small propor- 
tion of the money, nosv expended for the poison, would go into 
the farmer's pocket, in exchange for his bread stuffs, meats, 
butter, cheese, &c. # # # 

There is one stubborn fact opposed to the supposition, that the 
manufacture of whiskey increases the prices of grain. In no 
state in the Union has the Temperance Reformation been carried 
to a greater extent than in New York. A very large proportion 
of the distilleries in it have been abandoned. Thousands of her 
citizens have relinquished the sale of ardent spirit. Nearly half 
a million of her citizens have conscientiously sealed up their lips 
against the deadly drink; and yet the prices of coarse grains 
within her limits have not fallen. So far from their having fallen, 
they have been higher during the last five years, or period of the 
Temperance Reformation, than they had been during any equal 
,>criod in the last quarter of a century, if we except the five years 
mimcdiately following 1812, and comprising the time of our scc- 
(i.::! wnr v.ith Great-Britain. To how large an extent should the 


farmers of New- York ascribe their present unexampled thrift to 
the Temperance Reformation! * ' '• 

Among the reasons, by which Mr. S. urged the dealers in ar- 
dent spirit to discontinue their business, is the fact, that a very 
large proportion of all who engage in this business, not to speak 
of its frequently ruinou'i consequences to their children, become 
poor and drunken in it. Mr. S. said, that it was carefully ascer- 
tained a year or two since, that in the country town in which he 
resided, there had been, during the twentv-two previous years, 
exclusive of those remaining in the trallic, twenty-nine dealers 
in ardent spirit; that five of them had discontinued th'^ business, 
without material loss or gain in it; that twenty of tlie remainder 
were still living, but were all poor and drunken; and that the 
other four had all died drunken and poor. Hero, said Mr. S. 
we have a specimen of the legitimate efiects of this business, on 
those who engage in it. Here we see a business for which 
Heaven has no smiles. 

But say the distillers — *' We can't afford to give up our distil- 
leries. They are our living — the living of our families — and we 
must not be urged to abandon them." We reply to them, 
" Trust Grod. Betake yourselves to innocent occupations, and 
you will find your bread and water made sure in them.'' The 
men of Ephesus, who got their living by practising curious arts, 
are an example of self-denial to the distiller. When they felt the 
hand of God upon their consciences, they brought their books 
together, and burned them betbre all men; and tliis too, notwith- 
standing they cost fifty thousand pieces of silver. Reading in 
the Books of Chronicles recently, said Mr. S., I met with an an- 
swer made to one who was distrustful of Providence, whicli 1 
think is most happily applicable to them, who hesitate to quit the 
rum traffic. Amaziah, one of the kings of Judah, had '* hired an 
hundred thousand mighty men of valor out of Israel, for an lum- 
dred talents of silver. But there came a man of God to him, 
saying, O King, let not the army of Israel go with thee; for the 
Lord is not with Israel. God will make thee fall belbre the ene- 
my. And Amaziah said to the man of (xod, but what shall we 
do for the hundred talents, which I have given to the army of 
Israel? And the man of God answered — * The Lord is able to 
give thee much more than this.' So say we to him, whose con- 
fidence for the support of his family still lingers on his distillery 
— '* The Lord is able to give thee much more than this." It 
ueed not he added, that Amaziah was blessed in his obedience. 
To the farmer and manufacturer and vender, who feel that they 
cannot afford to withdraw from the body and soul destroying 
business, in which they are engaged, we have this conclusive 
remark to make — ** Whatever else you can afford or cannot af- 
ford to do, there is one thing certainly, that neither you nor any 
other accountable beings can afford to do: You cannot afford to 
dowronff.*' * *^ * 


The general remark, that a people are no better than their 
laws, is a just one; for not only are their laws expressive of their 
moral sense, but they react upon it with a strong influence. The 
instances are without number, where good men have pursued a 
business in all good conscience, from which their virtuous sensi- 
bilities would have shrunk away instantly, had not that business, 
essentially unjust and wicked, been commended to them by the 
sanction of the laws. Plow lamentably was the moral sense of 
Christendom blunted by the legalised traflic in human flesh! 
But the laws came at last to denounce the traflic; and how great- 
ly did they help to recover that sense to a healthy tone. We oi 
this age look upon the slave trade as fit for pirates only ; — and 
why so? — mainly because the laws declare it piracy. But for 
this, how small comparatively would be our abhorrence of this 
trade! Now, the people of this country still look >vi(h a partial 
eye on the rum traflic. But, let the laws brand it, and our chil- 
dren will look upon it with an abhorrence, rivalling that with 
which we regard the slave trade. 

Our laws are guilty of a gross inconsistency in upholding the 
rum traflic, and, at the same time, suppressing less evils. This 
mconsistency is to be ascribed to the strong delusions wrought 
upon the public mind by the custom of rum drinking. Compare, 
for instance, the very diflerent treatment, which horse racing 
and the rum traflic receive at the hands of our laws. The one is 
very extensively interdicted, whilst the other is licensed and pro- 
tected; and all must admit, that, compared with the rum traflic, 
horse racing is venial and harmless. Indeed, it is rum, that 
clothes the race course, and the lottery, and the gambling house, 
and the theatre, with their most horrid features; and, but for this 
grand aliment of our public vices, they would all greatly lan- 
guish, and soon die. Extend the comparison to lotteries. The 
laws are fast suppressing them, whilst they leave the rum trade 
to flourish; and who will pretend, that the evil of lotteries is as 
wide spread and as malignant as that of rum shops! Mark, too, 
the further inconsistency of the laws on this subject— ^the further 
evidence of their partiality for rum sellers. Whilst they punish 
drunkards, by posting them, by depriving them of their property 
and otherwise, they encourage and protect the men who make 
these drunkards. Now why may not they, who get up lotteries 
and sell tickets; and they, who get up the race and introduce 
their horses, claim a like indulgence from the laws; and that if 
punishment must be visited on their business, it should fall on 
those who purchase the tickets, and those who go to witness the 
racc.^ Why this difference.^ Why, in the lottery business, visit 
the punishment on the seller, and in the rum business on the 
buyer .^ The general delusion, produced by the. custom of rum 
drinking, can alone a^ccount for the difference. To this same 
delusion must we ascribe the ludicrous and mad conduct of the 
authorities in some of our villages and cities, during the pcsti- 

305] SIXTH REPORT. 1833. APPENDIX* 79 

lence the last year. They would hurry in their fright to ahate 
as nuisances the business of the poor butcher on the one hand, 
mod that of the innocent dealer in hides on the other. They 
were full of anxiety about these rills of danger; but they thought 
not of the big stream of cholera and death, which the sacred and 
inviolable grocery, that stood between them, was still suffered to 
pour out day and night. 

How strange it is, that the selfish interests of men do not rise 
up against the rum traiHc, and put it down forever. I will use 
language here, which I have used elsewhere. ** In reference to 
the taxes with which the making and vending of ardent spirit load 
the community, how unfair towards others is the occupation of 
the maker and vender of it! A town, for instance, contains one 
hundred drunkards. The profit of making these drunkards is en- 
joyed by some half a dozen persons; but the burden of these 
drunkards rests upon the whole town. Now I ask, whether 
there would be one law in the statute book more righteous than 
that, which should require those who have the profit of making 
our drunkards, to be burdened with the support of them?" 

The statements and opinions of that distinguished jurist and 
philanthropist, Jonas Platt, on any of the subjects discussed in 
the preceding Address, must command great respect. Judge 
Platt, in his excellent Address delivered on the 2Gth of February 
last, before the Temperance Society of the county of Clinton, 
N. Y. uses the following language: — 

*' It is a lamentable fact, that upon a careful estimate, it is 
found, that of the tavern-keepers and retailers of ardent spirits 
in this State, during the last forty years, more than two-thirds 
have become drunkards, and reduced their families to poverty 
and wretchedness. Still, that class of men oppose temperance 
societies with blind infatuation! Let us redouble our efforts by 
kind entreaty and friendly admonition, to save them from their 
own worst enemies, themselves. 

•* I respectfully submit for public consideration, the propriety of 
repealing our statute for taxing and licensing the retailing of ar- 
dent spirit. By fair construction, such license and tax legalise 
the traffic, (so far as the authority of our legislature extends), 
and a plausible excuse is afforded to those who now pay a pre- 
mium for such legislative sanction. This law is an impediment 
to the Temperance Reformation. Public opinion would be 
brought to bear with much greater force, against the practice of 
r^ailing this poison, if dram-shops were let\ unlicensed and un- 
sanctioned by any statute regulations whatever. 

** In a pecuniary view, the tax on such retailers is a policy, 
which is ' penny wise, and pound foolish,' for it is obvious that 
the increased public burdens which they occasion, are a hundred 
fold greater than the amount of the tax. 

" An agent, (Mr. Rodney), who was sent by our government 


A t«w vears ago, to ascertain the political condition and prospects 
oi' one' ot' the new republics in Spanish America, states in his re- 
port, that the sale of indulgences, or licenses to commit particu- 
lar specified sins, under ecclesiastical authority, was one of the 
principal sources of revenue in that mock-republic. The prices 
were of course graduated according to the degrees of criminality 
in the act so licensed. No wonder, that with such notions of 
morality, and with such views of political economy, our neigh- 
bors in tho southern hemisphere have succeeded so illy in the es- 
tablishment of republican governments. Whether the tax and 
license under our government, for committing the sin of keeping 
a poisonous dram-shop, bears any analogy to the policy of that 
southern republic, 1 submit to the serious consideration of my 
fellow citizens.^' 

Substance of an Address delivered at the sixth anniversary of the 
American Temperance Society in JVeic York, May 7, 1833, by 
Wilbur Fisk, JJ.D, President of the Wesley an University, Midr- 
dletoum. Conn. 

It is less difficult to convince the retailer, who has regard to 
moral principle, of his participation in the guilt of intemperance, 
than the manufacturer and wholesale dealer. The former is per- 
sonally and constantly conversant with the evils of intoxication. 
As the glass or the bottle passes from his hand, it goes directly 
into the hand of him who is ruined thereby — the retailer sees the 
fires that burn like Sodom, in the countenance of his customer — 
Rres which he has contributed to kindle, and the appropriate ali- 
ment of which, he is constantly furnishing. Supported by such 
arguments, an appeal to the retailer, not wholly lost to moral 
feeling, must have an efiect. It is on this account, doubtless, that 
so many more retailers than wholesale dealers, in proportion to 
their respective numbers, have abandoned the traffic. And yet 
in every possible correct moral estimate of the subject, the whole- 
sale dealer stands in precisely the same relation to these evils, 
with the retailer. And of this, if he will look at the arguments 
in the case, he may be convinced. Let him remember, that 
every gallon, which passes through his hands, is destined to assist 
in forming the appetite of some moderate drinker, or burn out the 
vitals of some miserable wretch, whose appetite is already formed 
— that the hogsheads of rum that float in his vessels, or lie upon 
his wharves or in his stores, are the seeds of future diseases and 
crimes — ^that they go forth to spread a physical and moral^ miasma 
over the land, and will become the murderers of fathers and of 
mothers, of wives and of children, scattering a mildew over th« 
field of promise, and a blight upon the bud of hope — let him, I 
say, remember this, and if his moral sense is not blunted, will it 
not be pained ? 

Suppose, sir, that a dealer in this article, should be informed 
that there was a gallon in one of his tierces which, if suffered to 

307] SIXTH REPORT. 1833. APPENDIX. 61 

go out into the hands of the retailer, would give the finishing 
touch to the formation of an appetite, which would lead some de- 
luded wretch to ruin; or that it would excite to the murder of a 
wife or a child,— crimes which are often conimittrd through the 
delirium of intoxication, — would not a conscientious man empty 
that gallon upon the wharf, or cast it into the ocean ? Nay, if 
he could not distinguish the murdcrer^s portion from the mass, 
would he not lose his whole stock before he would, in this ^&y, 
become accessary to murder ? If this same merchant can be 
convinced, that his stock, united with those of other importers and 
manufacturers, is directly carrying on this work of death all over 
the land — that it becomes both the occasion and i»w/riim<?ii/ of thirty 
thousand suicides annually — that it occasions, probably, the death 
of twice that number, by increasing the malignity of diseases 
which, but for ardent spirits, \\ ould not have proved mortal — that 
it annually becomes the occasion and exciting cause of more than 
one hundred thousand civil crimes in these United States, besides 
all its other innumerable social, moral, and political evils; if he 
could be convinced of this, and be induced to fix his attention on 
these considerations, for but even a few moments, would he not 
be constrained to renounce the traffic, as criminal in the sight of 
God, and treasonable against the best interests of man? * * ♦ 

I. The dealer is favorable to the common use of ardent spirits, 
and knowingly takes measures to secure their consumption. 

But he knows also, that their common use is invariably followed 
by intemperance. Therefore, 

The dealer is, on the whole, favorable to intemperance, and 
knowingly takes measures to produce it. 

Permit me to invite the dealer to suspend all irritation of feel- 
ing at the seeming uncharitableness of the charge, and to enter 
with me into a candid investigation of the argument. If it cannot 
be sustained) he will, in defiance of this argument, go clear ; but 
if it can be supported, he must give up his claim to moral princi- 
ple, or give up his traffic. 

I say, then, the dealer favors the use of ardent spirits, and 
takes measures to secure their consumption. His act of selling 
proves this. The liquors, set out for show in decanters upon his 
counter or on his shelves, — the words brandy, rum, gin, Irish 
WHISKEY, Stc, written upon his casks, or upon his sign at the 
door, all most clearly show this. This also is shown by his pub- 
lic advertisements; ibr these are proofs that he wishes to sell: 
nay, he manvfaciures or buys for thai very putyose. But if ho 
wishes to sell, he wishes the consumption; lor he well knows, 
the moment the consumption ceases, the market is at an end. If 
he does not wish for a vent for his liquors through the channels 
of consumption, by which alone he can have a market, let him 
advertise in a little dilTcrent form from his usual advertisements. 
I would suggest a form something like the following: — 

" A. B. having increased his stock in trade, by a late purchase 


of choice liquors, consisting of Jamaica rum, French brandy, 
Holland gin, &c. hereby respectfully and earnestly recommends 
to all his former customers and others, to refrain from any farther 
purchase of intoxicating liquors, as he is fully convinced that the 
use of these liquors is most pernicious, and leads to numerous 
and complicated evils." 

I suppose our rum-advertising newspapers would insert such 
an advertisement for their usual price. And in this way, not only 
would our merchants and others, who do not wish to sell, be saved 
the pain of numerous applications, but they will also serve the 
jcause of temperance, by a word of caution to a portion of the 
community who most need it, and who, perhaps, would never read 
any thing on the subject in any other form. Does the dealer 
hesitate to advertise in this way ? Then it is because he wishes 
to sell. But he says, perhaps, this would place him in a ridiculous 
light before the public. It would indeed; but no more ridiculous 
than he makes himself when he says he does not icish to sell, and 
yet buys, advertises, &lc. for that very purpose. 

But, perhaps, the vender will say, he does not icish to sell, but 
he is obliged to deal some in this article, in order to keep his 
trade good in other articles; for unless his customers can obtain 
their spirits of him, they will go elsewhere for other things. On 
this account, therefore, he keeps a little, but does not offer it un- 
til asked for, nor advertise it on his sign, or in the public prints. 
This is encouraging, for it shows that conscience is at work, and 
will probably carry the question in favor of correct principle be- 
fore long. But to be plain with such a dealer, we must say, that 
however we respect the workings of moral principle, which has 
led him to this expedient, he has, it is believed, done very little 
yet to ease his conscience. His plea, reduced to plain and con- 
cise English, is simply this: '* I would not sell ardent spirits if I 
could make as much money by refraining!" How far money- 
making will justify him, in a business which he himself acknow- 
ledges to be of pernicious tendency, I leave, for the present, to 
be settled by the decisions of his conscience, which seems to be 
disturbed already; and pass to notice some other expedients for 
evading the force of our argument. 

The dealer may tell us, perhaps, that a wish to sell does not 
imply a wish for the consumption of ardent spirits. That it is no 
concern of his what becomes of them after they pass out of his 
hands and he gets his pay. Now it is well known that the sale 
implies the use, and when we know that two or more things are 
inseparably connected, it is perfectly absurd to say, we will have 
the one, and yet we do not, on the whoU, desire the other. Though 
we may not desire the other, in itself considered, yet on the whole 
we do desire it, whenever we determine at any rate to have its in- 
separable attendant — as then there can be no market, and of 
course no sale, without the consumption, — so a determination to 
sell, necessarily involves an approbation of the use. 

909] SIXTH Rr:PORT.— ^1833.*— APPENDIX. 83 

Bat the dealer may hope to avoid the responsibility of intem- 
perance still, by saying, that, though he does desire the use of 
ardent spirits, he does not thereby favor drunkenness, for he does 
not wish to furnish any for the drunkard; and if he could have 
his will, the drunkard should not be furnished with it at all. But, 
in the first place, it is well known, if the tralBc is generally sanc- 
tioned, the drunkard will have it. According to the principles of 
human society, it is impossible to carry into operation one law for 
the drunkard, and another for the temperate: and, farther, if a 
man will sell, and it is practicable to make a distinction in the 
purchasers, it should, by every consideration of public good, be 
the other way. He who would sell with the least injury to com- 
munity, should sell only to the drunkard and drunken. To 
sell to these, is only to give the finishing stroke for the destruc- 
tion of those already in ruins; but to sell to the temperate, is to 
take measures to lead the respectable and useful to profligacy 
and ruin. If it would shock the feelings of the dealer to present 
another cup to him who is now reelings and by which, he who is 
clamorous and troublesome, and perhaps dangerous, is put to sleep, 
how much more ought it to shock his feelings, to present the cup 
to a respectable and intelligent citizen, by which he may become 
a drunkard. 

But we will hear all that the dealer can urge for himself. He 
tells us again, that though he may be considered favorable to the 
use of intoxicating liquors, yet the conclusion is not just, that 
" he is favorable to intemperance, and that he knowingly takes 
measures to produce it." For he does not wish any man to be- 
come intemperate, and it greatly afflicts him to know that any 
one ruins himself in this way. He does not sell for the puipose 
of producing drunkenness, and therefore he is not responsible. 

JBut, for what purpose does he sell ? For the gain, undoubtedly. 
And does he not sell with the certain knowledge, that drunken- 
ness will follow? He knows that the use of intoxicating li |uors, 
which is implied in the sale, always was, and doubtless always 
will be, followed by intemperance. Here let us refer to a prin- 
ciple already laid down — that where two things are known to be 
inseparable, whoever takes measures to introduce the one, does, 
by that very course, favor the introduction of the other. He does 
not desire the other, in itself considered, but he actually prefers 
the introduction of both, rather than forego that which is the direct 
object of his desire. In the case before us, the dealer does not 
directly, and /or its oxen sake, desire drunkenness, but he desires 
the gains of the traffic, and he will sooner aid in introducing in- 
temperance and all its woes, than forego these gains. The ques^ 
tion then comes to this: — Is a man free from responsibility, for a 
known wrong done by himself, on the ground t'lat he did the act, 
not for the sake of the wrong, but in view of his own personal 
advantage? Or, in other words, to make the case still plainer, 
is ity 07 is it not, a moral offence to injure another for a reward^ 


when the injurious act was not done on account of ill-will to the 
injured person, but solely for the sake of the reward! A child 
would be casuist enough to solve this question. Apply it to some 
cases in point. In the well-known murder of Mr. White, of Sa- 
lem, Mass., the murderer had no malice against the murdered 
victim of his cupidity, he only wanted the thousand dollars that 
was offered him for the deed. Was he innocent? Judas had no 
wish to take the life of his Master, he doubtless hoped he would 
escape, though he should be betrayed into the hands of his ene- 
mies — at any rate, the betrayer wanted the thirty pieces of silver. 
Was Judas justified? If not, how shall the plea of justification 
be available, on a similar ground, in the case before us? In one 
respect, indeed, the case of Judas appears less unfavorable than 
that of those engaged in the rum trade. Judas had very good 
ground to hope, that his Master, as he had done before, would 
convey himself away by miraculous power, and thus he himself 
would get the bribe, and no evil would ensue. But no such hope 
can encourage the heart of the dealer in intoxicating liquors. He 
knows, when he pockets the gains, that it is the price of blood. 
As the destructive poison leaves his store, he understands its 
destiny and the fatal result. He needs no second sight, no su- 
pernatural spirit of prophecy, to predict, that, through this traffic, 
a thousand masters will be betrayed, that the sacred obligations 
of religion will be violated in uncounted instances; that it will 
turn men to demons, and excite them to obscenity, and blasphe- 
my, and murder; that it will lay trains for the circulation of the 
cholera and other diseases to spread over the land, and riot upon 
human life — that it will fill the air with groans, cover the earth 
with blood, and plunge thousands of souls into the pit of wo. All 
this he knows, and yet because he does not sell for the sake of 
these evils, but only docs it for the sake of the gain, he hopes to 
free himself from responsibility. Alas! how easy does the heart 
that ** loves the wages of unrighteousness," impose upon itself. 
But, there is still another way by which the dealer endeavors to 
exculpate himself He tells you that intemperance is not a ne- 
cessary result of the sale and consequent use of intoxicating liquors. 
Many use them without injury, and others might if they would. 
The responsibility, therefore, it is maintained, belongs exclu- 
sively to each individual agent, who thus voluntarily becomea 
ensnared and ruined. 

In order to test a question of morals, in any specific case, it 
sometimes becomes necessary to see what general principle of 
morality is involved in that case, and then decide the question in 
view of this general principle-— otherwise, our prejudices, and the 
peculiar circumstances of the case, may mislead our judgments. 
The general principle in the case before us, must be this: — No 
man is accountable for becoming the occasion of another's sin, 
because this sinner, as a free agent, might have refrained from 
the sinful act if he would. Now, will this principle bear? Let 


US try it. Here is a man who keeps a store of books and prints, 
of most pernicious moral tendency — got up, however, in a most 
fascinating style, and by their wit and elegance directly calcu- 
lated to captivate and ensnare the minds of the young. Upon the 
principle laid down, this man is not responsible for the mischief 
he does, though scores of youths are drawn in and ruined. He 
may plead, they are free moral agents — it is not necessary they 
Bhonld be corrupted — if they would only do as they might, they 
might improve their taste and their style, and experience no in- 
jury. Would this satisfy the parent, whose child had been ruined 
by these pernicious books .^ But is the bookseller worse than the 
rum-seller? Are bad books more demoralizing and ruinous than 
intoxicating liquors? Let facts decide. Indeed the principle 
of morality involved in this plea (jf the dealer, is as wide from the 
morality of the Gospel, as the poles from each other. The Gos- 
pel not only requires that we should not put ** a stumbling-block 
or an occasion to fall, in our brother- s way," but demands, that, 
as far as in us lies, we should remove from his path the stumb- 
ling-blocks that another has placed before him. *'He that 
knoweth to do good, and doeth it not, to him it is sin." # # # 
But to settle this question for ever, with all believers of the 
Bible, our Saviour has told us expressly, that though *-' it must 
needs be that offences come," yet ** wo to that man, by whom the 
offence cometh." Such is the weakness of moral principle in 
man, and such the strength of depravity, that we cannot expect 
but that men will stumble and fall. There is a kind of necessity 
in the case — that is, it is the natural result, and what might be 
expected, especially if occasion is given; therefore, ** Wo unto 
that man by whom the offence comcih.^'^ Will the dealer stand up in 
the face of this denunciation, and<claim that he is not guilty, be- 
cause the transgressor in any individual case, was a free agent, 
and acted on his own responsibility? He is to blame, it is true, 
for stumbling — but the man who placed the stumbling-block in his 
way, is also verily guilty. In short, there is no case in which a 
man will be justified in doing what he is well assured will prove 
injurious to another, except where the general tendency of what 
is done, is known to be advantageous on the whole, {'reaching 
the Grospel, for instance, becomes an occasion of aggravated guilt 
to those who reject it. But the Gospel, on the whole, is known 
to be advantageous, and therefore it should be preached, not- 
withstanding, in some instances, it becomes '* a savor of death." 
So governments founded on the popular will, may often be the 
occasion of popular tumults and party strife, yet those govern- 
ments should be sustained, because they are, on the whole ad- 
vantageous. But here, and in all similar cases, the morality of 
faYoring or opposing these institutions, is tested entirely irre- 
spective of the agency and responsibility of those who make these 
an occasion of injury to themselves, and purely on the ground of 
the general tendency of these institutions, in their influence upon 
o 2o 


human nature as it is, and not as it ought to be. This is a test 
of moral action which must be conceded to, by every man of 
common understanding, and of an ingenuous mind — he cannot 
get rid of it. Let us apply it then, to the rum trade. Is this a 
business that works well in practice? Are its general tendencies 
good? We have just heard clearly demonstrated, the pernicious 
influence of this trade upon national wealth,''^ and it might be as 
clearly demonstrated that it leads to bankruptcy in national mor- 
als — that it is ruinous to political integrity, to bodily health, to 
social and domestic enjoyment — in short, we may say, that this 
trade, in its general bearings upon community, '* is evil, and only 
evil, and that coniimially,^' In this point of view, it has not a sin- 
gle redeeming feature — in its whole aspect it is dark and threat* 
ening — in its entire operation, it is most calamitous. 

Having examined the premises and conclusion in the argument 
laid down, and having patiently heard all the arguments the 
dealer can urge in his own defence, we come, it is believed, fairly 
to the conclusion, — ** That all who continue in the traffic of ar- 
dent spirits, stand in an intimate and criminal relation to all the 
evils of intemperance, and, on moral principles, must be held 
responsible for those evils." # # # 

II. So long as men, laying any just claim to morality and re* 
spectability, maintain the right to sell ardent spirits, it will be 
considered respectable and moral to use them. 

But it has been seen already, that so long as the use continues, 
intemperance will continue. Therefore — 

For these men to maintain the right of traffic, is to throw them- 
selves most effectually in direct opposition to the cause of tem- 

If this argument is sustained, it will follow of course, that the 
dealers in this article, are the men chiefly responsible forthe contin- 
uance of the evils of intemperance, not only because they iurnish 
the occasions of these evils, as was seen in the former argument, 
but also, because they stand directly in the way of those benevo- 
lent effi)rts, that might otherwise remove them. There are evi- 
dently two parties in this business, the consumers and the agents. 
The agents are made up of the manufacturers, and those who, in 
Ihe way of trade, facilitate the distribution. Now to those who 
profess to be moral, in both of these parties, we say. You all 
share in the guilt of drunkeMiess, — the agent, because, though he 
does not drink himself, yet he furnishes others with the means of 
intoxication — the moderate drinker, because, though he does not 
get intoxicated himself, he encourages others in a course which, 
in numerous instances, as he well knows, results in intemperance. 
So far both are responsible, and neither can shift his share of the 
guilt on to the other — and neither party can accomplish the de- 
sired reform alone, unaided by the co-operation of the other. On 

• Speech of Genit Smith, Em|. 

31 3 J SIXTH BFPORT. 1833. APPENDIX. 87 

this ground, therefore, we might safely rest the argument, that 
those concerned in this traffic, are cfTectually opposing the tem- 
perance reformation. 

But the argument bears with stronger force against the dealers, 
than against those who merely set the example of the use. The 
dealer acts a more prominent and a more important part — his 
influence in respect to the use, is more extended and more irre- 
sistible; and hence his example and character mil take the lead in 
giving a character to this whole business. So long then as it is 
counted moral and reputable to furnish ardent spirits for the mar- 
ket, so long it will be considered moral and reputable to buy and 
to use them. These agents therefore, in the manufacture and 
distribution are effectually screening the use of intoxicating liquors 
from the brand of immorality and infamy. * * # 

But it is said, ** If I do not sell, others will, and therefore for 
me to refrain, will only be to give place to another, who will ex- 
ercise the same influence that I do in the traffic, and hence there 
will be no gain to the cause of temperance." Answer: You 
know not that another will sell in your place, if you renounce the 
traffic: or if this should happen, your influence in this matter may 
have a great influence upon your former customers, and will nc 
doubt give additional strength to the temperance cause, in your 
circle of acquaintances ; and at any rate, the new trader, that, in 
this business, becomes your substitute, will not exert the same 
influence that you do, unless, like yourself, he have a reputatioOT' 
lor morality and respectability; and if he have, my argument is for 
him as well as for you, and it is expected he will feel its force, 
mnd refrain also from the traffic. " But it is urged that if all 
respectable and virtuous men give up the traffic, it will be worse 
for the community than it now is, as the business will then be man- 
aged by unprincipled men, and of course in a way much more 
destructive to the interests of the people." This is the ground 
on which some dealers have thought it not only allowable, but 
even obligatory upon themy to continue this trade. 1 have heard 
such men say, they felt it their duty in order to keep the business 
out of the hands of bad men! ! It seems that this traffic is such a 
hlood-hound of destruction to our race, that the leash should be 
held by the pure moralist, who will let him on or call him off, 
"according to lato,^^ He is at any rate, a beast of prey, whose 
appropriate work is to riot in human blood; but then, in the 
hands of the moralist, he destroys fewer it may be, and these in a 
more decent style f » # # 

Let us glance at this excuse in another point of view. It has 
already been intimated, that every specific rule of morality, is 
resolvable into some general principle. What is the general 
principle, on which the excuse for this traffic is predicated? It is 
atuB^-^vhcnevcr there is sufficieiU ground for believing, that a given 
itiijury Vfill be done to the community by somebody, it then ceases to be 
m wutral wrong for any one to inflict that injury, Now, I grant that 


this is a most extraordinary moral maxim or principle, but if the 
right to sell ardent spirits is maintained, on the ground that some- 
body will sell, then this must be the rule which applies in the 
case — a rule which, to be discarded, ** needs but to be seen." 
How docs this rule correspond with the morality of our Saviour, 
especially in that passage already quoted; '* It must needs be 
that offences come, but wo unto that man by whom the offence 
cometh." Here the principle is most explicitly reprobated. The 
dealer tells us he sells, and becomes an occasion of offence or 
stumbling to others, because it must need^ be, from the known na- 
ture and practices of man, that such occasions will be given by 
somebody — and therefore he shall add nothing to the miseries of 
the world if he should be the medium of the offence. But, sir, let 
him look at the denunciation, let it ring in his ears, and sink 
down into his soul — Wo unto that man by whom the offence cometh. 
In concluding the argument, I will examine one other way of 
getting rid of this rjesponsibility — it is by division and subdivision, 
until it is annihilated. We have all heard of the infinite divisi- 
bility of matter, but never of its possible annihilation by the pro- 
cess. Our experimenters in moral philosophy however, have 
discovered that by dividing up moral obligation, to some indefinite 
extent, the whole becomes annihilated. The reasoning runs thus 
— *' My individual sales will not sensibly affect the great whole of 
community; and if I should abandon the traffic, and no one should 
MUssume it in my stead, this would produce no sensible change in 
the consumption and consequent evils, therefore my responsibility 
is nothing." That is, to translate this language into plain Eng- 
lish — *' I can do but little either way, therefore my responsibility 
in the case is nothing — no considerable part of the whole work 
can possibly belong to me, therefore I am not obliged to do the 
part that does belong to me ! *' — Who does not see that this is as 
bad morality, as it is logic? It is by such reasoning, that certain 
proverbs have gained currency, such as — ** What is every body's 
business, is no body's" — " Public bodies have no soul nor con- 
science." The truth is, however, what is every body's business 
M every body's — and if public bodies have no conscience nor soul, 
they ought to have, and each is obligated to bring his share to the 
public conscience; and if he have a correct individual conscience, 
he will do it. He who numbers our hairs, and counts the atoms 
of the universe, will, in making out the final retribution, find no 
difficulty in assigning to each his proper proportion. Not a par- 
ticle of this obligation is lost; for public obligation is made up of 
individual obligation, and duties in common must be discharged 
by individual agency. Hence each individual is as much obli* 
ffated to exert his single agency, as if the whole work was his. 
Whatever others may do or not do, his own individual account 
will not be affected thereby; and whatever may be the event of 
the common cause, he stands or falls by his own acts. And will 
MUr oDfi sav hia i»ajrt of the responsibility is so small, that he is 

315] SIXTH REPORT. 1833. APPENDIX. 80 

willing to meet it, fearless of the consequences? Alas! the man. 
that says this, knows not what ho says. Is there a dealer who 
would be willing to read the history of his own sales, in their 
direct results and collateral bearings: such a history would pierce 
his soul, and terrify his imagination with dark and horrid images. 
The moral infection that has been engendered, by his sales alone, 
would darken the air around him. lie would hear the sighs of 
the aged parent, whose profligate son had brought down his gray 
hairs with sorrow to the grave. He would encounter the impre- 
cations of the more than a widowed wife, who, in secret places, 
pleads with the Judge of ail the earth to avenge her wrongs — he 
would hear the sobbings of the more than orphan child — he would 
hear the sroans of the pit — the waiiings of the damned. Who 
could endure this scene? A faint description of it sickeus the 

The merchant is in the habit of calculating his loss and gain, 
with great exactness, and the balance sheet will convince him ot 
his profit or loss. I will leave it to him, to calculate the credit 
side of his traffic, in dollars and cents — but let me show him as 
definitely as possible, his indebtedness on the score of moral obli- 
gation. There are probably not far from sixty thousand dealers 
in ardent spirits, in the United States — and perhaps three hun- 
dred and seventy-five thousand drunkards. This would give to 
each dealer an average dividend of six and a fraction. But the 
generations of drunkards are short, and a veteran dealer outlives 
two or three generations of these unhappy and short-lived men. 
Hence, each dealer, on an average, who follows the business 
through life, may have been instrumental of making from twelve 
to twenty drunkards, and of bringing them to an untimely grave. 
These have friends and families that are made wretched — they 
spread around them a moral pestilence — they blaspheme and Ji^hi 
and murder — and for all these evils, as well us for the direct ruin 
of the drunkards themselves, the dealer, according to the forego- 
ing arguments, must be held morally responsible. And will he 
risk or fearlessly meet these responsibilities? What has he to 
balance this amount of debt? All that he can show is the hun- 
dreds of thousands that he has put into his cotfers, by the traffic. 
But will money cancel moral guilt, or discharge from moral obli- 
gation ? What pecuniary consideration would induce a man to 
share with this irAo/e tuition, the guilt of ruining one man? But 
to feel the lashings of a guilty conscience, and to hear the denun- 
ciations of a righteous Judge, ibr the accumulated guilt of an in- 
dividual agency, in tiie ruin of so many — in such a judgment who 
can stand? Let the dealer strike the balance, and if he finds that 
hitherto he has been doing a bad business, let him abandon it for- 

8» 23* 


B. (P. 28.) 

In a law of Massachusetts, passed March 23, 1833, it is de- 
clared that any person who shall, in violation of the law, sell a 
lottery ticket, or knowingly suffer one to be sold in any building, 
owned or rented by him within the Commonwealth, he shall for- 
feit and pay a sum not less than one hundred, nor more than two 
thousand dollars; and that if any one after conviction shall repeat 
the ofience, he shall be sentenced for every subsequent offence to 
labor in the house of correction, or in the common jail, for a term 
of time not less than three months, nor more than twelve months. 
And it is also declared, that any person who shall make, sell, or 
ofier for sale any fictitious lottery tickets or part of a ticket, 
knowing it to be fictitious, he shall be punished by imprisonment 
or confinement to labor in the State prison for a term of time not 
less than one year, nor more than three years. 

The above statute is founded on the true principle of legisla- 
tion with regard to sin; not to license it, but to defend the com- 
munity from its evils. And arc not the evils of selling ardent 
spirit, as a drink, a greater nuisance to the community than the 
evils of lottery gambling.^ And is it a less sin for legislators to 
license the one, than it is to license the other? And do they not 
by licensing either, manifestly corrupt and injure the community? 

It was judged at one time, that liquor distilled through leaden 
pipes was injurious to the health of the community. A law was 
therefore passed by the legislature of Massachusetts, that no per- 
son should distil, or draw off ardent spirit or strong liquors 
through leaden pipes, under penalty of one hundred pounds; and 
that no artificer should make any pipe or lead for distilling, of 
bad pewter, or any mixture of lead, under penalty of one hundred 

But was the injury to the health of the community, occasioned 
by leaden pipes, to be compared with the injury occasioned by 
ardent spirit? and yet legislators forbid the one under a penalty 
of a hundred pounds, and license the other. Had leaden pipes, 
like ardent spirit, caused over wide regions of country more than 
one in five of all the deaths among men ; and in the United States 
killed thirty thousand persons in a year, well might it have been 
forbidden ; or, in the language of a distinguished jurist, ' ' the sin of 
keeping a poisonous dramshop^^^ been indicted at common law, as a 
public nuisance. Of all the public nuisances that now exist, pro- 
bably none are more destructive to mankind, than the sale of ar- 
dent spirit. 

817] SIXTH EEPORT. — 1833. — IPPINDIX. 91 

C. (P. 31.) 

Pursuant to the invitation of the American Tempeiance So- 
ciety, delegates appointed by various Temperance Societies in the 
United States, to the number of four hundred, and from twenty- 
one States, assembled in Convention at the Hall of Independence 
in Philadelphia, on the 24th day of May, 1833, *' to consider the 
best means of extending, by a general diffusion of information, 
and the exertion of a kind and persuasive moral influence, the 
fnrinciple of abstinence from the use of ardent spirit, throughout 
oar country. " 

The Convention was organized by the appointment of the fol- 
lowing officers, viz: 

President J Reuben H. Walworth, of the State of New York. 
Vice Presidents, Roberts Vaux, of Pennsylvania; John Tappan, 
of Massachusetts; Timothy Pitkin, of Connecticut; Peter D. 
Vroom, of New-Jersey; Willard Hall, of Delaware; John C. 
Herbert, of Maryland; Joseph Lumpkin, of Georgia; Wm. 
McDowell, of South Carolina. 

SeeretarieSy Mark Doolittle, of Massachusetts; John Marsh, 
of Connecticut; John Wheelwright, of New- York; Lyndon A. 
&nith, of New-Jersey ; Isaac S. Loyd, of Pennsylvania; Judee 
Darling, of Pennsylvania; R. Breckenridge,. of Maryland; 
Daniel W. Lathrop, of Ohio. 

The Convention was opened with prayer by Dr. Brantley of 
Pennsylvania. The Circular of the American Temperance So- 
ciety, calling the Convention, and setting forth the object for 
which it had assembled, was then read. 

The room occupied by the Convention, not being sufficiently 
krae to accommodate its members, it was, on motion. 

Resolved^ That Matthew Newkirk, James Gray, and Robert 
Earp, be a committee to procure a more suitable place, and re- 
port to the Convention. 

Resolved, That all committees be appointed by the President. 

Resolved, That a committee be appointed, whose duty it shall 
be to prepare and digest business for the Convention, and report 
such subjects as in their opinion ought to occupy its attention. 

Resolved, That said committee consist of seven. 

Whereupon the following gentlemen were appointed. 

Justin Edwards, of Massachusetts; Amos Twitchell, of N. 
Hampshire; Charles Griswold, of Connecticut; Edward C. Del- 
avan, of New- York; Gerrit Smith, of New-York; Hugh Ma.x- 
well, of New York; S. K. Talmadge, of Georgia. 

Resolved, That all motions be committed to writing, and sub 
mitted to the Standing Committee, without discussion. 

Aesolved, That members of Congressional and State Legisla- 
tive Temperance societies, be invited to sit as honorary members 
of' (he Convention. 


Resolved, That the deliberations of this body be each day 
opened with prayer. 

The Standing Committee reported the following resolutions, 
which, after amendment, were adopted. 

Resolved, That the Convention meet each day during its ses- 
sion, at 9 o'clock, A. M., adjourn at 1 o'clock, P. M., and as- 
semble again at half past 3, P. M. 

The committee to provide a place for the meetings of the Con- 
Tention, reported that they had obtained the oth Presbyterian 
church, in Arch, above Tenth-street, whereupon it was 

Resolved, That when this Convention adjourn, it adjourn to 
neet at this place, whence it shall move in procession, headed by 
its officers, to the place designated by the committee. 

On motion, adjourned. 

The Convention organized at the appomted hour, and in pur- 
suance of the resolution adopted at the former session, proceeded 
to the 5th Presbyterian church. 

The following resolutions, reported by the Standinc Committee, 
were then considered, and adopted. 

Resolved, That no member of the Convention be allowed to 
occupy more than ten minutes, in the remarks he may make be- 
fore the Convention at any one time, and that he shall not be al- 
lowed to speak more than twice on any subject or question, with- 
out in either case obtaining the unanimous consent of the Con- 

Resolved, That notice be given in the churches and newspapers 
of Philadelphia, that a temperance meeting will be held in this 
city next Monday evening, at half past 7 o'clock, for the general 
attendance of the citizens and others. 

The Standing Committee reported the following resolutions, 
which were severally considered, and adopted. 

I. Resolved, That in our judgment it is the duty of all men to 
abstain from the use of ardent spirit, and from the traffic in it (') 

II. Resolved, That it is in our view expedient, that all who are 
acquainted with this subject, unite with temperance societies. (') 

III. Resolved, That we regard with peculiar satisfaction, the 
formation of the American Congressional Temperance Society, 
and express our decided conviction that, should similar societies 
be formed by the Legislatures of each State, they would greatly 
benefit our country and the world. (•) 

IV. Resolved, That the regulations adopted by the national 
government, for discouraging the use of ardent spirit in the army 
and navy of the United States, evince the wisdom of the rulers 
of the people, and their paternal care over the individuals em- 
ployed in their service. (*) 

V^. Resolved, That the abolition of the practice of furnishiiig 
merchant vessels v.ith ardent spirit, or employing men who drinK 
it to navigate them, would greatly promote the interests of the 
country. C) 

319] SIXTH REPORT.— 1833. APPENDIX. 93 

VI. Resolved, That temperance societies in all mechanical and 
manufacturing establishments, while they would promote the pe- 
cuniary interests of all concerned in them, would also in various 
ways, promote the good of the public. (^) 

VII. Resolved, That the formation of a temperance society in 
each ward of every city, and in each district of every county and 
town in the United States, would tend powerfully to complete 
and to perpetuate the temperance reformation. (^) 

VIII. Resolved, That each State society be requested to take 
the direction of the temperance cause withm its own limits, and to 
employ one or more permanent agents, to visit periodically every 
part of the State, and to devote their whole time and strength to 
the promotion of this work. (') 

IX. Resolved, That each family in the United States be re- 
quested to furnish themselves with some temperance publication. (*) 

X. Resolved, That the increase of temperance groceries, pub- 
lic houses and steam boats, in which ardent spirit is not fur- 
nished, is highly auspicious to the interests of our country; and 
that the friends of human happiness, by encouraging such estab- 
lishments in all suitable ways, till they shall become universal, 
will perform an important service to mankind. ('^) 

XI. Resolved, That it be earnestly recommended to all emi- 
grants who contemplate removing in a body from foreign coun- 
tries to the United States, and also, to those who contemplate 
removing from one part of our own country to another, before 
their removal, or on their passage, to form themselves into a 
temperance society. (**) 

On motion, adjourned. 

May 25th, The Convention met at the stated hour, and was 
opened with prayer by Dr. Hewitt of Connecticut. 

The minutes of the preceding day were read and approved. 

On motion. 

Resolved, That the secretaries have power to make such ver- 
bal alterations in the minutes and resolutions, as will best ex- 
press their meaning. 

The consideration of the remaining resolutions reported by the 
standing committee at the former session, was then resumed, and 
the following were adopted. 

XII. Resolved, That temperance societies and the friends of 
temperance throughout the country, be requested to hold simul- 
taneous meetings, on the last Tuesday in February, 1834, to 
review what has been done during the past year; to consider 
what remains to be done, and to take such measures as may be 
suitable, by the universal diflusion of information, and by kind 
moral influence, to extend and perpetuate the principles and the 
blessings of temperance over our land. (*^) 

XIII. Resolved, That a correspondence be opened with na- 
lional temperance societies and friends of temperance in other 
countries, for the purpose of procuring, as far as practicable, 


meetings at the same time, for the same purpose, throughout the 

XIV. Resolved, That it he recommended to temperance soci- 
eties and friends of temperance of every description, to obtain as 
full and accurate statistics as possible, and embody them for the 
benefit of the community, in the annual reports, and communicate 
them at the simultaneous meetings; especially on the following 
points, viz. 

What is the population? 

What number belong to temperance societies? 

How many have been added to them the past year? 

How many have renounced the traffic? 

How many groceries and how many taverns in which ardent 
spirit is not void ? 

How many continue to sell, and -what quantity is now used? 

How many drunkards have been reformed? 

How many are now drunkards? 

How many distilleries have been stopped, and how many are 
now in operation? 

How many deaths is there reason to believe were caused by 

What proportion of pauperism and of crime, are occasioned by 
strong drink? 

How many criminals were convicted the past year, who drink 
DO ardent spirit, and how many who do drink it? (**) 

XV. Resolved, That as the sole object of the American 
Temperance Society, and those numerous State and other tern* 
perance societies, which have been formed in accordance with it 
throughout our country, — ever has been, is now, and ever 
OUGHT TO BE, the promotiou of temperance; to this object alone 
all their efforts -ought to be invariably and perseveringly directs 
ed. (") 

XVI. Resolved^ That as the question has arisen among the 
friends of temperance and agricultural improvement, what shall 
be done with surplus grains, provided they are not converted iiH 
to ardent spirit, the friends of human improvements are requested 
to investigate this subject, and to present the resuhs to the pub- 
lic through the medium of the press. (**) 

XVII. Resolved, That the prompt and united testimony of 
many physicians, to the hurtful nature and destructive tendency 
of ardent spirit, has been a powerful auxiliary to the temperance 
cause ; and should that respectable and influential class of our 
citizens all exert their influence to induce the whole community 
to abstain from the use of it, they would reader themselves still 
more eminently useful. (") 

XVIII. Resolvedf That the medical profession be requested to 
inquire whether substitutes for alcohol may not be found, and its 
use be dispensed with in medical practice, and to give the results 
of their investigation to the public. (") 

321] SIXTH REPORT. 1833. APPENDIX. 95 

XIX. Resolved, That editors of papers and other periodicals, 
who from time to time publish information on the subject of tem- 
perance, are rendering important service to the cause ; and should 
All editors adopt and pursue a similar course, they will render 
themselves the benefactors of mankind. (**) 

XX. Resolved, That the associations of young men have been 
powerful auxiliaries to the temperance cause, and should all 
the young men in the United States, and especially in the literary 
institutions, unite in temperance societies, they would render 
themselves benefactors to our country and the world. C^) 

XXI. Resolved, That the influence of the female sex, in favor 
of the temperance cause, has had a highly salutary effect upon 
all classes in the community, and especially upon those who are 
the hope of future generations, the children and youth; and that 
should the influence to which they are so justly entitled, be 
unitedly and universally exerted in favor of this cause, they 
would do much to perfect and to perpetuate the moral renovation 
of the whole human family. (*') 

XXII. Resolved, That it is expedient that the friends of tem- 
perance in all countries, unite their counsels and their efforts, to 
extend the principles of temperance throughout the world. (^) 

XXIII. Resolved, That the fundamental and highly salutary 
influence, which the promotion of the cause of temperance must 
have on the purity and permanence of civil institutions, demands 
for it the countenance and active co-operation of every real pa- 
triot, n 

XXIV. Resolved, That the influence of temperance on the 
intellectual elevation, the moral character, the social happiness, 
and the future prospects of mankind, is such as ought to obtain 
for it the cordial approbation, and the united, vigorous and perse- 
vering efllbrts of all the philanthropic and humane of every class, 
age, dex, and country. {**) 

On motion, adjourned to Monday 27th. 

May 21 th. At the stated hour the Convention met, and was 
opened with prayer by Christian Keener, of Maryland. 

The minutes of the preceding day were read and approved. 

Nicholas Devereaux, of New- York, was appointed a member 
of the Standing Committee, in the room of Hugh Maxwell, who 
bad left the city. 

The Standing Committee reported that the meeting this evening 
will be addressed by 

G. S. Hillard of Massachusetts, Thos. P. Hunt of North 
Carolina, Thos. H. Stockton of Maryland, Joseph Lumpkin of 
Georgia, and Nathaniel Hewitt of Connecticut. 

The following resolution, reported by the Committee, was 
ado pt ed. 

frhereas, It has been announced that Henry T. Newman, a del- 
egate to this body from the British and Foreign Temperance So- 


ciety , has arrived in this country, and expected to be at this 
meeting, but is providentially prevented, therefore, 

XXV. Resohed, That we cordially reciprocate the fraternal 
kindness manifested by the British and Foreign Temperance So- 
ciety, in the appointment of the above mentioned delegate, and 
express our earnest desire and hope, that the mutual confidence 
now subsisting between temperance societies in this and other 
countries, may be perpetuated and increased, till intemperance 
and its evils shall have ceased, and temperance, with all its at- 
tendant blessings, shall universally prevail. (^) 

The President then informed the Convention that Stephen 
Van Rensselaer, of the State of New- York, had offered to defray 
the expense of publishing 100,000 copies of the proceedings of the 
Convention, for gratuitous distribution; whereupon it was unani- 

Resolvedf That the thanks of this Convention be presented to 
Stephen Van Rensselaer, of the city of Alhany, for his liberality 
in proposing to defray the expense of distributing 100,000 copies 
of the proceedings of this Convention. 

Resolved, That the President and Vice-Presidents be a Com- 
mittee to communicate to Stephen Van Rensselaer the foregoing 

The Standing Committee then reported the following resolution, 
which was adopted. 

XXVI. Resolved, That the formation within six years, efmore 
than 6,000 temperance societies, embracing more than a million 
of members; the relinquishment of the manufacture of ardent 
spirit, by more than 2,000 distilleries, and of the 'sale of it by 
more than 5,000 merchants; the banishment of the poison from 
the United States army, and to a great extent from the navy; 
the sailing of more than 700 vessels, in which ardent spirit is not 
used; the hitherto unparalleled exhibition of more than 5,000 
drunkards, within five years, ceasing to use intoxicating drinks, 
and becoming, as all drunkards if they take this course will, so- 
ber men, and many of them highly respectable and useful men; 
and the uniform and universal progress of the temperance refor- 
mation, whenever and wherever suitable means have been used 
for its advancement, are, it is believed, facts which call loudly for 
fervent gratitude to the Author of all good, and for united and 
persevering efforts on the part of its friends, to extend univet- 
sally and perpetuate the temperance cause. 

A resolution, reported by the Standing Committee, on the sub- 
ject of a general union, which was laid on the table at a former 
session, was now taken up; and on motion, 

Resolved, That it be referred to a committee, consisting of one 
member from each State repre.*5entcd in this body. — Whereupon 
the following were appointed that committee, with instructions 
to report to this Convention. 

Joseph C. Lovejoy, Maine; E. P. Walton, Vermont; Eli 


Ivefl, Connecticut; John Wheelwright, New- York; Isaac S. 
Loyd, Pennsylvania; Christian Keener, Maryland; Ephraim 
Addoms, Virginia; Isaac IV. Waddell, S. Carolina; R. H. Ball, 
Kentucky; Robert H. Chapman, Tennessee; N. M. Welles, 
Indiana; £. C. Trowbridge, Michigan; Andrew Rankin, New- 
Hampshire; Mark Doolittle, Massachusetts; Frederick A. Far- 
ley, Rhode Island; John McLean, New-Jersey; Thomas 
J. Higgins, Delaware; Wm. R. Collier, District Columbia; 
Thomas P. Hunt, North Carolina; S. K. Talmadge, Georgia; 
J. Seward, Ohio; Peter Donan, Missouri; Enoch Kinsbury, Il- 
linois; Wm. T. Brantley, Alabama. 

The Standing Committee reported a resolution which was under 
discussion to the hour of adjournment, when, on motion, the 
Convention adjourned. 


The Convention met at the stated hour, and again took up the 
resolution which was before it at the former session, which was 
adopted as follows: 

]^XVIL Resolved, That in the opinion of this Convention, the 
traffic in ardent spirit as a drink, and the use of it as such, are 
rnorally wrong, and ought to be abandoned throughout the 
world. C) 

The committee to whom was referred the resolution on the 
subject of a general union, reported that they had unanimously 
agreed to reconmiend the adoption of the resolution as reported 
by the Standing Committee, which was under consideration, when 
on iDoiion the Convention adjourned to meet at the Hall of the 
Musical Fund Society, this evening at a quarter before 8 oVlock, 
in order to lay before the public, who have been invited to as- 
Bemble there, some history of the progress of the temperance 



The Convention assembled at the time and place appointed, 

6. S. Hillard of Massachusetts, Tho's. P. Hunt of North Car- 
olina, Tho's. H. Stockton of Maryland, and Nathaniel Hewitt 
of Connecticut, presented to a very large and attentive audience 
that had assembled, a brief but impressive history of the tempe- 
rance cause, together with an exposition of the principles upon 
which it is established. 

After an appeal to the large and interesting circle of ladies 
who were present, by Reuben H. Walworth, President of the 
ConTention, setting forth the power and extent of female influ- 
ence, the meeting proceeded to business. 

The Standing Committee reported that they had no farther mat- 
ter to lay before the Convention; whereupon it was 

Resolved, That the committee be now discharged. 

Resolved f That the thanks of the Convention be presented to 
9 24 


the Standing Committee for the faithful and prompt discharge of 
the duties intrusted to them by the Convention. 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Convention be presented to its 
President, Reuben H. Walworth, for the dignified, impartial 
and very acceptable manner in which he has presided over its 

The President then expressed his grateful sense of this ac- 
knowledgment on the part of the Convention, and his satisfac' 
tion in having presided over its deliberations, when he withdrew. 

Roberts Vaux of Pennsylvania, one of the Vice-Presidents, 
then took the chair. 

The resolution reported by the Standing Committee, and ap- 
proved by the Committee from each state, was then taken up, and 
after amendment, was adopted as follows: 

XXVIII. Resolved, That the Officers of the American Tem- 
perance Society, and of the several State societies, are hereby 
requested to act as a United States Temperance Society; to 
hold mutual consultations and to take all suitable measures to 
carry into effect the objects of this Convention; to embody pub- 
lic sentiment, and by the universal diffusion of information and 
the exertion of kind moral influence, to extend the principles 
and blessings of the temperance reformation throughout our 
country and throughout the world. 

On motion, 

Resolved, That the vital interests and complete success of the 
temperance cause demand that in all the efforts of the friends of 
that cause against the use of ardent spirit, no substitute except 
pure water be recommended as a drink. 

On motion, 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Convention be presented to 
the Select and Common Council of the city of Philadelphia, for 
their kindness and liberality in granting to it the use of the Hall 
of Independence. 

On motion. 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Convention be presented to 
the trustees and congregation of the 5th Presbyterian Church, 
for the use of their house during the sitting of the Convention. 

On motion, 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Convention be presented to- 
the Vice-Presidents and Secretaries for the faithful discharge of 
fheir duties. 

Having disposed of the various subjects that had been pre- 
sented with great harmony and unanimity of feeling, with an 
earnest desire for the guidance of God, and a confident reliance 
on Him to bless their efforts in the advancement of the cause, to 
strengthen and animate them to renewed and persevering exer- 
tion, until the principles of temperance shall prevail in every land, 
and its attendant blessings be enjoyed by sJl the nations of the 
earth, the Convention adjourned tine dU. 

325] SIXTH REPORT. 1833. ^APPENDIX. 99 

Reasons for complyii^ itiih the Resolutions offered hy the Committee 

atid adopted by the Convention, 

(^) 1. Temperance requires it. As temperance is the moderate 
and proper use of things beneficial, and is abstinence from things 
hurtful, and ardent spirit is one of the hurtful things, temperance 
with regard to this, is abstinence. 

2. The drinking of ardent spirit will form intemperate appe- 
tites; and if intemperate appetites are formed, they will, in many 
cases, be gratified. Of course, while the drinking of ardent spirit 
is continued, intemperance can never be prevented. 

3. By the selling of ardent spirit, men teach that it is right to 
buy and drink it; a doctrine which is false, and to many is fataL 

4. All men would be better without the use of ardent spirit ; of 
course to drink it, or to furnish it to be drunk by others, is sin. 

(*) 1. Because without it men will not receive so much bene- 
fit from their example. 

2. Temperance Societies have been one of the principal means 
of promoting the Temperance Reformatton. 

3. Should all persons join them, and act consistently, intem- 
perance to a great extent would cease. 

(') 1. The example of legislators has great influence in the 

2. It would have a highly salutary influence on legislation. 

3. It would tend to promote the purity of elections, and thus to 
extend and perpetuate the blessings of free institutions. 

{*) 1. They would tend to promote the health and comfort of 
the men. 

2. To promote obedience to orders, and thus to lessen the 
namber and severity of punishments. 

3. To prevent an enormous waste of human life. 

(*) 1. It would promote the health and comfort of seamen. 

2. It would promote the pecuniary interest of all concerned. 

3. It would prevent many ship-wrecks, and the loss of many 


(') 1. It would promote the intellectual elevation, the moral 
improvement, and the social happiness of the workmen. 
2. It would improve the quality of their work. 

5. When they go from one establishment to another, a certifi- 
cate of their being worthy members of a Temperance Society 
would be a ready passport to business and an important safeguard 
to employers. 

(J) 1. It would tend to bring the subject before the whole 

2. It would greatly increase the number and activity of it* 


3. It would reform many who are now drunkards. 

(') 1. It is the most ready way to awaken universal atten- 
tion ; and to secure ever-growing interest and effort in the cause. 
2. It is highly economid^al as to men and money. 


3. It is essential to that thorough and systematic eflbrt which 
tends to the most complete and speedy triumph of this cause. 

(^) 1. Information is essential to wise, eificient and permanent 

2. It would increase especially among the young, a spirit of 

3. It would, to a great extent, give to each part of the country 
the benefit of the experience of all other parts, and thus render 
the efforts of all more eminently useful. 

(*^) 1. It would lessen the danger of youth and remove one of 
the most powerful incentives to intemperance. 

'2, It would prevent a great amount of pauperism and crime. 

S. It would greatly promote tlie temperance, safety, and com- 
fort of travellers. 

(**) 1. It will lessen the dangers of their journey. 

2, It will lessen their exposure from a change of climate, and 
from their settlement among strangers. 

3. It will render them a greater blessing to the people among 
whom they may dwell. 

('^) 1. It will awaken new interest and lead to a great in- 
crease of efTort. 

'2. It will be a convenient time for annual meetings, and will 
lead a much greater number of people to attend them. 

3. It will lead to a more general development of facts; and 
spread more extensively the knowledge of them. 

(^^) I. It is an object of common and universal concern; 
in which the friends of humanity of every sect, denominatiod 
and country may unite. 

2. It will tend to increase their information, their efforts and 
their success. 

3. It will tend to unite good men of all countries in all good 

{**) 1. It will awaken more general attention, and dcvelopc 
much valuable information. 

'2, It will greatly increase the interest and tlic usefuhics.^ of 
the simultaneous meetings. 

3. It will lead to a more thorough investigation, and to a moro 
universal extension of a knowledge of facts. 

(*^) 1. It will unite a greater number, and lead to more 
srencral efforts for the promotion of the cause. 

2. It will render their efforts more efficient, and more suc- 

3. Without perseverance, the work cannot be completed, or 
<hc benefits obtained be permanently secured. 

('^) I. It will show that the distillation of grain is a violation 
of the true principles of political economy ; and a great loss to 
the pecuniary interests of the country. 

2. It will show, that it is a loss to the grain-growers theiii- 
<«elvef.: «•'** frrjds to the injury and ruin of their children. 

937] SIXTH REPORT.— 18S3. APPENDIX. 101 

3. That to encourage distillation is to be accessory to enor- 
mous injustice toward the community. 

('') 1. From the nature of their profession, their opinions 
on this subject must have great weight with the community. 

2. They enjoy peculiar facilities for acquiring information on 
this subject, and circulating the truth. 

3. Their example will have a powerful influence on gentlemen 
in the other professions, and in all the higher walks of life. 

(^^) 1. The prescription of ardent spirit as a medicine, 
has often been the means of forming intemperate appetites, and 
of leading to drunkenness and ruin. 

2. Many eminent physicians now entirely dispense with it, in 
medical practice, and in their view not only without detriment, but 
to peculiar advantage. 

3. Could it consistently be dispensed with in medical practice 
universally, a powerful cause of intemperance would be removed. 

(^') 1. The press is one of the chief instruments of com- 
municating information, and forming public sentiment. 

2. It can speak to multitudes that can be addressed in no other 

3. By the promotion of temperance, it will aid essentially all 
patriotic, humane, and benevolent efibrts. 

(*'*) 1. To no class is the Temperance Reformation of more 
importance than to young men. 

2. No class have greater means, or more ability to promote it. 

3. The character of young men will soon form the character of 
the country. 

('*) 1. It will save multitudes of their own sex from unut- 
terable wretchedness, and from a premature grave. 

S. It will save vast multitudes of children from becoming 
doubly orphans. 

3. It will exert an all pervading and highly salutary influence 
m youth, and on all classes in the community. 

(**) 1. It will increase their interest in the cause, and of 
course will increase their eflbrts. 

2. It will tend to remove prejudices not only on this, but on 
other subjects, and to promote mutual good will among men. 

3. It will render the eflTorts of all to do good more eminently 
and extensively useful. 

(■') 1. It tends to prevent that luxury and vice which are the 
fanane of civil institutions. 

2. It tends to promote industry, economy, and obedience to the 

3. It tends to promote universal intelligence and virtue. 

(**) 1. Without temperance, all efforts to do good must in a 
great measure fail. 

2. With union and perseverance the cause will be triumphant. 

3. It will tend to hasten the time when all shall know and 
obey the Lord. ^^^ 


(**) 1. His blessing has been the diuse of all past success, 

St. On account of the intimate and fundamental connection be- 
tween this cause, and all the great interests of men. 

3. Without an acknowledgment of the divine favor, aod 
united and persevering efforts, we cannot expect a continuance 
of the divine blessing; or have any rational prospect of future 

('^) 1. It inculcates falsehood. 

2. It perpetuates intemperance. 

3. It promotes pauperism and crime. 

4. It diminishes the wealth of the nation. 

5. It increases the public burdens. 

6. It impairs the health of the people. 

7. It deteriorates their intellect. 

8. It corrupts the public morals. 

9. It shortens many lives. 

10. It ruins many souls. — Of course it is a business which is 
unjust toward men, and offensive to God. 

Extracts of a letter from a distinguished gentleman in the Citj 
of Washington, dated July 24, 1833. 

"The Convention has evidently done good. It has given a 
fresh impetus to the cause. At no period have the great princi- 
ples of temperance moved forward with such strong and steadj 
steps as for the last six months; and this is true, not merely of 
this or that town, or city, or section, but of our whole country. 
I perceive, wherever I go, and with whatever company I am 
called to associate, that the fashion of drinking is rapidly de- 
clining; and that the traffic in ardent spirit, is becoming a crime. 
ITothing is wanting but a bold, manly and steady perseverance 
of the friends of temperance, to eradicate, utterly eradicate the 
manufacture, sale and use of ardent spirit from our land. The 
■nited testimony of the heads of the different departments of the 
Government, the members of Congress, the mail contractors, 
and various other persons who resort to Washington from differ- 
ent parts of the United States, to transact business, all concur 
in sustaining this declaration." 

Especially may we hope that this will be the case, should the 
resolutions of the Convention be complied with throughout the 
country. The Committee would therefore earnestly recommend 
them, and the reasons annexed to them, to the attention of their fel- 
low citizens throughout the community. Let every man do his duty, 
especially the young men of our country, and the Temperance 
Reformation will be triumphant, its blessings extend to all pe(H 
plci and be perpetuated to all ages. 

m ■ 

3S9} SIXTH KSPORT. 1838.^ ^APPENDlX. 103 

D- (P. 33.) 

ComtiivHony S^c, of the American Congressional Te^nperance 


As the use of Ardent Spirit is not only unnecessary, but inju- 
rious, as it tends to pauperism, crime, and wretchedness ; to 
hinder the efficacy of all means for the intellectual and moral 
benefit of society, and also to endanger the purity and perma- 
nence of our free institutions; and as one of the best means for 
counteracting its deleterious effects, is the influence of United JBx- 
ample, Therefore, we, members of Congress, and others, rtcogmx- 
ing the principle of abstinence from the use of Ardent Spirit, and 
from the traffic in it, as the basts of our Union, do hereby agree to 
form ourselves into a society, and for this purpose adopt the fol- 
lowing Constitution, viz: 

Article 1. This Society shall be called The Americtm Congres- 
sional Temperance Society. 

Article 2. The object of this Society shall be, by example, and 
by kind moral influence, to discountenance the use of Ardent 
Spirit, and the traffic in it, throughout the community. 

Article 3. Members of Congress, and all who have been mem- 
bers of Congress, officers of the United States Giovernment, civil 
and military, and heads of departments, who practically adopt 
the great principle of this Society, may, by signing the Constitu- 
tion, become members; and any former member of Congress, or 
other person entitled to membership, may be admitted, on ad-* 
dressing to the Secretary of this Society a letter, expressive of 
his desire to be considered a member. 

Article 4. The officers of the Society shall be a President, 
Vice Presidents, Secretary, Treasurer and Auditor; who shall 
be chosen annually, and who shall perform the duties usually 
assigned to such officers; and who shall continue in office until 
others are elected. 

Article 5, The Society shall annually appoint Ave persons, 
who, together with the officers of the Society, shall constitute an 
executive committee; three of whom shall form a quorum, and 
who shall from time to time take such measures, as shall be 
adapted to render this Society most extensively useful to the 

Article 6. There shall be an annual meeting at such time du- 
ring the session of Congress, as the committee may appoint; 
and the president, and in his absence one of the vice presidents, 
at the request of the committee, may at any time call a special 
meeting of the Society. 

Article 7. The constitution may be altered by a recommenda- 
tion of the executive committee, and a vote of two thirds of the 
roembera present at any annual meeting. 


After the adoption of the Constitution, the officers of the Soci- 
ety were chosen, as follows: 

President^ Hon. Lewis Cass, Secretary of War. 

Vice Presidents, Hon. Samuel Bell, New Hampshire; Hon. 
Gideon Tomlinson, Connecticut; Hon. John Reed, Massachu- 
setts; Hon. Lewis Condict, New Jersey; Hon. William Wilkins, 
Pennsylvania; Hon. Thomas Ewing, Ohio; Hon. Felix Grundy, 
Tennessee; Hon. John Tipton, Indiana; Hon. Daniel Wardwell, 
New York; Hon. James M. Wayne, Georgia. 

Secretary, Hon. Walter Lowrie, Secretary ofU. S. Senate. 

Treasurer, Hon. E. Whittlesey, Ohio. 

Auditor, Hon. W. W. Elsworth, Connecticut. 

Executive Chmmittee, Hon. Theo. Frelinghuysen, New Jersey; 
Hon. Arnold Naudian, Delaware; Hon. John Blair, Tennessee; 
Hon. George N. Briggs, Massachusetts; Hon. Elutheros Cook, 

E. (P. 50.) 

Reduction of Taxes. 

The population of , N.H. at the last census was lesstbu 

1200. Three rum stores and two rum taverns in town, together with 
the more private traffic of individuals, were loading the communitj 
with an annual tax offline thousafid dollars, to pay for intoxicating 
liquors, besides the incalculable evils of drinking the poison. 
Their temperance reform commenced about 1827. First annuil 
Report of their society exhibited a diminution of this tax to the 
amount of $6,000 ; the second reduced it $2,500, leaving only 
^00 as the expense of spirits sold in the town. 

At this time, they have three stores and one tavern, free from 
this strong drink, and not a licensed house in town. It is estimated, 
that the cost of ardent spirits, as at present used by the town, 
does not exceed the rate of $100 by the year. It is believed 
that nine-tenths of the population drink no ardent spirits. 

The Congregational Church, now consisting of 200 members, 
has more than doubled since this reform commenced. Now they 
actually pay for preaching at home, double in cash, to what they 
paid mostly in produce before. Ten years ago, their benevolent 
contributions for a year were less than twelve dollars. They pay 
the present year, more than one thousand dollars in cash for 
various benevolent objects, besides large subscriptions raised for 
payment hereafter. The Church are unanimously pledged against 
every form of using ardent spirits as drink,, and none so using 
ft are ever to be admitted. 

The Methodist Church in town, consisting of nearly 100 mem* 
bers, are said to be practising on the same plan. 

331] SIXTH REPORT. 1833. APPENDIX. 105 

F. (P. 50.) 

Extract of a letter from a merchant in Alabama, showing the 
benefits to merchants and others, from the abandoning of the use 
and sale of ardent spirits. 

"About twelve years ago, I connected myself in business with 
a country merchant residing in the middle part of South Alabama, 
and soon after settled my family at the same place. We kept a 
general assortment of goods ; our customers were generally of 
the class called ** first settlers," or ** pioneers," enterprising 
men, with young but numerous families, who, being poor, and 
seeing but little prospect of bettering their fortunes in the land of 
their nativity, had the courage to attempt their improvement by 
removing to, and settling in, a new country. . These people were 
industrious and liberal, but sadly addicted to the use of spirituous 
liquors. They were kind to each other and to strangers. If a 
stranger asked for a glass of water, it was their custom to offer 
whiskey with it ; and the head of a family, although unable to 
pay for the land he occupied, would apologise with seeming mor- 
tification, if he was unable to offer his visiting neighbor a glass 
of «rpg. 

It is the business of a country merchant to supply the wants of 
his cuslomers ; and to graduate his purchases to their wants, 
requires some experience, and much observation, upon which 
deoends, in some degree, the success of his business. 

In 1824, we had been four years in business, and it required 
about that period, 100 barrels of whiskey, with a large quantity 
of American and English rum, and American and French brandies, 
for one yearns demand. 

In 1825, nearly the same, 

1826, 75 barrels whiskey, Stc. 

1827, 40 ** 

1828, 25 " 

1829, 10 '* '* and 2 pipes brandy. 

1830, 5 *' ** 2 

1831, 5 *' *' 1 
And there is another fact, as remarkable as the decrease of tho 

consumption of spirituous liquors in that neighborhood, as shown 
in our purchase and sales above. The increase of the consump- 
tion of other things, as shown by our sales of the articles, was nearly 
as rapid. But the most interesting fact of all is the extraordinary 
change in the circumstances of this same population. From the 
period of giving up the use of spirituous liquors, these people began 
to save something from the proceeds of the little crops; and partly 
with these savings, and partly from aid given by a gentleman of 
some monied capital who resided near, they have purchased the 
land they previously settled upon, and arc now generally indepen- 
dent planters, making from five to fii\y bales of cotton each family, 


besides an abundance of bread staffs, and almost every variety of 
vegetables, by means of which, with their ample stocks of cattle, 
hogs, sheep, and poultry, they are enabled to live in great com- 
fort. Now, instead of offering the stranger whiskey, and the hos- 
pitality of their miserable cabins, they receive him in their com- 
fortable houses, and in place of the shelf formerly to be seen in 
their cabins decorated with jugs and black bottles, he finds shelves, 
or book cases stored with books ; instead of ragged children, fine 
rosy cheeked girls and boys, neatly dressed, and ready to converse 
with him upon the subject of schools, agriculture, the cotton 
market, &c. 

Speaking of rosy cheeks, reminds me of another fact. — We 
kept medicines, with our other wares, and our sales in that de- 
partment, for the last six years, decreased every year. [JV*. F. 

G. (P. 53.) 

Extracts from a letter of the Rev. Mr. Spaulding, dated 
Lahaina, Island of Maui, (one of the Sandwich Islands) October, 

This Island has 35,000 souls, and is without a temperance 
society ! This fact may not be generally known in America, 
but is really so. There is no temperance society on Maui ; but if 
any man is detected in buying, selling, or manufacturing ardent 
spirits, he is forthwith put into the fort, sentenced to make public 
road, or otherwise fined according to law. About four years ago, 
a tabu was proclaimed by the Governor of this Island upon the 
use of ardent spirits. Soon afler, a native who had a barrel of 
rum in his possession, acting as agent for a man on Hawii, ven- 
tured to sell one bottle, and was fined $150, to be paid in sandal 
wood, and he immediately collected it. Another native under- 
took to sell a bottle, and was fined $75. A third man, a foreigner, 
was detected in selling it to ships, and was banished to another 
island, during the season of shipping. About one year since, a 
foreign resident in Lahaina was suspected of selling ardent spirita 
to the sailors. His house and premises were immediately 
searched without finding it. Some time after, it was ascertain^ 
that he had one keg concealed in a hogshead of coal, in his 
li^acksmith*s shop. The same individual has been since suspect- 
ed; but if he sells it at all, it is with closed doors, and probably 
under promises of secrecy. A short time since, a schooner 
engaged in merchant service, arrived firom Honolulu with rum 
on board. A native ventured to purchase a little to sell again to 
the seamen. Soon its exhilarating effects were discovered bj 
the quarrelling of some sailors, and in less than twenty-four hours 
from the arrival of the schooner, the native was in his proper 
place, i. e. in the fort. About the same time, a foreigner, about 

.333] SIXTH RJEPOBT. — 1833. APPENDIX. 107 

to establish himself at Lahaina, was detected with four bottles of 
rum, and for certain reasons, I do not know that he told what, he 
went immediately on board a whale ship, and lefl the place. It is 
Mr. Richards' opinion that not one gallon has been drunk by all 
the inhabitants of this Island the past .year. We have no evi- 
dence that ardent spirits are now sold at this place, consequently 
all is comparatively quiet ; and more than this, we have some evi- 
dence that the spirit of the Lord is with us. — We are much 
encouraged, and the more encouraged from ike fad that we have no 
ardent tfnriis to contend with. 

H. fP. 65.) 

[Facta ihoufing the evUa resulting from ^ use of Intoxicating 
lAquort, reported to the Catskill Temperance Socuttfy Feb. 26, 

In the village of Catskill, N. Y. whose population cannot at this 
time vary much from twenty-two hundred, the efibrts for the 
suppression of intemperance have produced the most happy re- 
sults. Eight merchants, who were formerly engaged, and many 
of them extensively so, in the traffic in ardent spirits, have from 
principle abandoned the traffic. A large proportion of the best 
families in the village have discontinued the use of ardent spirit 
as a drink altogether. More than seven hundred individuals, 
that is, about one third of all the inhabitants, have adopted the 
pledge of total abstinence, and joined the temperance society. 
The sentiment is rapidly gaining ground, that it is the duty of all 
entirely to abstain from the use :of an article, which has done 
more than any thing else to overspread the civilized world witli 
crime and lamentation and wo. 

But notwithstanding this, the use of intoxicating liquors, and 
all the fearful evils connected with it, still exist to an alarming 
extent. In the month of December last an investigation was made 
in relation to this subject, by a number of gentlemen who are well 
acquainted with the village, and distinguished for intelligence and 
integrity. As the result of their investigation, it appears that 
there were at that time in the village thirty-eight persons en- 
gaged in selling intoxicating liquors as a drink — that is one 
dealer in every fifly-eight of the inhabitants, and nearly one in 
every thirty-nine of those who are not members of this society. 
In some of the places where intoxicating liquors are sold, there 
mre perfect schools of vice. Impious sneers and oaths and blas- 
phemies are continually to be heard there. The friends of good 
order are made a hissing and a byword. The laws of morality 
and even the rules of decency are* treated with contempt. The 
holy sabbath is trampled under foot, and its sacred hours are de- 
voted to unusual dissipntion and wickedness. The intoxicating 
bowl is made an introdurtim to other vices, that are sweeping 


away every vestige of good principle, and cutting off every proa* 
pect of a reformation. 

There were at that time in the villago one hundred and thirty 
habitual drunkards — ^thatis, one in every seventeen of the whole 
population, and one in every eleven of those who are not mem- 
bers of this society. Many of these are heads of families who 
might have been in easy and honorable circumstances. But 
their habits have placed them in circumstances of an opposite 
character. In many instances their children are suffering with 
cold and hunger, their wives are sinking in despair. 

There are three hundred more in the village who are publicly 
known to be drinkers of ardent spirits. Of this number many 
are occasional drunkards, many more free drinkers, and the res- 
idue such as in the language of former times would have been 
called temperate drinkers. A portion of this three hundred are 
young men, who but for intoxicating drinks would be young men 
of high hopes and fair prospects. But their friends are beginning 
to tremble for their safety, and unless their habits can be changed, 
and that speedily, their ruin is certain. 

In ail then there are in the village besides those who drink 
privately, four hundred and thirty who are either drunkards oi 
advancing to that condition — that is, two in every seven of those 
who are not members of this society. 

If the whole county of Greene contains the same proportion ot 
drunkards as the village of Catskill, there are in the county sev- 
enteen hundred habitual drunkards, and four thousand more who 
are travelling in the way which leads to habitual drunkenness. 

The amount paid by the consumers of intoxicating liquors to 
the venders in the village of Catskill, supposing each vender to 
receive on an average only one dollar and a half per day, which 
is probably below the truth, would be 20,805 dollars annually. If 
the county pay in the same proportion for its whole population as 
the village of Catskill, the amount annually expended by the con- 
sumers of intoxicating liquors in the county, would be 283,704 
dollars. This sum would furnish 700 families with more than 
moo apiece for their support. 

If we add to this sum the value of time spent in drinking and 
drunkenness, and in indolence and ill health resulting from 
drunkenness, together with losses from mismanagement and 
otherwise, resulting from the same cause, the amount would pro- 
bably be more than doubled. But in estimating the losses which 
individuals sustain in consequence of intoxicating liquors, we 
should not forget the peace of mind, and character and influence 
which they sacrifice. We should not lose sight of the sufferings 
and agonies of their families and friends. There is still another 
light in which it is important to count the cost of strong drink. 
The Sovereign of the Universe has declared that drunkards shall 
not inherit the kingdom of Heaven. Who then can estimate the 
losses sustained by those that have been slain by intemperance^ 

335] SIXTH REPORT. — 1833. — APPENDIX. 109 

Who can calculate the risks incurred bj those that are now rush* 
ing on to the drunkard's grave? 

But great as are the evils already exhibited, the influence of 
intoxicating liquors in the production of crime and pauperism and 
public taxes, is no less alarming. The following facts in relation 
to this point are not stated on conjecture or vague report. In 
support of them the Committee have, in their possession, direct 
testimony derived from the most authentic sources, which they 
could produce if necessary. Where the testimony is not full, the 
nature of it is stated. 

During a period of seven years, terminating last December, 
nearly three hundred individuals were at diflerent times, confined 
in the Jail of Greene County for crimes. All of this number, ex- 
cept three, were intemperate, whether those three were so or not, 
is doubtful. During the same period about sixty individuals were 
imprisoned in the same jail for debt, who were unable to pro- 
cure bail for the limits. AH of this number, without exception, 
were intemperate. If then there had been no intoxicating li- 
quors in use, the county might have been free from the burden 
of supporting its jail. 

Of those who have received aid at the Greene County Poor- 
house during the last three years, about one fifth are children 
under the age of sixteen years. Of the adults, about three eights 
we males, and the remaining five eights females. At least seven 
eights of the children are made paupers by the intemperance of 
their parents, and as great a proportion of the adult males are 
made so by their own intemperance ; about three fifths of the 
adult females are intemperate, and one fifth are made paupers by 
the intemperance of those on whom they were dependent, so that 
not more than one fifth even of the females were made paupers 
bj any other cause than intemperance. 

The number thi^ have received aid from the county, either at 
the Poor-house or out of it in the several towns during each of the 
last three years, has varied between 300 and 400 annually. At 
least seven eights of the whole number were made paupers by in- 

But for intoxicating liquors, therefore, any public provision for 

e support of the poor in this county would scarcely have been 
necessary. It is believed that the supplies now furnished for 
drunkards and their families by private charity, would be far more 
than sufficient for the wants of all those who are not made pau- 
pers by intemperance. These supplies too would have been 
cheerfully furnished in every case of need, if intemperance had 
act frozen up the charities of the benevolent. 

The jail expenses for criminals, including the repairs of the 
jail, have cost the county annually for the last seven years, the 
average sum of 850 dollars, making for the seven years $5950. 
All of this, according to the statement above, except perhaps a 
trifling item which is doubtful, is chargeable to intoxicating li- 
quors. 5 
10 ^^ 


To tbifl should be added the charges of magistrates and other 
officers, for arresting and examining criminals, together with all 
the charges attending their trial. These charges cannot all be 
determined with perfect accuracy. A number of gentlemen 
made an investigation in relation to them for one year. A num- 
ber of the largest items they ascertained precisely, and had some 
facilities for forming an estimate of nearly all the rest. As the 
result of their investigation, they were convinced that the amount 
for that year could not have been less than 1500 dollars. It may 
have been more. In this estimate nothing was allowed for the 
time and expenses of jurors and witnesses attending on criminal 
trials, nor for any other services not paid for out of the county 

The expenses of the county for the support of the poor during 
each of the last three years have been as follows — 

r iQQn S -^'^ rendered at the Poor-house $3480,32 ) a>ioqi ai 
m 183U I ^ ^^^ ^^^^^^j ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^ 554391,31 

'««' 1 i; z Town?"" fats'js \ <^«o.«> 


The gentleman who furnished this statement had not the bills 
of expenditures in the several towns, in 1832, before him at the 
time the statement was made. But being extensively acquainted 
with the subject, he believed they must amount to the sum stated, 
viz. $1900. 

The whole expense of the poor then for the last three years is 
16,695 dollars. The Committee have already given their reasons 
for believing that no part of this expense would have been in- 
curred by the county, had there been no intemperance. But 
without relying on probabilities, it has been proved, that at least 
seven eights of this, that is 14,608 dollars, is directly chargeable 
to intoxicating liquors. Seven eights of the charge for the poor in 
1832, is 5,796 dollars. 

According to the facts and estimates already exhibited, intoxi- 
cating liquors imposed upon the county in 1832, a tax for 
The average amount of Jail expenses $850 

Other expenses for intemperate criminals 1500 

Seven eights of the expenses for the poor 5796 

Additional expenses to Collectors, Treasurer, &c. 
for raising the above sums .... 488 

Whole amount $8,694. 

The whole amount raised by tax for defraying all the county 
and town expenses for 1832, including between $1000 and $2000 
extraordinary, occasioned by the cholera, is only $16,205,66. 
Intoxicating liquors therefore were the immediate cause of more 
than one half cf the burden imposed upon evr^ry man who paid 
taxes in the county for last year. 

337^ SIXTH REPORT. — 1833. — APPENDIX. Ill 

The tax upon good morals should also be taken into the ac- 
count. Drunkards are not the only individuals whose moral pu- 
rity is destroyed by intoxicating liquors. These individuals are 
dispersed through every neigiiborhood in the county, scattering 
pollution and moral death wherever they go. Every youth, and 
almost every child is brought within their influence, and conse* 
quently liable to be tainted by their example. 

We see then, from unquestionable facts, that intoxicating drink 
causes almost, if not quite all of our criminals, at least seven 
eights of our paupers, and more than half of our taxes. — It is 
ruining our youth as well as those of maturer years. It is cor- 
rupting the public morab, resisting the progress of religion, and 
filling the land with infidelity and atheism. 

A question now arises, Is it right to partake of a beverage 

which is poisoning the sources of private happiness and national 

prosperity ? Is it right in any way to encourage or sanction the 

use of such a beverage? Should some foreign monarch slay 

30,000 inhabitants of the United States every year, should he 

double the amount of our public taxes, should he corrupt the 

morals of our country, and resist the progress of our religion, 

and threaten the destruction of our government, would it be right 

for this nation to continue a friendly intercourse with him? 

Would any one plead that he might possibly afford us aid in some 

time of distress, and therefore it was best to remain on terms of 

intimacy and friendship with him? No; millions of voices would 

exclaim with indignation, not for a moment. Come what will, 

we abandon forever that cruel tyrant. His friendship is death. 

Whoever favors him shall be branded as a traitor, and spurned 

from society. But all these evils, with a host of others of the 

moflit aggravated character, are brought upon us by intoxicating 


Again, a question arises in view of the facts which we have 
detaded. Is it morally right any longer to grant licenses for the 
■ale of ardent spirits? Ought we, by our town and village au- 
thorities, any longer to sell licenses for opening the fountains of 
flin, and pouring forth rivers of pollution and death upon the 
community ? Is it right thus to sanction the use of an article 
which has produced nearly all of our criminals, and seven eights 
of our paupers and more than half of our taxes? Is it good 
economy, is it wisdom to do so? 

In conclusion, the facts which have been presented, warrant 
na in saying, that every one who has a family to educate, or 
taxes to pay, or a country to love, or a God to serve, is directly 
interested in having all intoxicating liquors banished from the 

Orrin Day, \ /Francis Savre, 

Rev. I. N. Wyckoff, / Executive \0. L. Kirtlan.o 
Rev. T. M. Smith, > < E. B. Day, 

Rev. J. DowLiNG, i Committee, i T, F. Romeyx. 

C. C. HoAGLAND, M.D. y \ 


The Executive Committee of the New- York State Temperance 
Society, in presenting to the Parent Institution its Fourth 
Annual Report, respectfully submits the following summary of 


L ^Ihmber of Auxiliaries in the StcUe of J^Tew-York. — Including 
the State Society, ^ifeen hundred and thirty-eight temperance so- 
cieties have been reported. Many more are known to exist from 
which no report has been received. 

II. Present number of Members, — This by actual enumeration 
amounts to two hundred and thirty-one thousand and seventy-four; 
but here also it is proper to rcnark, that the number actually 
pledged to total abstinence greatly exceeds the sum arrived at by 
enumeration, as in some societies great increase has taken place 
since the reports were sent in, and from others complete returns 
have never been made. Increase in the year, sixty thousand eight 
hundred and four. 

III. Temperance Stores and Taverns. — By these we under- 
stand those stores and taverns where the absence of spirituoas 
liquors is the result and efiect of the temperance reform. Ou 
thousand two hundred and two of these have been reported. 

IV. Distilleries discontinued. — These amount to one hundred 
and ihiriy-cne; a great part, but we think not all, of these have 
been discontinued in the course of the past vear. 

[Mwtork State Report.] 

* 1 The General Association of Massachusetts, composed of the 
gireat body of Evangelical Congregational Ministers in that State, 
say, '* The Temperance Reformation has made rapid advances. 
In some associations, the number of pledges has, during the 
year, been more than doubled. In others there is not an indi- 
vidual licensed td sell strong drink, and in the most, if not all, the 
number of licenses has been greatly diminished. Many of our 
churches have become temperance churches. They admit none 
to their fellowship, who do not avow the principle of total absti- 
nence from both the consumption and the traffic. And some of 
them have, by special vote, made the traffic in every form a 
disciplinable offisnce." 

They also passed unanimously the following resolution, viz. 

" As the traffic in ardent spirit, as a drink, is not only unne- 
cessary but injurious to the social, civil, and religious interests of 
men, therefore the laws which sanction that traffic by licensing 
men to pursue it, are, in the judgment of this association, mor" 
ally wrong; and ought to be so modified, that instead of licensing 
the sin, and thus sanctioning its continuance, they will only, as 
far as practicable and expedient, defend the conununity from its 


or THE 


The present age is marked with strong and auspicious pec 
ities. One of them is, increasing numbers of people are dis] 
to inquire, with regard to every moral principle and practice, 
it right ? " It is less satisfactory now, than in former times, ) 
thing is pleasant merely ; that it is popular, has been practi 
long time, by respectable men, or even by good men. 
question is, and with numbers increasing continually, ^^ 

right ?" 

Another auspicious indication of the present time, is, the s 

ard of right and wrong, with increasing numbers, is the ] 

This has, by good men, long been acknowledged in theory, i 

only sufficient and perfect moral standard. But they are 

more than ever before, applying it to practice. Not only arc 

laboring with new vigor to send it to all nations, and com 

knowledge of its contents to all hearts ; but they are appeal! 

it, as the criterion of thought and action ; and are enaeav( 

with new diligence, to bring every soul, under its all-contr 


It is not so decisive, as it once was, that a thing is 
according to human statute ; or lionorable in human society 
the question is, does it accord with the will of God as rev 
in the Bible? To the law, and the testimony ; if they spea 
according to this word, increasing numbers conclude, there 
fight in them. Nor do they confine the supervision of the I 
as much as they once did, to suUects that are purely reli| 
They are extending it to all the afiairs of life. Business, ar 
ments, legislation, every thing in which men are engaged, the; 
bound to prosecute in accordance with the Bible ; and wb 
they eat, or drink, or whatever they do, to do all in obedien 
its dictates. Other things as the standard of feeling and con 
are in their influence over men, diminishing ; and the Bit 
rising, and rising, toward that state, in which it shall appear t 
that the Lord hath magnified his word above all his name. 

Another momentous indication of the present time, anc 
which takes hold widi ft mighty grasp on- die destinies df-mc 

I 26* 



the number is increasing who feel conscience-bound daily to listen 
to the Bible as the voice of God, speaking to them ; and with 
fervent supplication for the teaching of his Spirit, tliat they may 
understand his will ; and who, when they do understand it, are not 
afraid, or ashamed to do it. 

The number is rapidly increasing, who when they learn that 
the Bible condemns a practice, will renounce it ; and who, when 
they learn that it requires an action, will attempt, with the spirit 
which the Bible inculcates, to perform it, whether other men do 
this or not ; and who will leave the consequences to the divine 

There is a deeper and more pervading conviction, than ever 
before, of individual personal responsibility directly to God ; bind- 
ing each one, m all situations, for the character and tendency of 
his actions, to the retributions of eternity. Efforts to do good 
are not so much confined as they once were, to ways only which 
have the sanction of general example ; or that are deemed by the 
great body of men, to be respectable. It is less necessary now, 
Uian it once was, for a good man to see a great multitude ahead, 
before he thinks it expedient for him to do right ; or attempt, by 
sound argument, and kind persuasion, to induce others to do 

The consequence is, it is becoming more and more common, 
if a man wishes to have good done, to do it himself ; if a man 
wishes to have a little good done, to do that ; and if he wishes to 
have great good done, to do that ; and to do it now. There is 
less disposition than formerly to depend on other people, and to 
put off present duty to future time. Men are not so much afraid 
as they once were, or ashamed, if needful, to go in the path of 
duty, alone ; and, whether others do it or not, attempt to do good 
as they have opportunity to all men ; expecting that their labor 
will not be in vain m the Lord. The feeblest and most obscure 
do not now despair of exerting influence that shall be felt by all 
people, to all ages. 

And men are less satisfied now, than they once were, with clip- 
ping off the twigs or lopping off the branches ; they are more 
disposed to go to the root, and in order to make the fruit good, to 
make the tree good. They have learned that they cannot stop the 
stream, without drying up the fountain. They go more than for- 
merly to principles, in their application to practice ; and to 
remove the effects, undertake to remove the cause. 

The consequence is, efforts to do good, are more successful 
than ever before. They take a wider range ; exert a more per- 
vading influence ; and the same amount of effort accomplishes 
▼astly greater results. And the more men do the will of Grod, the 
more plain his will is ; and the blessings of obeTing it, are more 

3411 SEVENTH REPORT. — 1834. 3 

obvious and abundant. And as that will is made known, it com- 
mends itself more strongly than ever before to the conscience ; 
the blessings of obeying it attract greater attention, and the num- 
bers who are moved by it to miglity deeds of kindness, are increas- 
ing, with a rapidity and to an extent never before known. Thus 
actios; and reacting, " light and love," the grand means of universal 
moral renovation, are moving onward from conquering to conquer ; 
inspiring with new hope, cheering with new expectations, and 
exciting all who are governed by them, to higher and holier efforts, 
that the will of God may be done on earth as it is done in heaven. 

A striking development of these principles has been made in the 
Temperance Reformation. A vicious practice had obtained, had 
received the sanction of legislation, and the support of the examp]^ 
of nearly the whole Christian world. But it was followed, as its 
natural and necessary result, by loss of property, character, life 
and soul, to an extent which must 611 every })erson who compre- 
hends it, with amazement. And the question was started, no 
doubt« by the spirit of God, " Is it right," to continue a practice 
which produces such results ; and which, if continued, will perpet- 
uate and increase them to all future ages ? The Bible was exanv- 
ined, and providences observed ; divine teaching was sought, 
and the conviction was fastened on the mind, that the practice 
was not right ; and that to prevent the evils which it produced, 
men must cease to perpetuate the cause. 

And for the purpose of making known to them, especially to 
our own countrymen, the reasons why they should do this, the 
American Temperance Society was formed. Its object, is, by 
the diffusion of information and the exertion of kind moral influ- 
ence, to attempt, with the divine blessing, to produce such a 
change of sentiment and practice with regard to intoxicating drink, 
that intemperance shall cease, and temperance, with all its attend- 
ant benefits to the body and the soul, shall universally prevail. 

Temperance^ in view of those who formed this Society^ is the 
moderate and proper use of things beneficial ; and abstinence from 
things hurtful. Ardent spirit, being in its nature, as manifested 
by its effects, a poison ; and of course, one of the hurtful things, 
and in tliis country, the grand means of intoxication, their object 
required them to abstain from the drinking, and from the furnish- 
ing of it ; and to endeavor, by all suitable means, to induce the 
whole community to do the same. 

This object they have steadily piu*sued. And to give to moral 
influence the highest and best effect, they have attempted to 
embody, in voluntary associations, all, who practice on the above 
principle, and are willing to unite in them. The plan has received 
the smile of Heaven. It has been viewed with favor by the good, 
and has accomplished great results. 


At our last Annual Meeting, there had been formed in the 
United Stales 21 State Temperance Societies; and in smaller 
districts, it was supposed, more than 5000 other Temperance 
Societies, embodying on the plan of abstinence from the drinking 
of ardent spirit and from the traffic in it, more tlian 1 ,000,000 
members. More tlian 2000 men had ceased to make it; and 
more than 6000 had ceased to sell it. They believed that the 
business was wicked, and they applied this belief to their practice. 
More than 5000 men who once were drunkards, had withiu five 
years ceased to use intoxicating drink; and were, as all men who 
pursue this course will be, sober men. Many of them had become 
highly respectable and useful, and not a few tnily pious men. 

^ore than 700 vessels were afloat on the ocean, in which ar- 
dent spirit was not used; and multitudes of all ages, in all kinds 
of lawful business, and in every variety of condition, had found by 
experience, that they were in all respects better without the use 
of it. Facts had proved that it is a nuisance^ unspeakably injuri- 
ous to mankind. Numerous Medical Associations had condemned 
the drinking of it, as a violation of the laws of life; and various 
Ecclesiastical bodies of difl^erent denominations, embracing more 
than 5000 ministers of the Gospel and more tlian 6000 Christian 
Churches, had expressed it as their solemn and deliberate convic- 
tion, that tlie traffic in ardent spirit to be used as a drink, is morally 
wrong ; and that it ought to be abandoned throughout the world. 
In this state of things we commenced the labors of the past year. 

The United States Temperance Convention that had been in- 
vited by this Society to meet in Philadelphia, assembled in that 
city on the 24th of May. It was composed of more than 400 
delegates, and from 21 States. Seldom has a body of men 
assembled of greater weight of character, and of higher and better 
influence in the country. They continued in session three days, 
and passed with great unanimity about thirty resolutions, expressive 
of their views on vai'ious points of tliis momentous subject. 

The resolution which excited the greatest interest, and which 
led to the longest and most animated debate, was that, which ex- 
pressed the sentiment, that the traffic in ardent spirit, to be used 
as a drink, is morally wrong; and ought to be universally abandoned. 
This sentiment had before been expressed not only by the Eccle- 
siastical bodies above referred to, but by the American Congressional 
Temperance Meeting, at the Capitol in Washington; and numerous 
other meetings; and tlie traffic had been treated as immoral in 
various ways in different parts of the country. 

It was to be expected therefore, that this point would occupy 
the attention of the United States Temperance Convention. Many 
were anxious to know, what the Physicians, the Jurists, and the 
Statesmen, who were collected irom all parts of the counti}' on 

S431 SEVENTH REPORT. 1834. 5 

that occasion tliought upon this subject. If they viewed the 
nature of ardent spirit to be such, that the traffic in it, to be used 
as a drink, is necessarily immoral, and as such ought to be aban- 
doned, it was obvious that the subject demanded universal attention. 
When the question came up, therefore, il excited great interest. 
Some expressed doubts; not so much. however, whether theti-affic 
is immoral, as whether it would be useful for the Convention to 
say so. But as the discussion proceeded, and the manifest and 
enormous immorality of the traffic was exhibited, this number 
lessened. They not only saw that it is an immorality, but that 
it was a duty which they owed to God, to themselves, and to 
society, to express their deep and solemn conviction of this tnitli, 
and to publish it, as extensively as j)ossible, for the bene6t of man- 
kind. And seldom has any act of a public body, designed to 
operate by moral influence, been hailed with greater gladness, or 
promised to do greater good. Passed as it was, after long and 
full discussion, in a Body composed of men of all professions and 
employments, and of all Christian denominations, and political 
parties, and from all parts of the country; and in accordance with 
the fundamental tnith which the American Temperance Society 
and various other bodies of men, had been propagating for years, 
its influence was felt throughout the land. Numbers who had not 
before done it, were now led to examine the subject in the light 
of the moral law; and the more extensive the examination the more 
deep and general has been the conviction, that the sentiment ex- 
pressed by the Convention is eternal truth, the belief of which, 
IS of infinite importance; and that it ought to be published with its 
evidence and proclaimed throughout the world. Had the Conven- 
tion done nothing else, but, after examination, express their con- 
viction on this point, they had done a deed which would have 
marked them as benefactors of their country, and been remem- 
bered with gratitude by the friends of humanity to the end of time. 
The immorality of this traffic, is what renders it certain, lliat it 
will be discontinued. And the knowledge of its immorality, uni- 
versally communicated, is to be the means, under providence, 
of accomplishing this result. And no one thing has a greater ten- 
dency to this, than the publication of the views of wise and good 

On the 18th of September a State Temperance Convention 
was held at Worcester in Massachusetts. More than 500 dele- 

gtes were present, and from all parts of the Commonwealth, 
istinguished gentlemen of all professions were members, and the 
Governor of the Commonwealth was President of the Convention. 
This body also, after careful attention to this subject, expressed 
their conviction of the immorality of this trallic, and that they 
oi^ht, by the combined power of opinion and example, to pro- 



mote its universal abandonment. Since that time numerous in- 
dividuals in tlie Commonwealth have renounced the traffic; licenses 
for the sale of spirit have been refused in many towns; about 
10,000 persons embodied in Ward Temperance Societies in Boa- 
ton, and great numbers in other parts of the State. 

There are now in Boston, 5 Hotels and 20 Groceries in 
which sj)irit is not sold. In the county of Suffolk, the number 
of Hcenses has been reduced from 613 to 314. In Hampshire 
County, the number of grog-shops has been reduced from 83, to 
8. In Plymouth and Bristol Counties and in numerous towns no 
licenses are given; and in many of them ardent spirit is not sold. 
In some of those towns, however, men who love the poison, have 

sent for it to Boston. From one place Esq. was accustomed to 

eo with his waggon, and the drinkers to send by him, each one 
his bottle. On his return, which was generally found convenient 
to be in the evening, he left a jug at this place and a jug at that^ 

&c. On his return one evening, while he was in at Mr. 's and 

his waggon at the door, some one took charge of a part of its 

contents. When Esq. came out, a bottle was gone. The 

next morning Capt. was missing. Inquiry was made, but 

no one could tell what had become of him. A number of days 
after, he was found in the woods, dead; with the bottle at his side 
about half emptied. The cases are numerous among the drinkers 
of the poison, where the end is death. And the conviction is 
rapidly extending among all classes, that the traffic in it, to be used 
as a drink, is a manifest violation of the great principles of morality, 
and utterly forbidden by tlie Word of God. 

On the 18th of November a similar Convention was held at 
Utica in New York; and on tlie 3d of December in Middletown 
in Connecticut. Botli of these Conventions, after mature dehber- 
ation, expressed the same conviction with tlie others. The 
Editor of the American Quarterly Observer, remarks, *' Of the 
New York Convention, General Jacob Morris, a venerable revo- 
lutionary patriot was President. The number of members was 
about 250. A series of resolutions was passed, the most impor- 
tant of which was the one, declaring the traffic in ardent spirit to 
be an immorality. Upon this resolution, there were only 14 votes 
in the negative. No mdividual, however, dissented from the 
position, that the traffic t^ immoral, but it was thought to be inex- 
pedient, by a few persons, to declare it to be so. At the CoI^ 
necticut Convention, attended by 130 delegates, the same resolu- 
tion was passed unanimously. All things in this country are mani- 
festly tending to one result; the classing of the use of ardent spiritS) 
and the traffic in them, a$ a molation of the moral laie; a crime, 
equally injurious to men and displeasing to God." 

On the 18th of December a State Temperance ConireDtion 

S45] SEVENTH REPORT. — 1834. 

held at Columbus in Ohio. The Governor of the state, who 
IS President of the State Temperance Society, was one of the 
Committee who invited the meeting, and was President of the 
Cotivention. This Convention also expressed their conviction of 
the immorality of the traffic in ardent spirit, and the duty of its 
universal abandonment. A Legislative Temperance Society was 
formed, shortly after, in that state; and measiues were taken by the 
State Society, by means of agents and the press, to extend infor- 
mation, and form Temperance Societies throughout tlie state. 

On the 25th of December a similar Convention was held at 
Jackson in Mississippi ; and on the 7th of January at Frankfort in 
Kentucky. At both these meetings they expressed unanimously 
their conviction of the immorality of the traffic in ardent spirit; 
and in Mississippi they recommended that in the formation of all 
new Temperance Societies, they should agree to abstain from the 
drinking not only of ardent sp'rii, but also of wine. In Kentucky 
a Legislative Temperance Society was formed, and the members 
agree to abstain from the drinking of botli ardent spirit and wine, 
and also from the traffic in them. The Governor of the state 
was appointed the President, and the Lieutenant Governor, who 
is President of the Senate, was appointed one of the Vice Presi- 

Numerous and striking details were given, by physicians, of the 
destructive effects of ardent spirit, during the prevalence of the 
Cholera in that state. In some way an impression had been 
made upon a portion of the people, that the drinking of tliis poison 
would operate as a preventive, or cure of this disease. Although 
in direct contradiction to the whole historv of the Cholera from its 
commencement, in its progress through all countries up to that time, 
yet falling in, as it did, with the natural current of human deprav- 
ity, at a time when men were ready to resort to almost any thing, 
mm which they hoped for security, or relief, it had seriously 
obstructed the progress of the Temperance Reformation, and in 
the judgment ot the physicians had occasioned many deaths. A 
committee of distinguished physicians was therefore appointed to 
investigate this subject, and publish the facts for the information 
of the community. And it is hoped, should the disease return, 
that its fatal effects will not again be increased, and its horrors 
augmented, by tlie means which are used to prevent them. The 
delusion is now fast vanishing, and several thousands were added 
to the Temperance Societies the last year. Nothing appears to be 
wanting, but the wise and efficient labors of an active permanent 
agent, to render the cause, with tlie divine blessing, triumphant 
tmtnjghout that state. This is needful in every state of the Union. 
And it is earnestly recommended to the friends of Tem[ 
each state, to procure such an agent, and provide such means 


support that he may devote his whole lime and strength to this 
object. Such a course would be most highly economical, both as 
to men and money. One thousand dollars expended in this way, 
annually, in each state, would probably be the means of savir.g to 
each, a million dollars a year ; and multitudes of other blessings 
which no wealdi can purchase, the loss of which will bring many 
to a premature grave and a miserable eternity. 

It may justly be doubted, whether the same means can in any 
other way do greater good to mankind. Not only would the 
direct influence of such labors be highly beneficial, but they would 
tend to render all otlier benevolent efforts much more successful. 
This course has been adopted in many states, and nothing would 
be more auspicious to human welfare, than to have it become 

On the 15th of January, a State Temperance Convention was 
held in Vermont ; on the 5th of February in Maine, and on the 
12th in New Jersey ; and on the 19th of the same month, a Con- 
vention of Cities was held in the city of New York. Each of 
these Conventions, like the others above mentioned, was numer- 
ously attended, and at each, the resolution was passed, that the 
traffic in ardent spirit, to be used as a drink, is an immorality; and 
ought to be universally abandoned. On the last Tuesday in Feb- 
ruary, simultaneous Temperance Meetings were held in various 
cities, towns, and villages, through this and other countries. In 
some cases, the first part of the day was observed as a season of 
united thanksgiving for the success of this cause, and of united 
prayer for the blessing of the Lord ever to attend it. In tlie 
afternoon reports were read, and addresses^were delivered on the 
occasion. Mu'jh good was done, and a new impulse given extei>- 
sively to the cause. This manner of annually spending the last 
Tuesday in February, appears to the Committee to be highly 
proper, and well adapted to be extensively useful ; and they would 
earnestly recommend that it be universally adopted. In many 
cases it will be a convenient time for the annual meeting of Legis** 
lative, or State Temperance Societies ; and in all cases, meetings 
on that day, will, it is believed, tend greatly to promote the cause. 

On that day, the American Congressional Temperance Society 
held its first anniversary in the Capitol at Washington. In the 
absence of the President, Honorable Lewis Cass, Secretary of 
War, on account of official duties, the chair was taken by the 
Hon. William Wilkins, Senator from Pennsylvania, one of the Vice 
Presidents. The meeting was opened with prayer, by Rev. 
Thomas II. Stockton, of the Protestant Methodist Church, and 
Chaplain of Congress. The Hon. Walter Lowrie, Secretary of 
die Senate, and Secretary of the Society, read the Annual Report^ 
which was adopted. 

347] 8ETENTH REPORT. — 1834. 9 

Resolutions were then offered, by tlie Hon. Benjamin F. But- 
ler, Attorney-General of the United States ; the Hon. William 
Hendricks, Senator from Indiana ; the Hon. William L. Pinck- 
oey, Member of Congress from Soutli Carolina ; the Hon. George 
Grennell, Member of Congress from Massachusetts ; the Hon. 
Arnold Naudain, Senator from Delaware ; the Hon. Daniel 
Wardwell . Member of Congress from New York ; the Hon. 
Samuel Bell, Senator from New Hampshire ; the Hon. Harmon 
Denny, Member of Congress from Pennsylvania ; the Corre»- 

S lading Secretary of the American Temperance Society ; the 
on. Felix Grundy, Senator from Tennessee ; the Hon. George 
N. Briggs, Member of Congress from Massachusetts ; the Hon* 
Theodore Freelinghuysen, Senator from New Jersey ; and the 
Hon. Elisha Whittlesey, Member of Congress from Ohio. 

Addresses were made by ^lessrs. Butler, Hendricks, Pinck- 
ney, Wardwell, Grundy, and Freelinghuysen. Others would 
have spoken, had the time permitted. jVlihough the weather was 
unpleasant, the spacious Hall of the House of Representatives was 
filled ; and till a late hour, the audience, by their profound atten- 
tion, manifested the deep interest which they took in tlie subject.* 

The resolutions and the addresses have since been printed in 
an octavo pamphlet of forty pages, and circulated extensively 
through the country. f It is hoped that it may be sent with a copy 
of the Constitution, to every person living, who has been a Meu>- 
ber of Congress, or of any branch of the National Govern- 
ment, and that all may be invited to join the Society. Should a 
similar course be taken by each Legislative Temperance Society, 
and all who liave been members of the National or State Govern- 
ments, and who have retired from public life, enrol their names as 
members of the American Congressional Temperance Society. 
or some State Legislative Temperance Society, they might become 
eminently benefactors of their country and the world. A list of 
their names, increasing annually by the accession of all new tem- 
perate Legislators, might be kept ; to be a bright example to all 
the youth of our country, and a powerful means of leading them 
onvrard to virtue, usefulness and glory. It would be an interest- 
ing item in the future page of our country's history to have the 
names of her renowned sons, who, in the days of her danger, 
were enrolled in the bright constellation, who embodied their ex- 
ample and influence as temperate men, for the intellectual elevation, 
the moral purity, the social happiness and the eternal good of their 
fellow men. The influence which such a course would have on 
die purity and permanence of our free institutions demands the 
attention of every true patriot. 

* Appendix A. t Appendix B. 



A copy oT the Constitution of the Legislative Temperance 
Society of Kentucky was handed to one of her legislators, with a 
request that he would sign it. He looked at it, and said, " It is a 
good thing. We have a Temperance Society in my district. It is 
composed of men of all parties, and they agree not to vote for 
any man of any party, who, at elections, either directly or indi- 
rectly, furnishes ardent spirit. During the last election none was 
furnished. Had that course been adopted five years ago, it would 
have saved me a thousand dollars." Should it be uni\ersallT 
adopted, it would save millions from being devoted to tliat most 
detestable species of bribery. It would save also many electors 
and not a few legislators from the drunkard's grave. Instances 
are known, in which thousands of dollars have been expended by 
an individual and his friends at a single election. But let all join 
the Temperance Society, and act according to its principles, and 
this abomination will cease. The first glance of a corrected pub- 
lic sentiment will wither and consume it. Much has already been 
done. And a change of views, especially among the higher and 
more influential classes, as to the duty and utility of joining Tem- 
perance Societies, is rapidly increasing. 

A distinguished gentleman from Washington writes, " The late 
anniversary of the Congressional Temperance Society, has given 
a fresh and powerful impulse to the cause throughout the whole 
land. Under the sanction of such authority, thousands of hearts 
and hands will rally to the work, that otherwise would have remain- 
ed unmoved. Every day I mark in the various classes of society, 
fiom the highest departments of the General Government to the 
lowest mechanic and laborer, the strong irresistible influence of 
the Temperance Reformation. Public opinion of the virtuous 
and intelligent every where frowns on the traffic and manufacture, 
as well as on the use of spirituous liquors ; and I no longer doubt, 
that this land is destined, under the influence of the persevering 
eflbits of the friends of virtue, to be freed from the vice of intem- 

A Member of Congress from Pennsylvania writes, " I had the 
honor, a few days ago, of receiving the Sixth Annual Report of the 
American Temperance Society ; for which, please to receive, and 
tender to your Society, my warmest thanks. I have read the doc- 
ument with much interest and pleasure. I am free to confess that 
until about a year since I felt rather opposed to the exertions of 
the Temperance Associations. I considered them in the light of 
a chimerical speculative concern, and calculated to draw improper 
lines of demarkation in society. But I am free to acknowledge, 
that I have very much changed my opinion concerning them. I 
am now satisfied that no institution is calculated to do as much 
good with the same me^ns ; and that if ever any institutioD could 

349] SEVENTH REPORT. — 1834. U 

be said to have its origin with Him who is the great source of 
all goodness, it is that one." 

A gentleman from Virginia states, that, in his opinion, no Socie- 
ties which have ever been formed, have, with the same means, in 
the same time, done so much for the good of mankind ; that all 
roust acknowledge, that they have produced a most bene6r.ial and 
astonishing change ; and that if the friends of the object sliall uer- 
severe, thev will be instrumental in banishing intemperance from 
oar land. Nor is this impression confined to our own country. A 
-gentleman from England writes, ^^ I offer to your country my sin- 
cere congratulations, and the humble testimony of my delighted 
admiration, on the signal, wonderful, and most beatifying success 
of this great plan of national reformation ; and which even at this 
present time, to say nothing of what will be done in years to come, 
n a more glorious achievement than that which effected your 
political independence. It is, at once, far more difHcuk and far 
more honorable for a people to tlirow off the yoke of their vices 
than that of their oppressors ; and there seems to me nothing 
impossible in the career of either moral or political greatness, to 
that country, which, by one grand co-operative effort, can, by the 
blessing of God, deliver itself, as yours is now doing, from the 
curse df intemperance. 

"In the tnumphs of your Temperance Societies, I see that 
which makes me almost tremble as an Englishman, but which fills 
me with hope, and gladness, and praise, as a man and a Christian. 
You are reading lessons to all nations, and to all coming ages ; and 
unless other nations are wise enough to profit by the instruction 
you are thus furnishing, they will, in the end, find to their cost, 
that you are among them, as Samson in the midst of his foes ; 
while should your people ever abandon this cause and return to 
tbeir former habits, oUier nations will look after yoii as Samson 
was seen by his foes, when he wantonly sacrificed to their wily 
^^t, the mysterious lock of his strength. For the sake of the 
rworld, my dear sir, and all future generations of mankind, I 
beseech you to go on in this splendid course of national virtue. 
I have patriotism enough to wish this laurel had been plucked by 
nay own country ; but since this is not granted to ti9, I rejoice 
that it is yours : it is a precious one ; preserve it from fading by 
no relaxation of zeal in the cause, and deem not the honor com- 
plete, till the world shall talk of the United Stales, as a land with- 
out a still, and without a drinker of ardent spirit. 

** If you ever arrive at this elevation of moral greatness, your 
example must and vfill be felt in the world. Self-preservation, if 
nothing else, will drive other nations into imitation of your exam- 
ple. In this, as in other instances, you are raised up by the Rider 
of die Universe, to be a model to the civilized and uncivilized 


world. Experimenls are carried on at this moment, upon your 
territory, the results of which are to be felt to the end of time. If I 
could think it right to envy any one, I should envy you Americans, 
in reference to several things which are connected with your inter- 
josl history. You are to prove whether religion can exist and 
extend without the aid of establishments. You are to prove whether 
the church of Christ has piety and liberality enough to propagate 
itself in a field where it has nothing to hinder its spread but 
the lukewarmness of its members, and the ordinary depravity 
of the human race. I trust you will not disappoint the expecta- 
tions which arfi pendent upon your conduct. Property, talent, 
influence, energy, time, must all be put in requisition for the work 
to which you are called. The Temperance Cause must be the 
pioneer of the whole confederacy : it will help your other institu- 
tions, and that in innumerable ways. The American who does 
not become a member of this institution, is blind to one of the 
brightest glories, and insensible to one of the most precious hopes 
of his country.** 

On the 4th of March a State Temperance Convention was 
held at Harrisburg, in Pennsylvania. Here also a deep con- 
viction of the immorality of the trafEc in ardent spirit was express- 
ed by many ; and the sulyect was earnestly commended to the 
consideration of all the Temperance Societies in the State. A 
Legislative Temperance Society was also formed, and measures 
taken to quicken and extend Temperance operations throughout 
that important part of our country. 

A Convention has also been held, and a State Temperance 
Society formed in Missouri. And should Temperance and its 
kindred virtues universally prevail, blessings mighty as her rivers 
and exhaustless as her soil, would break forth upon her people, 
and flow down in ever-growing richness and variety to all future 
^es. Alabama and Louisiana are now the only States in which Stale 
Temperance Societies have not been formed ; and philanthropic 
men are making .eflibrts to procure the formation of one in each 
of those States.* 

In May, a State Temperance Convention was held at Dover, 
in Delaware. Here, also, as in other similar bodies, a resolu- 
tion was passed, that, in the judgment of the Convention, the 
traffic in ardent spirit, is an immorality, and ought to be univer- 
sally abandoned. Thus has this sentiment been expressed by 
bodies embracing more than five thousand ministers of the gospel, 
and six thousand Christian churches ; by the American Congres- 
sional Temperance Meeting, by the United States Temperance 
Convention, by ten State Temperance Conventions, and numer- 
oixi other bodies and classes of men, in various ways and places, 
ihroughout the- land. 

«* Js Al a h i fn i mch a Society hti been Ibnned. 

351] SEVENTH REPORT. — 1834. 18 

And when we consider that these bodies were composed of 
men of all professions and employments, of all Christian denon*- 
inations, and political parties ; many of them, venerable for age, 
for wisdom and experience, as well as for humane and benevolent 
efforts ; and who had held, or were tlien holding, some of the 
highest and most responsible offices in the gift of the people ; and 
that after full deliberation the sentiment was expressed widi great 
unanimity, and in many cases without a dissenting voice ; that the 
publication of it has been hailed with gladness, been echoed 
extensively through the press, and met tlie cordial response of the 
friends of humanity, we cannot but conclude that the public mind 
will settle down upon the truth, that the traffic in ardent spirit, to be 
used as a drink, is immoral ; a violation of the law of God, and 
as such ought to be, and, so far as men obey Him, will be univer- 
sally abandoned. 

This, the Committee view with unspeakable interest. It is a 
sure pledge of certain and universal triumph. The truth that the 
traffic is wicked, strikes the evil at the root; and with a blow so 
strong and deep, that it will inevitably destroy it. The reception 
of this truth, and its publication by the wise and good, with cor- 
responding action, is the sure harbinger of Him, who is Lord over 
all, and who is coming to consume this evil with the breath of his 
mouth, and to desti-cy it with the brightness of his appearing. 
And while the Committee look to the prevalence of tliis truth, as 
the sure means of exterminating this abomination, they also look 
to it as the only effectual means. 

Some think that it can be removed by representing it as inexpe- 
dient, or unprofitable merely ; or unfashionable and disreputable; 
and confining the motives for its removal to things of time only, 
without representing it, as they acknowledge it is in truth, an 
immorality, a violation of the moral law, and binding the perpe- 
trators of it, according to their deeds, to the retribution of eter- 
nity. But Leviathan is not so tamed. Such arrows he esteemeth 
as stubble, and laugheth at the shaking of such spears. That it is 
inexpedient and unprofitable ; that it is fast becoming unfashion- 
able, and is now to a high degree disgraceful, as well as injurious 
and highly unjust towards the community, are all truths, tnitlis of 
importance, which may be, and ought to be used, and to be pressed 
on the public attention. 

Yet if the traffic is not also wicked, a violation of the law of 
God, and by him forbidden, if the friends of temperance do not 
believe this truth and publish it with its evidence to all people, 
vain are all expectations that it wiU ever be exterminated. There 
is no force but that which from the throne of God fastens on the 
conscience, and binds man according to deeds, irrevocably to an 
eternal retribution, tliat is strong enough to say to this ocean of 
2 26* 


death, " Hitherto shalt thou come, but no farther ; and here let 
thy violence be stayed.** And while this sentiment ought to bo 
expressed, as it ought ever to be held, mth great kindness^ so it 
ought to be expressed, tnith great plainness ; and in such a 
manner as is best adapted to produce universally, the deepest con- 
viction, and the most active and persevering efforts. 

And while the Committee behold this truth rising and extending 
its influence, inspiring so many hearts, employing so many tongues, 
and through the medium of the press going onward, as on the 
wings of the wind, from conquering to conquer, they cannot but feel 
under new obligations to the Author of all good, and be inspired 
with new hope, that the world's emancipation from this foulest of 
curses is approaching. 

More than 7000 Temperance Societies have already been 
formed in the United States, embracing, it is supposed, more 
than 1,250,000 members. These persons, who are of all ages 
from 12 to 90 years, of all varieties of condition, profession, and 
employment, laiow by experience that ardent spirit is needless ; 
and multitudes of them know that it is hurtful, and that men are in 
all respects better without it. Of course it is wicked to drink it, 
or to lurnish it to be drunk by others. And the conviction of this 
truth is rapidly extending among all classes of people. More 
than 3000 distilleries have been stopped ; and more than 7000 
merchants have ceased to sell the poison. Yet there are some, 
who wish the use of it to be continued, and who strive to believe 
according to their wishes, who assert that such statements as the 
above are not true ; and that there is as much spirit drunk now as 

ever. Mr. C , a large brandy merchant in New York, lately 

met an active friend of Temperance, and said to him, "Why are 
you publishing such accounts about people giving up the use of 
spirit ? there is no truth in them ; there is as much drunk now as 
there ever was.*' "I have got," said Mr. C , "a com- 

Elete answer to that, and one that will convince you, that what you 
ave said is not true. You know, Mr. P " (a man famous for 

the accumulation of property,) " do n't you .^" " Yes. " " Well, I 

met him yesterday on this very spot, and he said to me, Mr. C 

What are you doing ? Why do you publish such accounts about 
ardent spirit ?" "I told him, to induce people not to drink it." 
" Well," said he, "you are ruining my business. I used to sell 
forty thousand dollars worth of copper for stilb to the people of 
Connecticut in a year ; and now I don 't sell five hundred. 

You are ruining me." And that, Mr. , is the answer to what 

you have said." A diminution of thirty-nine thousand five hundred 
dollars worth of copper for stiUs, in a single state, in a year, does 
not look much like there bemg as much ardent spirit made as 
ever. And if it is not made in as great quantities, it is not drunk. 

:J53] SEVENTH REFORT. 1834. 15 

" I met a number of stills," said Mr. , of Connecticut, 

" on their way to the brass -foundery, to be melted down for 
andirons, &c.'* Thus implements of death are converted into 
implements of utility. 

More than 1000 vessels are now afloat on the ocean in which 
ardent spirit is not used. And though they visit every clime and 
at all seasons, and many of them actually go round the globe, the 
men wlio navigate them are in all respects better than when they 
used it. So manifest and great has been the increase of safety to 
property and life, that an Insurance Company in Boston has 
agreed to return five per cent, on the premium of every vessel 
which has been navigated without the use of spirit. This is done 
for the purpose of pecuniary gain. And facts abundantly prove 
that ninety-five per cent, of the premium on vessels in which 
none of the men use intoxicating drink, would be much more 
profitable to the underwriters than one hundred per cent, on ves- 
sels in which they use it. 

A gentleman in one of our seaports who has had great oppor- 
tunities for observation, and has paid special attention to this sub- 
ject, whites, — " I am happy to see a movement in the Insurance 
Offices in your city. Let them generally offer a premium for 
temperance ships, and it will be of immense pecuniary advantage 
to all concerned. I have been a Notary Public, imd the only one 
in this port, for fourteen years, and have had to extend Protests 
for many wrecked vessels, and can with truth say, that in more 
than a moiety of the cases, the disaster would not have happened 
if no rum had been on board. 

" Insurers can afford to return twenty-five per cent, of the pre- 
mium, if the vessel insured could be navigated without ardent 
spirits. The restriction, to be effectual, should obtain in port as 
well as at sea ; for many of the disasters which have happened 
immediately after leaving port, were caused by the liquor drank 
on shore, and before it had lost its influence. You will recollect 
the case of Captain Lawrence, during the last war. Our country's 
escutcheon would not have been stained by that defeat, if ardent 
spirit had not assisted the Lion and the Unicorn. 

'' They ought in the commencement to say to the owners of 
the vessels — we shall discount from the premium twenty-five per 
cent, of the amount, if your application shall contain a stipulation 
that no ardent spirit shall be drunk by the master and men, either 
tfi or otU of port. 

''A vessel left this port during the last month (February), and 
was lost a few hours after she sailed. She had four experienced 
seamen on board, and three of them were good pilots. Every 
man was a confirmed drunkard, and the vessel was lost wholly in 
consequence of rum !'* 


The use of spirituous liquor by officers and men lias lone; boon 
among the chief causes of shipwreck. Should Insurance Offices 
generally discriminate between temperance ships and others, it 
would be a source of great pecuniary profit ; and should owners 
of vessels employ none who use the poison, to navigate them, 
they would save, annually, an immense amount of property, and 
multitudes of valuable lives. This subject is exciting increased 
attention not only in this countiy, but in Europe. 

Baring, Brothers, & Co. of London, wrote to their agent in 
Amsterdam, to know why he had not obtained freights. His 
reply was, that there were American vessels, commanded by 
Temperance Captains, taking freight ; and while they remain, none 
offer to other ships. 

" A meeting was lately requested by the British Consul at his 
office, of the owners and agents of vessels chiefly engaged in the 
transport of steerage passengers from Liverpool and Belfast, in order 
to consider the most efficacious means of lessening the evils and 
disasters which have increased so alarmingly of late to passenger 
vessels — four ships having been wrecked on the Jersey coast near 
the city during the present year, while the loss of vessels bound to 
Quebec, and of lives, has been tioily appalling. In one sentiment 
all concurred, viz. that the use of ardent spirits was the chief 
cause of many evils connected with the passenger trade, and thai 
the total prohibition of spirits on board such vessels, would, more 
than any other measure, secure safety and comfort — to which 
might be added, a quick passage. 

The Consul expressed his thanks to the gendemen for their 
attendance and ready disposition to come into the measure of 
ahni' employing vessels for the conveyance of pcLSsengers^ on board 
of which no spirituous liquors shall be permitted to be tised^ and 
assured them that he w ould by the next packet make a representa- 
tionto his Majesty's Secretary of State for the Colonies, who takes 
so lively an interest in affording protection and comfort to Emi- 
grants proceeding to the Canadas, so that the government agents 
appointed at the several ports of embarcation might co-operate, in 
order to encourage those vessels which come into the salutary 
regulation."— {JV*. Y. Obs,) 

The same principle applies to stage-coaches, steamboats, rail- 
cars, and all means of public conveyance. The men who drink 
spirit, and act under its influence, can never safely be trusted with 
the property and lives of men. And as the public sensibility has 
of late been so often and so grossly outraged as to call loudly for 
legislative inteference, it is hoped, that those who may be 
called officially to consider this subject, will not overlook tliese 

The Directors of the Boston and Worcester Railroad have 

365] SEVENTH REPORT. 1834. 17 

voted not to employ any man who even uses ardent spirit. A 
number of stage proprietors have done the same. The stock- 
holders of the Connecticut river and the Hai'tford steamboat com- 
panies, have requested the directors not to allow any ardent spirit 
to be kept for sale or use on board their boats. And in many steam*' 
boats in various parts of the country it is not furnished. And it is 
hoped that the time is not distant, when no man under the influ- 
ence of the drunkard's poison, will be thought fit to be intrusted 
with any place of responsibility in the country. 

More than 10,000 drunkards have, within five years, ceased to 
use any intoxicating drink. And when sober men all set the 
example, and treat drunkards kindly, it has been found compara- 
tively easy to induce them to follow it. More than thirty such 
cases have occurred in a population of less than 3000 souls.* 
Let there be the same number in proportion to the population, 
throughout the United States, and it would make more than 
130,000. The salvation of drunkards from this fell destroyer, is 
evidently in the hands of sober men. And if they will take the 
course pursued by those who have already been so successful, in 
less than five years, they will achieve a victory such as creation 
never saw : save 130,000 drunkards from this double deatli, and 
preserve from falling into it 130,000 more. Let them cease to 
sell the poison, cease to use it, and go, with love in their hearts, 
and kindness on their tongues, to those who are now twice dead, 
and well nigh buried, and it will cause them to live. Their life 
or death is in the hands of sober men. The idea that the kind 
bounties of Providence can be converted into the drunkard's- 
poison, drunkard-making be carried on, and drunkenness perpet- 
uated, by drunkards only, is absurd. It never has been, and it 
never will be done. They have not the intelligence, the pecuniary 
ability, the foresight, the method, the diligence, and persevering 
activity in wickedness, which the prosecution of such a vile 
business requires. Should they attempt it, they would find them- 
selves prostrated ; and should they continue it, it would kiU them. 
It actually kills a great portion even of those, who, when they 
enter it, are sober : and it destroys more than twice as many, in 
proportion, of their children. What then could dnmkards do with 
it alone ? Should all the drunkards in the world combine to carry 
it on, it would only destroy them so much the quicker ; and 
should no sober man touch it, they could have no successors, and 
the whole mischief would cease. But they will not attempt to 
prosecute it. It is a business too mean, and too degrading, even 
for drunkards to prosecute alone. Let all sober men abandon it, 
and most of the drunkards will abandon it, and those wlio will not, 

* Appendix C. 




must soon die, and the last remnant of drunkenness will die with 
them. It is thus capable of perfect demonstration, that drunkenness 
can he perpetuated only by sober men. The Committee would, 
therefore, put it to the conscience of every sober man, Can you, 
without guilt, enormous guilt, aid in perpetuating that current 
which is bearing on its bosom hundreds of thousands in the United 
States, toward interminable wo ? and which is enticing, in every 
generation, from the peaceful shores of sobriety and comfort, hun- 
dreds of thousands more, to be borne onward upon the same fiery 
stream, towards the same eternal doom ? No, you cannot do it, 
without tremendous guilt. And if you continue to be knowingly 
accessory to the drunkard's vice and ruin, you must expect, in 
righteous retribution, to be partakers of the drunkard's woes. And 
you will expose your children, to have your iniquities visited on 
them, from generation to generation. 

A rum-seller in Massachusetts was visited by the W'ife of one of 
his customers, who besought him not to sell the poison to her 
husband. It made him so cruel to her and her children, tliat she 
could not endure it. But he let her know that if her husband 
wanted rum, he should have it. She went awav to mourn in 
silence, and to try to guard her children against the direful influence 
of him, who, for money, w-as killing their father. He continued 
to sell. His customers, from time to time, became drunkards. 
Their estates fell into his hands. He became a rich man. At 
length he died ; and w'cnt as poor to judgment, as if he had gained 
nothing by destroying his neighbors. His sons inherited his es- 
tate. They moved into the Western country. The eldest open- 
ed a store, and prosecuted the business of his father. He soon, 
like his father's customers, became a drunkard, and sunk into an 
ignominious grave. His brother took his place, and prosecuted 
his business. He too became a drunkard, and was shortly with 
his brother, in the drunkard s grave. The third and only remain- 
ing son took the property and prosecuted the business. And 
when our Secretary, the last winter, passed that way, he was a 
drunkard, staggering aboitt the streets. And as the father wit- 
nesses his iniquities visited upon his children, and beiiolds them 
coming in such a rapid succession to mingle with those, whom his, 
and their business have ruined, in the place prepared for them, 
does he not feel, that should the way of destroying others, appear 
even right unto a man, the end thereof is the way of death. '' It 
IS found," says Judge Piatt, " that of the tavern keepers and 
retailers of ardent spirit in the State of New York during the last 
forty years, more than two-thirds have become drunkards, and 
reduced their families to poverty and wretchedness. Let us re- 
double our efforts, by kind entreaty and friendly admonition, to 
save them from their own worst enemies, themselves,'* And can 

357] SEVENTH REPORT. 1834. 19 

a business which destroys, and there is reason to fear for both 
worlds, so many of those who prosecute it, and often reduces 
their fannilies to wretchedness, and makes drunkards of their chil- 
dren, be continued, without tremendous guilt ? And when we 
look at tlie multitudes of others who ai*e ruined by it, and witness 
its tendency for ever to ruin all who come under its influence, add 
to perpetuate its destructive effects, to all future generations,* the 
guilt of it rises to an overwhelming magnitude. 

And this guilt with its odium, the public sentiment, under the 
guidance of truth, is fastening more and more where it belongs, 
on the men who continue to prosecute the business which perpet- 
uates the evil. This is evident from the voice of the press, and 
from the manner in which that voice is responded to, by the com- 

Says the able and eloquent author of Temperance Tales, 
160,000 copies of whose writ'r.^s have, within a few months, beea 
called for by the public, and who by his efforts on this subject is 
becoming a benefactor of his race, " The respectability of those, 
who denounce the traffic, as immoral, entitles their opiDions, 
publicly and formally delivered before the world, to the most care- 
ful consideration of the whole human family. The purfty of their 
motives is beyond suspicion. The universality of their character 
is obvious : they come from all quarters of the world, and lay 
aside, as they approach this great common field of philanthropy, 
the discriminating badges of their various professions, and politicaT 
opinions, and religious creeds. However unable to agree, upon 
other matters, they heartily concur in the opinion, and they solemn- 
ly pronounce that opinion, that the use of ardent spirit as a 

ion has been repeated again and again ; by the Congressional Con- 
vention ; — by the great Convention, at rhiladelphia, from all the 
States ; — by the highly respectable Convention at Worcester ; — 
by the New York State Convention, at Utica ; — and more recently, 
by the Convention in the State of Connecticut ; and since, by all 
the other Conventions, aforementioned. Many of the most eminent 
men, of this and other countries, have been forward to promulgate 
and sustain this formal declaration. The reasons, on which it 
v(;3ts, have been scattered abroad upon the earth, like the leaves 
of the trees. They have fallen upon every dwelling, like the 
drops of rain. Journals, magazines, circulars, reports, tracts, 
tales, full of information and interesting narrative, have been dis- 
tributed with an unsparing hand. 

'' What then, in the shape of an argument, do the venders of 
spirituous liquors propose, in justification of their continued traf- 
fic ? — Absolutely nothing. — For a time, it was undoubtedly be- 



lieved by many, that the temperance reform would pass away, like 
a vapor. Under this belief, the voice of worldly wisdom whis- 
pered to the venders, that their strength lay in silence and perfect 
inaction. The continual accession of strength, to the side of 
Temperance, and the daily diminishing demand for the drunkard's 
beverage, began, at last, to impair that belief. — Indications of 
restlessness were occasionally exhibited. ' At a large and re- 
spectable meeting of the grocers in the city of Boston^ it was 
unanimously resolved^ that they looked^ with deep regret^ upon the 
proceedings of the self-styled friends of temperance.^ Nothing 
could be more natural, than that a body of men, who sold aident 
spirit, should look with regret upon the efforts of those, who were 
combining to persuade the world not to drink it any more. But 
the friends of temperance were not likely to be diverted from a 
course, upon which the Father of Mercy might be supposed to 
vouchsafe a smile of approbation, because the venders of strong 
drink looked upon tliat very course, through the dust of self- 
* interest, witli ' deep regret,* " 

Says the same writer in another place, " Wliat is the drunk- 
ard's' death ? Is it a natural, or an accidental death ? It is obvi- 
ously not a natural death. The drunkard dies, and upon a careful 
examination after death, the skilful physician, the highest authority 
on such a point in a court of law, declares without hesitation that 
his death was occasioned by spirituous liquor. Can such a death 
be denominated accidental ? The acts of the dram-seller who sells, 
and of the drunkard who drinks the alcohol, are voluntary acts ; and 
the proof, clear and inconteslible, that life is shortened and deatli 
produced by the use of it, are as universally known and appreciat- 
ed, as that death is produced by arsenic. Here, then, is the will 
and the knowledge ; the will to do the act, with a full knowledge 
of its probable effects. Such can neither be an accidental death, 
nor a natural death. Can it be possible that when a drunkard dies 
of hard drinking, somebody is guilty of murder.^ — If a man, says 
Hawkins, in his pleas of the Crown, does an act of which the 
probable consequence may be, and eventually is, death, such 
killing may be murder, though no murder be primarily intended. 
And when the dram-seller does such an act, of which the proba- 
ble consequence may be, and eventually is, death, such killing may 
be murder, though no murder may be primarily intended." But 
though we do not call such killing murder, and though it be not 
prosecuted as such in human courts, when we consider the numer- 
ous murders and other deaths to which the traffic in spirit leads, it 
b perfectly evident that the gains of tliat traffic are the price of 
blood; and as such, will be viewed and treated at the judgment day. 

Says the editor of the Religious Magazine, 

" All tlio useful and honest employments of life produce value. 

359] SEVENTH REPORT. — 1S34. 21 

They produce it, either by bringing a useful article from the 
ground, or by changing the form of die raw material to a more 
useful, or, in other words, a more valuable one, in a manufactory, 
or by adding to its value by change of place, in commerce. In 
all cases the individual creates value, either by producing the arti- 
cle in which he deals, or by altering its form or its place. Now a 
portion only of this value, comes to him ; the otlier portion goes 
to others, tvhom he supplies, as an inducement for them to deal 
with him. So that for all the value he produces for himself, he 
must, on the average, produce an equal amount for others. 

For example, a carpenter builds a store in a country village, 
and receives for it a thousand dollars; and of this we will suppose 
tiiat two hundred and fifty dollars is his clear gain. Now the 
transaction is not a profitable one to him alone. The trader, who 
contracts with him, finds the contract of pecuniary advantage to 
himself, or he would not make it. By putting a portion of his 
property — the thousand dollars — into the form of a store, he has 
added to its value to him, or he would not have incurred the risk 
and responsibility of doing it. And probably it was as much for 
his advantage to employ the carpenter, as it was for the carpenter 
to be employed. 

We say probably as much, because sometimes in transactions 
of this nature, the advantage may lie mainly on one side; but gen^ 
rally in bargains among men, the advantage will be mutual and 
equal, and the man who makes ten dollars for himself in any boni- 
est and useful calling, enables the man he deab with to make ten 
dollars too. 

There is another view we may take of making money in fair and 
honorable ways. Suppose a physician goes to reside in a town, 
and in the course of thirty years he lays by, in the honest practice 
of his profession, ten thousand dollars. This money may, strictly 
speaking, be considered a certificate from the community of the 
amount of good he has done to others during his residence there. 
In fact, we may imagine that upon one coin is inscribed, ^ This 
certifies that the bearer saved a child from death in a fever;' on 
another, ' This piece of money is a token of the relief and com- 
fort which medical skill procured for an aged man in his last days,' 
&c. For it is very evident that if the physician understood 
his profession, and was faithful in the practice of it, for every fee 
he must have rendered an equivalent of useful service to a family, 
cither in saving life, or assuaging and mitigating sufiTering. The 
greater the amount, then, of property he has accumulated by fiiir 
and honorable means, the greater is the evidence of the good he 
has done. 

There is a very common but most groundless impression, that 
when a man makes his fortune among a people, he gets the rnonejr 



out oflhem^ as the phrase is; wliereas, it is, as we have sliown, 
in all fair and honest business, just the reverse; he does just as 
much good to the community as he does to himself. Tlie whole- 
sale dealer, who clears ten thousand dollars a year by importation, 
enables a hundred retailers to clear, in all, an equal sum, by retail- 
ing his cargoes; and the retailers, in Uirn, by exchanging the 
foreign commodity for the farmer's products, enable the thousand 
farmers to clear a like sum, though it may come to them not in 
cash, but in the means of comfort and enjoyment. 

These remarks, however, will apply only to the production and 
exci)ange of artic'es which really contribute to the emoyment or 
comforts of life, and to services which are really usehil in dimin- 
ishing the sufferings or adding to the happiness of mankind. 

There ai'e, however, kinds of business, in which a man does 
make his money out of the community. He takes away from 
others just as much as he makes himself. For instance, if he man- 
ufactures and sells a wordiless article, he takes the money of his 
purchasers, and they receive no equivalent. If a manufacturer of 
counterfeit money gives a counterfeit bill in exchange for a cer- 
tain commodity, it is plain that he actually steals that commodity. 
He really makes money out of the community. 

The counterfeit dealer has, however, diis thing in his favor, 
which some people have not, viz. that what he leaves in the hand 
of his customers, as the fictitious representative of what he takes 
away from them, does no hurt. They carry the counterfeit bill a 
few days in their pockets until they find its worthlessness, and 
then they simply lay it aside. It does not bhe them, nor poison 
them. It does not destroy their health, and shorten their days: it 
does not beggar tlieir children, nor break their wives' hearts, nor 
ruin their souls. 

In regard, however, to the man who talves his neighbor's prop- 
erty, and in exchange for it gives him rtim, we fear we cannot go 
by halves, in speaking of either aspect of the transaction. In the 
first place, he receives his neighbor's money wholly without an 
equivalent. The rum has no value to him whatever. It is worth- 
less, and wholly worthless, so that the seller takes the money of 
another without making any return. This is dishonest — not legal- 
ly so, we admit, but really so in the eye of God. 

But this is not the worst of it. The article which is put into 
the miserable victim's hand, to induce him to give up his money, 
is not merely worthless — it is destructive. Its direct, well known, 
universal, and inevitable tendency is, to kill; — to kill soul and 
body. All he wants is his customer's three cents! He does noi 
wish to kill him. He only gives him what kills him, because thai 
is the only way to get his three cents. He does not wish to de- 
stroy the man for the very sake of destroying him. He does not 

361] SEVENTH REPORT. 1834. 23 

desire* on its own account, to niin his character, and take awaj 
his property, and break his wife's heart, and beggar and starve his 
children. No; his object is only to get the man's money, and he 
does these tilings, because that seems to him the shortest way to 
secure his three cents. All tlie money he makes, is worse than 
taken dishonestly. It is the price of blood! Every dollar he re- 
ceives, instead of being a certificate of the amount of good he lias 
done, is a certificate oftlie misery and ruin he lias spread around 
him. His coin should be inscribed, ^ This certifies that the 
bearer has made a man ' beat his wife. ' *- This half dollar is a 
memorial of four nights of wretchedness, which were given to a 
whole family in exchange for it. ' ' This bag of money certifies, 
tliat the possessor has sent two of his neighbors to tlie jail, and 
their wives and children to the poorhousc. ' What money for a 
man to hold in his coffers! It is the price of blood!'' 

This sentiment is abundantly supported by facts. In the bill 
of mortality of the city of New York, it is stated, that seventy-six 
were killed by intemperance tlie last year. And, says an energetic 
writer, in a document presented to the Common Council by the 
City Temperance Society, " To this number how many ought to 
ijc? added of the thirty suicides, how many of the hundred dying 
of apoplexy, how many of the sixty-nine of casualty, how many 
of the twelve hundred and fifty-one of consumption, how many of 
the five hundred and ten of convulsions, how many of the three 
hundred and five of dropsy in the head, how many of the one 
hundred and fourteen drowned, how many of tlie two hundred 
and forty-nine of peripneumony, might be properly added to the 
list of intemperate, can only be known at the great day, when all 
secrets will be revealed. It is believed that one-fourth at least of 
the enumerated lists might be charged to intemperance ; but sup- 
pose one-sixth of the numbers mentioned in the specified lists 
was added to the seventy-six returned intemperate, the matter 
would stand thus : two tliousand eight hundred and twenty-eight 
in the enumerated list, one-sixth of wliich is four hundred and 
seventy-one, add the seventy-six, and the number is five hundred 
and forty-seven expiring of a licensed poison. Awful thought ! 
they are all aduhs, and most of them men, and the heads of fami- 
lies ! Look at five hundred shipwrecked, no, nimwrecked, fami- 
lies, the heads of which are dead, leaving, on an average, a wife 
and four children, making two tliousand and five hundred sur- 
vivors, heirs of shame and sorrow !" 

And when we recollect that the College of Physicians in Phil- 
adelphia, after a careful examination, have given it as their opin- 
ion that seven hundred deatlis were occasioned by intemperance, 
in that city, in a year ; and the physicians of Annapolis liave given 
it as tlieir opinion, that lialf the men over eighteen years oi age^ 


who 'iled in one vear in that ritv were kiliei in i\ie 5a:ne wav, that 
more tfian hail the men wj:^ for vears hav-^ «^i:ed in o:her places, 
were km^iun to be dninkards. who can dcub; but that five hundred 
and fortv-seven is far less than the number w!io have been annu- 
allv killed bv it. in the citv of Nev/ York. An enual number in 
pro[K)rtion to the population, with ilicse who, in the judgment of 
the physicians, were killed by intemperance in Philadelphia, 
wonid lie in New York more than ei^ht hundred, and in the 
United States more than fiftv-six thousand. Surelv then the cains 
of the traffic, which produces such destruction, is the price of blood. 
Nor arc these men screened from the cuilt of blood, by the 

?lea, that they do not intend to kill, but only to make nionev. 
'here is no evidence that even Judas, in bctravinir his master, 
intended to kill ; but onlv to make monev. But when death fol- 
lowed, and he in remorse cast down the money, those who took 
it up said, " It is the price of blood." And with the knowled2:e 
which those have who traffic in this poison, or which they might 
have, how much more is their gain, tlie price of blood. Were 
all those whose lives have been shortened by it, within the last 
thirty years, to arise from their graves, they would make an army 
of more than a million of men. And can those who prosecute 
a business of such results, when inquisition is made for blood, l>e 
screened by the plea, that they did not intend to kill, they only 
wished for money ? 

When the owner of the ox which was wont to push, did not 
keep him in, but let him go out, though he did not intend to kill, 
but only wished for money, yet if he did kill, "the ox," said 
Jehovah, "shall be stoned and the owner put to death." (Ex. 
xxi. 29.) Admit the correctness of this decision, of the Judse of 
die earth, and who can avoid the conclusion, that he who continues 
the business of sending out the means of death, or when owned 
by him, permitting it to go out, will, by Jehovah, be condemned. 
Every conscience enlightened, condemns him now, and, without a 
change, that condemnation will be eternal. 

A publication has been issued by the Revival Tract Society, 
from the pen of A. W. Ives, M. D., New York, entitled, " A Dia- 
logue between a Dealer in Ardent Spirits and his Conscience;'* 
which has also, during the past year, had an extensive circulation. 
The following is a specimen of its contents. 

" Conscience, — How is it possible that you do not see this 
traffic to be sinful } Violence, brutal licentiousness, the basest 
crimes, poverty, misery and death in their most frightful fonns flow 
directly from the use of ardent spirit — nay more than all these, 
there is nothing else which so efTectually shields the heart against 
the operations of the Holy Spirit, or paralyses the gracious affec- 

363] SEVENTH REPORT. — 1334. 35 

Dealer. — The morality of this traffic, I conceive to depend 
entirely upon circumstances. It may be wrong for one man to 
continue it — to another it is right because it would be ruin for 
him to abandon it. Now among my own Christian friends, there 
is one whose whole property is merged in a firm engaged in the 
commission business; their consignments consist chiefly in West 
India produce, a portion of which is rum. Those from whom 
they receive it, care nothing about the temperance reformation, 
and would immediately transfer their whole business to other con- 
signees, if these should refuse to receive and sell their rum. 
Moreover, it so happens that ray friend is the only religious man 
in the concern, and whatever he may wish to do, his partners will 
not hazard their whole business by refusing to sell the spirit which 
their neighbors will sell if they do not. Thus situated, is it the 
duty of a n)an to give up a respectable and profitable connection? 
I know another house that advanced large sums to West India 
planters before the temperance reformation began, and stipulated 
to receive their produce; that is, rum, sugar and molasses, and 
leiniburse themselves by the sale of it. A large proportion of 
their debt is still due, and dieir obligation still binding. Now 
would it be right for that concern to violate their contract, and 
thereby bring ruin upon themselves, and perhaps upon many of 
their creditors, by refusing to receive and sell the rum? 

Conscience. — Cases like these I have not failed to consider. 
They present difficulties, so long as one is trying to serve both 
God and mammon. But, let a dealer in ardent spirit, even in the 
peculiar circumstances you have related, exercise the decision of 
(Jiaracter which becomes him as a man of business, and all em- 
barrassment will be removed. If he comes to the determination 
to be influenced by mere worldly expediency^ and to set aside the 
higher motive of religious obligation, he will continue his business. 
He will regard it as the best policy, because it promotes his tem- 
poral interest; and this is, in his estimation, paramount to his 
obligation to God, to his fellow man, and to his own soul. If 
occasionally he is disquieted, it will be but for a moment, for he 
will evade the truUi, so as to make himself believe, that while 
pursuing his worldly interest, he is doing bis duty. On the other 
hand, ii he sincerely desires to be governed by a rule of righteous- 
ness, if the path of duty is obscure, he will look for light to the 
precepts of the gospel; and then instead of doubting whether his 
business is sinful, because the Bible does not literally forbid the 
sale of rum, he will look at. the spirit of the Christian religion. 
And whenever a roan does tliis honestly, be will deduce fron^ 
almost every page of that sacred volume, a principle as clear and 
03 imperative as a ^tlius saith the Lord,' — a principle^ which 
binds him by an everlasting obligatioD^ not to injure his nekhborv 
3 27» 


not to be an offence to him; not to partake of his sins. When he 
finds himself engaged in a sinful traffic, in vain may avarice plead 
that he was involved in it ignorantly, and that to forsake it will be 
disastrous to his fortune; in vain may ambition plead that his influ- 
ence will be impaired, or hypocrisy press the claims of charity 
and religion; the Christian will reply, ' I have nothing to do with 
such consequences. When God reveals to me his will, I must 
obey it.' When the young man in the gospel was commanded 
to sell all his goods and follow Christ, no doubt he might have 
pleaded, with plausible casuistry, the innocent and useful employ- 
ment of his money, the benefit of his liberality, and the salutary 
influence of his example. Can the dealers in ardent spirit whose 
cases you have mentioned, do as much.^ And why have they less 
reason to fear that they too will be sent away from the presence 
of their Master, sorrowing? He laid down his life for them^ and 
what is tlie sacrifice they are called to make for /iim, even in 
these most trying cases ? Is it greater than our own patriot fathers 
made for the freedom of their country.^ They did not hesitate to 
pledge 'their lives, their fortunes, and their honor.' Nor did 
they shrink from their obligation; and does the professing Chris- 
tian pledge less when he enters into covenant with God? And 
what if one of those revolutionary heroes should have furnished 
arms and ammunition for the enemy, because his partner happened 
to be a tory, or because he had stock on hand, and could not 
otherwise dispose of it profitably; or because he had contracted 
for a large quantity of these articles in France before the war 
began, and could not possibly land them in this country, or oth- 
erwise dispose of them, than to sell them to British ships of war 
that were blockading our coasts? What would have been thought 
of the hero's patriotism? He would have been stigmatized and 
punished as a traitor. And is a rum-dealing Christian doing less 
for the enemies of religion? Is he less faithless to the King of 

DeaL — I acknowledge this subject is embarrassed with difficul- 
ties, but it is a morbid conscience that sees and feels them to be 
dl upon one side. Shall I deprive myself of the influence which 
I now have in society and in the church, by abandoning my busi- 
ness and voluntarily becoming a poor man ? Shall my children 
be cut off from the means of education, of a comfortable support, 
and the expectations of a respectable standing in the community ? 
Will it be no injury to the cause of religion, that I shall be obliged 
to. withdraw my subscription from the bible, missionary, and tract, 
and education societies ? Others will continue the traffic if I do 
not ; and if abuses result from it, I am not answerable for them. 

Con. — These, indeed, are plausible reasons for persisting in a 
sinful employment, and the mdn of the world who is laying up his 

365] SEVENTH REPORT — 1834. 27 

treasures here, may dwell upon them witli complacency. The 
thought recurs, and presses itself upon me, — I am a professing 
Christian, and ' if I love not my brother I abide in death.' If J 
seek not his salvation, I can have no hope of my own. How 
♦hen can I sustain my influence in society, and in the church, at 
the expense of the temperance, wealth, comfort, happiness and 
respectability, of perhaps diousands of my fellow beings ; nay, at 
the expense of the salvation of their immortal souls ? Shall my 
children be educated, and hundreds and thousands of others 
thereby be reduced to ignorance and poverty and ignominy ? Can 
the cause of religion be supported by making drunkards, and 
thieves, and robbers, and widows, and orphans, and paupers ? 
What, though there be those who grovy rich by gathering the 
wages of iniquity, and who fatten upon the blood of dieir fellow 
men ; whose hearts are unmoved by the bitter cries of the widow 
and the fatherless, and who see nothing in the deadi-bed of des- 

Cair to move their commiseration ; I am a Christian — and can I 
ave feelings and interests in common with such men ? IIow can 
the Christian talk of aiding the cause of religion by tl)e gains of a 
traffic, which, but for the long-suffering and omnipotent grace of 
God, would ere this have driven religion, sorrowing, from the earth. 
What poison, like intemperance, ever entered the very heart of 
die church, was diffused through every portion of her, and trans- 
mitted a loathsome plague, from one generation to another ? Has 
not the church sickened and groaned, from year to year, and from 
age to age, in consequence of this evil ? Have not her children 
apostatised and fled from their mother's bosom and their father's 
house, and become vagabonds and wanderers in the earth ? And 
for what, and why should / participate in perpetuating an evil upon 
the earth, so destructive to the temporal and eternal happiness of 
my fellow men, and so offensive to the God of Heaven ? Let 
those tcho will, continue in this traffic, I dare not be a partaker in 
their sins. 

Veal. — I foresee that we shall be obliged to w^ind up our busi- 
ness ; that whether right or wrong I shall never be permitted to 
pursue it peaceably. I have already been subjected to more 
trouble than I would have borne, had it not been for an imperative 
sense of duty to the church and to my family. It is not an easy 
matter for one, situated as I am, to change or abandon a business 
diat yields him a comfortable support, when he will be obliged in 
consequence of it, to change the style of his living, and perhaps 
absolutely to reduce his family to poverty. I will consent, how 
ever, not to increase my stock, but to contract my business and 
take measures to dispose of the concern as soon as I can do it 

Con. — And pray, do you distrust the power, wisdom, or the 


faithfulness of God, that you so reluctantly rely upon his kind 
providence in taking care of you, while you are yielding obedience 
to an obvious duty ? Are you not making gold your hope, and 
saying to the fine gold, Thou art my confidence ? If God grants 
your request, in this worldly expediency, be assured he will send 
leanness into your soul. It is a compromise with the mammon of 
unrighteousness, unworthy of the character and inconsistent with 
the faith of a Christian. I have no fear of seeing what the 
Psalmist never saw, ' the righteous forsaken nor his seed begging 
bread ;' and instead of insulting the Most High, by virtually pro- 
claiming my independence of him, I will confidently and cheer- 
fully commit my all into his hands, with the resolution of Job, 
tliat 'though he slay me, yet will I trust in him.' If the traffic 
you are engaged in be sinful, it will never be more so than it is 
to-day ; and to continue it in the clear light of this truth, is not 
merely delaying repentance, it is presumptuously tempting God ; 
and I am afraid, that while you are winding up your business, he 
will take away your soul." 

A similar publication has been issued by the American Tract 
Society, from the pen of Rev. Heman Humphrey, D. D., Pres- 
ident of Amherst College, entitled, " Debates of Conscience with a 
Distiller, a wholesale Dealer, and a Grocer." The following is the 
cJose of the debate with the distiller : 

'' Conscience — But I cannot close this interview till I have related 
one of the dreams to which I just alluded. It was only last night 
that I suffered, in this way, more than tongue can tell. The whole 
terrific vision is written in letters of fire upon the tablet of my 
memory ; and I feel it all the while burning deeper and deeper. 

I thought I stood by a great river of melted lava, and while I 
was wondering from what mountain or vast abyss it came, sud- 
denly the field of my vision was extended to the distance of sev- 
eral hundred miles, and I perceived that, instead of springing from 
a single source, this rolling torrent of fire was fed by numerous 
tributary streams, and these again by smaller rivulets. And what 
do you think I heard and beheld, as I stood petrified with aston- 
ishment and horror ! There were hundreds of poor wretches 
struggling and just sinking in the merciless flood. As I contem- 
plated the scene still more attentively, the confused noise of 
boisterous and profane merriment, mingled with loud shrieks of 
despair, saluted my ears. The hair of my head stood up — and 
looking this way and that way, I beheld crowds of men, women 
and children, thronging down to the very margin of the river — 
some bowing down to slake their thirst with the consuming liquid, 
and others convulsively striving to hold them back. Some I saw 
actuall}- pushing their neighbors headlong from the tieacherous 
bank, and others encouraging theip to plunge in, by holding up the 

367J SEVENTH REPORT. — 1834. !29 

fiery temptation to their view. To ensure a sufficient depth of 
the river, so that destruction might be made doubly sure, I saw a 
great number of men, and some whom I knew lo be members of 
the church, laboriously turning their respective contributions of 
the glowing and hissing liquid, into the main channel. This was 
more than I could bear. I was in perfect torture. But when I 
expostulated witli those who were nearest to the place where I 
stood, they coolly answered, This is the way in which we get our 
living ! 

But what shocked me more than all the rest, and curdled every 
drop of blood in my veins, was the sight which I had of this very 
distillery pouring out its tributary stream of fire ! And 0, it 
distracts, it maddens me to think of it. There you yourself stood 
feeding the torrent which had already swallowed up some of your 
own family, and threatened every moment to sweep you away ' 
This last circumstance brought me from the bed, by one convul- 
sive bound, into the middle of the room ; and I awoke in an agony 
which I verily believe I could not have sustained another 

i>w. — I will feed the torrent no longer. The fires of my dis- 
tillery shall be put out. From this day, from this hour, I renounce 
the manufacture of ardent spirits for ever." 

The following is a part of the debates between Conscience 
and the wholesale Dealer : 

" Con. — 0, when I think of what you are doing to destroy the 
bodies and souls of men, I cannot rest. It terrifies me at all hours 
of the night. Often and often when I am just losing myself in 
sleep, I am startled by the most frightful groans and unearthly 
imprecations, coming out of these hogsheads. And then, those 
long processions of rough made coffins, and beggared families, 
which I dream of, from nightfall till daybreak, they keep me all 
the while in a cold sweat, and I can no longer endure them. 

Deal. — Neither can I. Something must be done. You have 
been out of your head more than half the time for this six months. 
I have tried all the ordinary remedies upon you without the least 
effect. Indeed every new remedy seems only to aggravate the 
disease. Oh, what would not I give for the discovery of some 
anodyne which would lay these horrible phantasms. The case 
would be infinitely less trying, if I could sometimes persuade you, 
for a night or two, to let me occupy a different apartment from 
yourself ; and when your spasms come on, one might as well try 
to sleep with embers in his bosom, as w^here you are. 

Con. — Would it mend the matter at all, if, instead of sometimes 
dreaming, I were to be always wide awake ? 

Deal. — Ah, there 's the grand difficulty. For I find that when 
you do wake up, you are more troublesome than ever. Then you 


are always harping upon my being a professor of religion, and 
bringing up some texts of Scripture, uhicli might as well be let 
alone, and which you would not ring in my ears, if you had any 
regard to my peace, or even your own. More than fifty limes, 
within a month, have you quoted, ' By their fruits ye shall know 
them.^ In fact, so uncharitable have you grown of late, that from 
the drift of some of your admonitions, a stranger would think m6 
but little, if any, better than a murderer. And all because some 
vagabond or other may possibly happen to shorten his days by 
drinking of a little of the identical spirit which passes through my 

Con. — You do me bare justice when you say, that I have often 
reproved you, and more earnestly of late than I formerly did. 
But my remonstrances have always been between you and me 
alone. If I have charged you with the guilt of hurrying men to 
the grave and to hell, by this vile traffic, it has not been upon the 
house-top. I cannot, it is true, help knowing how it grieves your 
brethren, gratifies the enemies of religion, and excites the scorn 
of drunkards themselves, to see your wharf covered with the fiery 
element ; but I speak only in your own ear. To yourself I have 
wished to prove a' faitnful monitor, diough I have sad mis- 
givings, at times, even witli regard to that. You will bear me 
witness, however, that I have sometimes trembled exceedingly, 
for fear that I should be compelled, at last, to carry the matter up 
by indictment to the tribunal of Etenial Justice. 

To avoid this dreadful necessity, let me once more reason the 
case with you in few words. You know perfectly well that ardent 
spirit kills its tens of thousands in the United States every year, 
and there is no more room to doubt that many of these lives are 
destroyed by tlie very liquor which you sell, than if you saw them 
staggering under it into the drunkard's grave. How then can you 
possibly throw off blood-guiltiness, with the light which you now 
enjoy ? In faithfulness to your soul, and to Him whose vicege- 
rent I am, I cannot say less than tliis, especially if you persist any 
longer in the horrible traffic. 

Deal. — Pardon me, my dear Conscience, if under the excite- 
ment of the moment I complained of your honest and continued 
importunity. Be assured, there is no friend in the world, with 
whom I am so desirous of maintaining a good understanding as 
with yourself And for your relief and satisfaction, I now give 
you my solemn pledge, that I will close up this branch of my 
business as soon as possible. Indeed, I have commenced the 
process already. My last consignments are less, by more than 
one half, than those of the preceding year ; and I intend that, 
when another year comes about, ray books shall speak still more 
decidedly in my favor. 

369] SEVENTH REPORT. — 1834. 31 

Con. — These resolutions would be perfectly satisfactory, if 
they were in the present tense. But if it was wrong to sell five 
hundred casks last year, how can it be right to sell two hundred 
this year, and one hundred next ? If it is criminal to poison forty 
men at one time, how can it be innocent to poison twenty at 
another ? If you may not throw a hundred fire brands into the 
city, how will you prove that you may throw one ? 

DcaL — Very true, very true — but let us wave this point for 
the present. It affects me very strangely. 

Con. — How long, then, will it take to dry up this fountain of 
death ! 

Veal. — Do n't call it so, I beseech you; but I intend to be 
entirely out of the business in two or three years, at farthest. 

Con. — Two or three years ! Can you, then, after all that has 

Eassed between us, persist two or three years longer in a contra- 
and traffic ? I verily thought, that when we had that long con- 
ference two or three months ago, you resolved to close the con- 
cern at once : and that, when we parted, I had as good as your 
!)romise, that you would. Surely you cannot so soon have 
brgotten it. 

Deal. — No ; I remember that interview but too well — for I 
never was so unhappy in my life. I did almost resolve, and more 
than half promise, as you say. But after I had time to get a little 
composed, I tliought you had pushed matters rather too far ; and 
that I could convince you of it, at a proper time. I see, however, 
that the attempt would be fruitless. But, as I am anxious for a 
compromise, let me ask whether, if I give away all the profits of 
this branch of my business to the Bible Society, and otlier reli- 
gious institutions, till I can close it up, yon will not be satisfied ! 

Con. — Let me see. Five hundred dollars, or one hundred 
dollars, earned to promote the cause of religion by selling poison ! 
By killing husbands, and fathers, and brothers, and torturing poor 
women and children ! It smells of blood — and can God possibly 
accept of such an offering ? 

Deal. — So then, it seems, I must stop the sale at once, or 
entirely forfeit what litde charity you have left. 

Con. — You must. Delay is death — death to the consumer at 
least ; and how can you flatter yourself that it will not prove your 
own eternal death ? My convictions are decisive, and be assured, 
I deal thus plainly because I love you, and cannot bear to become 
your everlasting tormentor." 

The following is the close of the debate between Conscience 
and the Retailer. 

" Retailer — Ah, I see what you are aiming at ; and really, it is 
too much for any honest man, and still more for any Christian to 
bear. You know it is a long time since I have pretended to answer 



half your captious questions. There 's no use in it. It only 
leads on to others still more impertinent and puzzling. If I aai 
the hundredth part of that factor of Satan which you would make 
me, I ought to be dealt with and cast out of the church at once ; 
and why do n't my good brethren see to it ? 

Con, — That 's a hard question, which tliey, perhaps, better 
know how to answer than I do. 

Ret, — But have you forgotten, my good Conscience, that in 
retailing spirit, I am under the immediate eye and sanction of the 
laws ? Mine is no contraband traffic, as you very well know. I 
hold a license from the rulers and fatliers of the state, and have 
paid my money for it into the public treasury. Why do they 
continue to grant and sell licenses, if it is wrong for me to sell mm ? 

Con. — Another hard question, which I leave them to answer 
as best they can. It is said, however, that public bodies have no 
soul, and if they have no soul, it is difficult to see how they can 
have any conscience ; and if not, what should hinder them from 
selling licenses ! But suppose the civil authorities should offer to 
sell you a license to keep a gambling house, or a brothel, woidd 
you purchase such a license, and present it as a salvo to your 
conscience ? 

Ret. — 1 tcU you once more, there is no use in trying to answer 
your questions ; for say what I will, you have the art of turning 
every thing against me. It was not always so, as you must very 
distinctly remember. Formerly I could retail hogshead after 
hogshead of all kinds of spirits, and you slept as quietly as a child. 
But since you began to read these Reports and Tracts about 
drinking, and to attend Temperance meetings, I have scarcely had 
an hour's peace of my life. I feared that something like this 
would be the effect upon your nervous temperament, when you 
began ; and you may recollect that I strongly objected to your 
troubling yourself with these new speculations. It now grieves 
me to think that I ever yielded to your importunity ; and beware 
that you do not push me to extremities in this matter, for I have 
about come to the resolution that I will have no more of these 
mischievous pamphlets, either about my store or tavern ; and that 
your temperance agents may declaim to the winds and walls, if 
they please. 

Con. — I am amazed at your blindness and obstinacy. It is 
now from three to five years since I began to speak (though in a 
kind of indistinct under-tone at first) against this bloody traffic. I 
have reasoned, I have remonstrated, and latterly I have threatened 
and implored with increasing earnestness. At times you have 
listened, and been convinced that the course you are pursuing, in 
this day of light, is infamous, and utterhyr inconsistent with a 
Chru^tian profession. But before your convictions and resolutions 

371] SEVENTH REPORT.-*1834. 33 

have time to ripen into action, tke love of money legains the 
ascendency ; and thus have you gone on resolving and relapsing^ 
and re-resolving : one hour at the preparatory lecture, and the 
next unloading whiskey at your door ; one moment mourning over 
ilie prevalence of intemperance, and the next arranging your 
decanters to entice the simple— one day partaking of tiie cup of 
the Lord at his table, and tlie next, offering the cup of devils to 
your neighbors— one day singing, 

' All that I have and all I ami 
I consecrate to Thee ; * 

and the next, for the sake of a little gain^ sacrificing your char* 
acter, and polluting "all you can induce to drink ! 0, how can I 
hold my peace ? How can I let you alone ? If you will persist, 
your blood, and the blood of those whom you thus entice and 
destroy, be upon your own head. Whether you will hear, or 
whether you will forbear, I shall not cease to remonstrate ; and 
when I can do no more to reclaim you, I will sit down at your 
gate, in the bitterness of despair, and cry Murder! Murder ! ! 
MURDER ! ! ! 

Ret. — (Pale and trembling.) Go thy way for this time ; when 
I have a convenient season I will call for thee." 

Sucli are the sentiments inculcated by the press on this moment- 
ous subject. More than 4,500,000 copies of various publications, 
containing similar views, have been issued the past year, by the 
New York State Temperance Society, and vast numbers by oth^ 
Temperance Societies and individuals in various parts of the coun- 
try. The eagerness widi which they aie sought, while they 
inculcate, with the greatest plainness and power, the gross immoral- 
ity and enormous wickedness of the traffic in ardent spirit, shows 
that this truth conmiends itself to the conscience, and is producing 
permanent settled conviction in the minds of sober men through- 
out the nation. And it moves them to a course of efforts which 
they are resolved, if the Lord wiU, never to relinquish, till the 
traffic is exterminated throughout the globe. This may appear 
to some to be visionary. But the tnith, attended by the power 
of the God of truth, is mighty, and will prevail. Already its in- 
fluence on this subject, is extending throughout the worid. 

Numbers in England, Ireland, and Scotland, and throughout the 
Provinces of that kingdom, have denounced the traffic m ardent 
spirit, as immoral; and more than 150,000 have joined their Tern* 
perance Societies. And though they meet with some peculiar dif> 
ficulties in that kingdom, yet facts demonstrate that perseverance in 
proper efforts, will, with the Divine blessing, overcome them, and 
I he cause there, as well as here, universally triumph. 

From Sweden a few years -ago we received an application lor 



the Constitution of the American Temperance Society and a copy 
of all the Temperance publications which had been printed in the 
United States. They were furnished, and numerous Temperance 
associations have been formed in that kingdom. Thcv have also 
established a periodical, which is published in the Capital, once in 
two weeks, called, The Stockholm Temperance Herald. 
The Crown Prince has lately presided at a Temperance meeting 
in tliat city, and openly proclaimed himself the Patron of Tempe- 
rance Societies. He has also issued his proclamation, and called 
the attention of all classes to the subject. 

A few months ago we received from that country an interesting 
document, entitled, "Temperance and Political Economy, 
DISCUSSED WITH REFERENCE TO Sweden;" addrcsscd to the 
Representatives of the Swedish nation, at the next Diet. It is a 
closely printed octavo of 216 pages; and shows with great clear- 
ness not only the importance, but tlie necessity of the Temperance 
Reform to the prosperity, if not to the existence of die Swedish 
nation. In a population of about 3.000,000, the author states 
that they have 170,000 distilleries; and consume annuaUy 
60,104,570 canns (45,078,427 gallons) of distilled liquor; at an 
expense to the consumers of 62,177,636 Rix dollars, (about 
$65,000 000.) 

"This quantity and this value," says the writer, " passes an- 
nually down Swedish throats, of a drink, of which the first Physi- 
cians and Physiologists of all countries, declare, that it contains 
not a single particle of nutritious substance." 

Well he may, as he does, urge on the government of his coun- 
try, in order to escape national ruin, the necessity of Temperance 
Societies, and upon all his countrymen the duty of joining them. 
" The principle of Cliristian charity," he says, "makes it the duty 
of every man who loves his neighbor, to abstain from ardent spirit. 
Nothing else without this, will save multitudes from perdition. 
What shall we say of our country, that country whose inhabitants 
were once distinguished for their industry, prudence, temperance, 
morality, and noble Christian spirit? That country has now be- 
come a by-word among the nations, and a subject of scorn, as 
branded with the appellation of the country of drunkenness. " He 
then, with all the ardor of a patriot and philanthropist, urges the 
subject on the immediate attention of the Government, and all 
classes of the people as of vital importance to all the great interests 
of the nation. And if they are not lost to all sense of duty, interest, 
and safety, his exhibitions must, we think, make a deep and abiding 
impression. To arouse and animate them, he points, as do patriots 
and philanthropists of other countries, to the example and efforts 
of America; and in view of what we have done, endeavors to 
persuade them to engage m the same blessed cause. 

iJ73] SEVENTH REPORT. — 1834. 35 

It has often impressed the minds of your- Committee, and ought, 
we think, to impress the minds of all members of this Society and 
friends of this cause, that we are engaged in a work which is of 
vital importance not only to our country, but to all nations; and 
increasing numbers in all countries, as they become acquainted with 
this subject, begin to view it in the same momentous light. 

From Dorpot, the seat of the first University in Russia, a gen- 
tleman writes, and expresses the deep interest which they there 
begin to feel on the subject of translating into the Esthonian lan- 
guage, Temperance tracts. "Intemperance," he says, "is the 
great curse of all the people of the North. The provinces are 
full of distilleries and the destruction of property, and soul, is very 
great. " He had just finished the translation of a Temperance tract 
of the Berlin Society in Prussia, and was about to translate the 
Essay of our countryman, the Rev. Prof. Hitchcock, on the sin 
of making and vending ardent spirit, with which he expressed him- 
self greatly pleased. 

He then proceeds to urge strongly, that, \o which some in this 
country, in view of the Committee, without any good reason, have 
been opposed; viz. that every Temperance tract should be " a 
preacher of righteousness;" and urge men to be temperate, by 
motives drawn, not merely from time, but also from eternity; that the 
guilt, as well as the folly of intemperance as a violation of the Divine 
law ; and that in view of a judgment to come, men should be en- 
treated on this subject, as well as others, " to be reconciled to God." 

This view, the Committee have no doubt, is fundamental. 
Every reformation from sin and death, to be successful, must be 
prosecuted in the spirit of the gospel ; by motives drawn from 
the cross of Clirist, and with reference to eternity. Nothing else 
takes hold of the moral nature of man, with a grasp strong enough 
to control it. And this is peculiarly the case with regard to die 
Temperance reformation. No general and strongly marked prog- 
ress was made on this subject, till it was taken up and prosecuted 
in this manner. And none will continue to be inade, after this 
manner of prosecuting it shall cease. The light of the know- 
ledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ, is the only 
light powerful enough to dispel the darkness; and the love of God 
in the gift of his own Son to redeem men from all iniquity, is the 
only motive strong enough to lead them to forsake it. It is so in 
this country. It is so in England. It is so in Russia. It is so 
every where. Hence the anxiety which the philanthropist feels, that 
Christ should be the soul of every Temperance tract. He must 
be the soul of every Temperance effort, that will be generally and 
permanently successful. And the more men become enlightened, 
and his love reigns in their hearts, the deeper will be diis convic- 
tion in the minds of aU who labor in this cause. 


" We never made any headway," says a gentleman in Great 
Britain, '' in the abolition of the slave trade and of slavery, till it 
was taken up by religious men, prosecuted as a concern of the 
soul, with reference to eternity, and by motives drawn from the 
cross of Christ/' Here is the grand instrument of our world's 

'' Thi9 remedy did wisdom find, 

To heal diseases of tlie mind." 

" Our lusts its wondrous power controls 

And calms the rage of angry souls." 

From Madras, a gentleman writes, requesting that all the Tem- 
perance publications may be sent to him. Another gentleman, 
from Calcutta, gives a very interesting account of a Temperance 
meeting in that city. In Burmah, Malacca, and in China, the 
caiise is exciting increased attention ; numbers are feeling more 
deeply its importance, especially in its connection with the spread 
of the gospel, and are making new efforts to extend it. 

From Ceylon, Dr. Scudder writes, '' One of the most inter- 
esting circumstances that has transpired has been the annual meet- 
ing of our Native Temperance Society. The meeting was held 
in the Church. Cassenadiun, the President of the Society, was 
seated on a mat in front of the pulpit. T. W. Coe, the Secre- 
tary, was seated at his left. The most respectable part of the 
heathen were on his right side ; the speakers at the meeting and 
others, on the left. The meeting was opened by the Secretary's 
reading several verses of the Scriptures ; and after a few remarks 
he read the Report. From this it appears, that about three hun- 
dred and eighty persons have enrolled their names as members of the 
Society. Many appalling facts were mentioned by several of the 
speakers. Good effects have already appeared from the meeting. 
A very respectable man, an officer of the government, who was 

E resent, after returning home, ordered that no more toddy* should 
e drawn from a tree which stood m his garden. Anotlier officer 
of the government who was present, went the next morning to 
the market in Changane, and ordered those who had brought tod- 
dy there for sale, to take it away ; and never again make their 
appearance there with it." 

From South Africa, Dr. Phillips writes, "The Governor and 
his lady, and a few others at the head of our Society, and the 
Hottentots agree in thinking that Infant Schools and Tenjperance 
Societies, are most excellent things. At our Missionary Stations 
we have found Temperance Societies to be what a person at one 
of our stations called them, John the Baptist. They are sent to 

* A tper/iet of intoxicating drink, drawn from the Cocoa Nut Tree ; and also 
from the Falmiza Tree. 

375] SEVENTH REPORT. — 1834. 37 

prepare the way of the Lord. Our Missionaries Have found thorn 
to be the most valuable auxiliaries in promoting the cause of God, 
we ever had in Africa. We have Temperance Societies at each 
of our stations ; and I believe that there are very few of our peo- 
ple who do not conform to tlieir rules. At the new settlement of 
Kat river we have fourteen hundred members belonging to the 
Temperance Society in that district. I shall, if possible, get you 
a copy of the speeches of the Hottentots at our last anniversary 
meeting of the Temperance Society in that place ; which will 
give you a better idea of the benefits which the Temperance So- 
ciety has conferred on that place, than any thing I can say." 

Temperance Societies have also been formed, and have accom- 
plished great good in New Holland. And it is interesting to wit- 
ness the correct views on this subject, which are thus early 
embraced and propagated in that part of the world. A publica- 
tion from that country states, '' That Societies have at various 
times been formed in Scotland and other places, the object of 
which, was, to prevent excess in the use oi ardent spirits, not to 
exclude them ; but that they have universally come to nothing. 
They proved themselves to be unsound in principle, and therefore 
could not stand. They did not set out with the incontrovertible 
truth, that ardent spirit is a poison^ to both body and soul. That 
it is a poison to the body, and a poison not of a very inactive 
kind, we have abundant proof in this colony where it produces 
numerous diseases, and destroys the inhabitants of Hobartstown 
so rapidly that they do not, on an average, live to more than 
the age of twenty-three years ; while the prisoners at Macquarrie 
Harbor, who are excluded from the use of spirit, live, on an ave- 
rage, to thirty-five years, notwithstanding the privations they 
undergo in being limited to salt provisions. That spirit is a 
poison to the soul, any person that uses it and attends to the state 
of his own mind may readily ascertain. He will find that after 
having taken but a single glass, his moral perceptions of right and 
wrong are beclouded, and his moral powers of resisting tempta- 
tions diminished. Sin no longer appears so sinful as it did ; and, 
having weakened the powers of resistance, he runs the more rap- 
idly into it." 

Happy would it be, if these truths, proclaimed so forcibly from 
New Holland, should carry conviction to all in America. The 
principle here adverted to, that ardent spirit is a poison^ to the 
body and the soul, and of course that it is wicked to drink it, 
is fundamental; and all efforts to stay its desolations, that over- 
look this principle, or set it aside, or proceed as if it were 
not true, must ever prove abortive. No wonder then, that 
The one glass a day Societies^ that were formed in Scotland 
and other places, Societies based, not professedly,, but really 
4 28* 


on the pnnciple of only sinning moderately, came to nought. 
Such societies must ever come to nought. They overlook the 

Erinciple, the fundamental principle, of letting alone iniquity, 
efore it is meddled with. The fact that ardent spirit is a poison 
to the body, shows the reason why it has killed, over wide regions 
of country, more than one in five of the men who have drunk it ; 
and why it has annually proved the means of death to more than 
thirty thousand of our citizens. And the fact that it is a poison to 
the soul, shows the reason, why, of ninety-five thousand crimes 
committed in Great Britain, more than seventy thousand were 
committed under the influence of liquor; and of one hundred and 
twenty-five thousand, committed in the United States, more than 
ninety thousand were committed under the influence of the same 
cause. These, and multitudes of similar facts, show the reason 
why the traffic in h, to be used as a drink, is, and of necessity 
ever must be, a violation of the law of God ; an immorality^ of 
a peculiarly aggravated description ; and, as such, ought, forth- 
with, to be universally abandoned. And it calls for devout grati- 
tude to the Author of all good, that this truth is embraced and 
proclaimed by rapidly increasing numbers, not only in this coun- 
try, but on the opposite side of the globe. 

Among the principal means of producing this conviction, have 
been the Reports of our Society. Wherever they have gone, 
and been read, they have produced extensively this conviction 
upon the minds of sober and intelligent men. Many have arisen 
from the perusal of them, with an impression never before made, 
and never to be efl^aced, that the drinking of ardent spirit, and 
especially the traffic in it, are a «n, peculiarly offensive to God, 
and destructive to the temporal and eternal interests of men. 
They were designed for this purpose ; and the evidence is con- 
stantly accumulating, that could their circulation and perusal be 
universal, they would, through the Divine kindness, produce their 
intended effect. 

As the first three were out of print, and were often sought for, 
the Committee in their Fourth Keport gave a history of the for- 
mation of this Society, and of the Temperance Reformation, from 
its commencement. They also gave a condensed view of the 
prominent facts contained in all the other Reports. In that Re- 
port they also proved and illustrated the truths that ardent spirit is 
a poison^ the drinking of which is not needful or useful to man; 
that its use, as a drink, is a violation of the laws of health and of 
life ; that it induces and aggravates disease, impairs and often 
destroys reason ; that it demoralizes the character, shortens many 
lives, and ruins many souls. Of course, that the drinking of it is 
an immorality. That Report was constructed, not on the plan of 
being a temporary doctmient, detmling only* temporary and 

377] SEVENTH REPORT. — 1834. 39 

local operations, but on the plan of being, the first of a scries 
of permanent documents; embodying the great principles involv- 
ed in the Temperance Reformation, the facts by which they are 
illustrated; the reasons why this work of kindness should receive 
the support of all good men; and the benefits, which, should tliis 
be the case, would result to our country and the world. It was 
stereotyped, and has passed through numerous editions in this, 
and other countries. It has apparently done much, and could it 
be universally circulated would do much more, to hasten the time 
when drunkenness shall cease, and the blessings of Temperance 
universally prevail. 

The Fifth Report was constructed on the same plan, and was 
designed to be a continuation of llie series, and was paged accor- 
dingly. In this Report it was shown that the traffic in ai'dent 
spirit, to be used as a drink, is also, an immorality; and the reasons 
were pointed out, why this, as well as the drinking of it, ought to 
be universally abandoned. This w^as also stereotyped, has passed 
through several editions in this country, been reprinted in Eng- 
land, and copies of it been sent to most parts of the world. 

In the Sixth Report, which was designed to be the third in the 
permanent series, and was stereotyped and paged accordingly, it 
was shown, that the making, or continuing of laws, to authorise 
the traffic in ardent spirit, by licensing men to pursue it, is also 
an unmorality. As the drinking of it is immoral, and the furnish- 
ing of it immoral, it follows of course, that the making or continu- 
ing of laws to authorise this traffic, by licensing men to pursue it, and 
thus throwing over it the shield of legislative sanction, is also immor- 
al and ought to be abandoned. It was shown in that Report, that 
men have no moral right, even in a state of nature, to traffic in ar- 
dent spirit, or to authorise others to do it; and that they cannot do 
either, without violating the law of God ; that they do not, and that 
they cannot acquire such a right by entering into society, and form- 
ing civil governments. It was shown that such traffic is inconsis- 
tent with Temperance ; a violation of the first principles of political 
economy; tends to impair tlie health; derange the intellect, and 
corrupt the morals of the community. Of course, that it is a «n, 
the sanction of which, by making or continuing laws to license 
men to pursue it, is necessarily wrong. And not only were these 
truths proved, but the principles in the nature of man, and the 
government of God were illustrated, and the reasons exhibited 
why the abovementioned evils ever have resulted, and while it is 
continued ever must result, from that nefarious traffic. The con- 
clusion was diat those who understand this subject, and yet are 
instrumental in making, or continuing laws which sanction this 
traffic, by licensing men to pursue it, will at the Divine tribnnali 
and ought, at tlie bar of public opinion, to be held responsible for 
their effects. 


But to tliis view there were two objections. The first was, 
" That the sale of ardent spirit should be licensed in order to 
restrain and prevent it." To this it was answered, " tliat the 
licensing of it for half a century had not restrained and prevented 
it; but that under such license, it had contmued to increase, until 
it had wellnigh proved our ruin. It was also stated tliat the 
licensing of sin is never the way to prevent or restrain it; but is 
the way always to sanction and perpetuate it. It teaches the doc- 
trine, that if practised according to law, it is right, a doctrine 
which is false and fatal. It tends to prevent the efficacy of 
truth and of facts in producing the conviction that, whether 
legal or illegal, according to human statute, it is nevertheless 
wicked. And, of course, the laws which license it are wicked 

The other objection was, " That if .legislators do not license 
men of conscience to sell ardent spirit, men of no conscience, iii 
such great numbers, will sell it, that die evil will be overwhelm- 
ing." To this it was answered, "That it is not necessary to 
license counterfeiters, to prevent the community from being del- 
uged with base coin. It is not necessary to license gamblers, or 
swindlers. In order to prevent the community from being over 
whelmed with their mischief. No more is it needful to license men 
to sell ardent spirit. If wicked men, in opposition to the influence 
of moral means, will prosecute a wicked business, which corrupts 
our youth, wastes our property and endangers our lives; tlie com- 
munity, in this free country, this land of liberty, have the power 
and the right, without licensing iniquity, to defend themselves from 
its evils. This opens the door^ and the only door^ which truth and 
duty ever open for legislation toith regard to sin; not to license 
and sanction i/, but to defend the community from its mischiefs; 
and in such a manner as is best adapted to deter the wicked from 
transgression^ and promote as far as practicable their good and 
the good of the community: And this is the change in legislation 
with regard to the sin of trafficking in ardent spirit, which the cause 
of temperance, of patriotism, of virtue and of God, now imperiously 
demands. Treat this vice, as other vices are treated, and there 
will be no difficulty in branding it with infamy. 

Let legislators, chosen by the people and respectable in society, 
license any sm, and it tends to shield that sin from public odium; 
and to perpetuate it, by presenting for it a legal justincation. ' He 
that justificth the wicked, and he that condenmeth the just; even 
they both are an abomination to the Lord.' 

Let all sanctioning by law of thb abominable traffic be for ever 
abandoned; and if the risiog indignation of a deeply injured, and 
long suffering conununity does not sweep it away, and men are 
fttni found base enough to continue to scatter the estates of their 

879] SEVENTH REPORT. — 1834. 41 

neighbors, to fill our almshouses with paupers and our penitentiaries 
with convicts, to make wives more than widows, and children doubly 
orphans; to decoy our youth, and sink them to a premature and 
an ignominious grave, — the people, if they choose, by the arm of 
legislation can undertake the holy, righteous, and indispensable 
work of self defence. And as all political power is in their hands, 
it will be found to be a work which is practicable. The wisdom 
of legislators chosen without the aid of ardent spirit, and the pat- 
riotism of statesmen who do not use it, or rely upon it for sup- 
port; but who rely on the righteousness of their cause, the good 
sense and virtue of their constituents, and the gracious aid of their 
God, will be abundantly sufficient to the exigency of the case. If 
necessary to protect our property, our children, and our lives, and 
there is no other, or no better way to do it, how perfectly easy, 
and how perfectly just, whenever tlie people generally shall desire 
it, to indict at common law the keeping of a grog-shop as a public 
nuisance; or to provide by statute that those who make paupers 
shall support them; and those who excite others to commit crimes 
shall themselves be treated as criminals. And in the necessary, 
the magnanimous, the glorious work of legal self defence from an 
evil, which, in defiance of public sentiment, of reason, religion, 
humanity, and of God, would roll over earth a deluge of fire, and 
annihilate the hopes of the world, legislators may expect, in pro- 
portion as the subject is understood, the united and cordial sup- 
port of all good men. 

The point to be decided, to be decided by legislators of these 
United States, to be decided for all comine posterity, for the 
world, and for eternity, is, Shall the sale of ardent spirit cw a 
drink be treated in legislation^ as a virtue^ or a vice? Shall it 
be licensed, sanctioned by law, and perpetuated to roll its all-per- 
vading curses onward interminably.'^ Or, shall it be treated, as it 
IS in truth, a sin? And if there shall, in future, be men base 
enough to continue to commit it, shall the community, in self de- 
fence, by wise and wholesome legislation, as far as practicable and 
expedient, shield themselves from its evils; and if these evils 
must, through the wickedness of men, continue to exist, let them 
fall, as leniently as the public safety will permit, alone on the heads 
of their authors? " 

Tiiis Report has also been stereotyped and paged as a continu- 
ation of the permanent series. Twenty-five thousand copies of the 
whole, or parts of it, have been printed, and nearly all put in cir- 
culation; making of the three last Reports and parts of them 
which have been printed in this country, about 325,000 copies. 
A copy of the last Report has been put into the hands of each 
member of Congress, and a copy of that part of it on the immoral- 
ity of the License Laws, mto the hands of each member of sev- 


eral of the State Legislatures. It has also been sent to numerous 
gentlemen of distinction in this and other countries. 

As it proceeded one step farther than cither of the former Re- 
ports, and so far as tlie Committee know, farther than any previous 
publication on this subject ; and not only called in question the 
morality, but, in view of the Committee, proved conclusively, 
the decided and strongly marked immorality of a part of legisla- 
tion, w^hich has long received extensive sanction and support, the 
Committee were anxious to have it receive the careful examina- 
tion of a number of distinguished physicians, and divines, jurists 
and statesmen; and to obtain from them an expression of their 
views on the subject. They therefore sent a copy of it to a num- 
ber of them in different parts of the coimtry, with the two following 
inquiries, viz. 

"I. Are the principles exhibited in this Report in your view 
correct, and the arguments sound? 

" II. What would probably be the effect on the great interests 
of the community, should the people generally, and legislators, 
choose to have all legislation on this subject conformed to those 

The following are extracts from answers which have been 
received : 

From the Hon. Samuel Fletcher, of New Hampshire. — " I 
have read diat portion of the Report to which you referred, and 
have examined it with tlie more care, because your questions seem 
to imply that objections, from sources entided to consideration, 
have been made against ' the principles and arguments' therein 
advanced. And after much reflection on the subject, both before 
and since I read the Report, I have come to the conclusion that, 
in my judgment, ' the principles exhibited are correct, and the 
arguments by which they are supported are sound ' and incon- 
trovertible. And that ' should the people generally, and the 
legislators, choose to have all legislation conformed to these prin- 
ciples, the effect upon the social, civil, and religious interests of 
the community,' would be at once, and extensively benign, and 
productive of public peace and individual happiness. If any 
objections are sustained by good and valid reasons, I have not 
been able to discover those reasons. 

" And here I might, perhaps most properly, close my reply ; 
Injt had I more leisure, I would, in justice to my views of the 
great importance of the subject, and to render my humble support 
to the American Temperance Society in their noble and arduous 
enterprise, present some of the reasons which have produced in 
my mind the conclusion above stated. But at present I can do 
little more than to express ray full concurrence in the reasonings 
and conclusions of the Committee m their Report. The whole 

S81] SEVENTH REPORT. 1834. 43 

question, I think, is there stated and discussed with great ability 
and candor ; and although the unqualified declaration, that ' all 
legislation relating to the sale of ardent spirit is sinful,' may seem 
bold and startling to the mind which has contemplated the subject 
as clothed with the sanction and authority of law, and justified by 
long established custom ; yet I doubt not tliat the same mina, 
relieved from the influence of prejudice, will accord its entire 
approbation of the proposition." 

From the Rev. Francis Wayland, D. D., President of Brown 
University, Providence, Rhode Island. — " Your letter of Nov. 
1 1 , requesting my views respecting the principles and arguments 
of the American Temperance Society, on the subject of laws for 
the licensing of spirituous liquors ; and also respecting the general 
adoption of those principles by legislators, is before me. I 
embrace the earliest opportunity to return you an answer. I 
believe the arguments on this subject, presented in the last Report 
of the Society, to be sound, and the conclusions to which they 
lead correct." 

After stating a course of thinking somewhat different from that 
mentioned in the Report, by which his own mind had been led to 
the same result, he adds, 

*' Now to all this, I know of but two objections that can be urged. 

I. It may be said that the grocer's property is his own, and he 
has a right to use it in any manner he pleases. 1 . Now this is 
manifestly false. A grocer has precisely the same right in his 
property as any other man, and he has no more. He has no 
right to employ his property in the slave trade, nor in the pur- 
chase and sale of counterfeit money, nor in the manufacture of 
false keys. All this every one sees. It is not then true of him 
or any one else, that he has a right to use his property as he 
pleases, 2, His right in his property is the same as that of any 
other man ; it is the right of using it for the promotion of his own 
happiness in any manner he chooses, provided he do not so use it 
as to diminish the innocent happiness of his neighbor and of the 
community. Now, as the traffic in ardent spirits does diminish 
that happiness, he has no right to use it in this manner. 

II. Again, it may be said, that this traffic is necessary for the 
purposes of revenue. This objection carries its refutation along 
with it, since it has been abundandy and repeatedly proved that 
the public expenditure in the cost of pauperism and crime arising 
from drunkenness, is ten-fold greater than the income which under 
any possible circumstances can accrue fi-om the traffic in ardent 

I therefore think the prohibition of the traffic in ardent spirits 
a fit subject for legislative enactment, and I believe that the mo6f 
happy results would flow firom such prohibition." 


From the Hon. Mark Doolitde, of Massachusetts. — " With 
pleasure do I comply with your request in expressing to you my 
views relative to the principles and the arguments contained in tlie 
sixtli Report of the American Temperance Society, bearing on the 
laws authorising the traffic in ardent spirits as a drink ; and the 
effects upon the interests of tlic community, should legislators 
and the people generally conform to these principles. This sub- 

J'ect has been discussed and deliberately acted upon during the 
ast year, by the National Convention at Philadelphia, and by con- 
ventions in Massachusetts and New York, &c., and the principles 
expressed in the Report adopted by each of those highly respect- 
able bodies, and from a careful review of this subject, the reasoning 
which brings the mind to these conclusions, appears so direct and 
conclusive that no room is left for doubt — there are no abstract or 
unsettled principles in the case, on which the mind can linger in 

The position taken in the Report, is, that laws authorising 
the traffic in ardent spirits as a drink are morally xcrong. In what- 
ever aspect this subject is viewed — by whatever course of reason- 
ing we are guided m our inquiries, we are brought to the same 
conclusion. The seal of everlasting reprobation and abhorrence 
upon this traffic is, that it has no redeeming qualifications — it never 
has done men any good, and from the nature of the case, it never 

Is there any other article which the community would sustain 
for a single day as the object of commerce among men, that should 
produce precisely the same effects upon the community that 
ardent spirits produce ? Can the imagination encircle within its 
scope an employment for men, the direct effect of which is to 
destroy the physical, the intellectual and moral powers of men ; 
spreading disease, poverty, misery and death through the commn 
nity, that is not morally wrong } If this traffic is morally wrongs 
it is the duty of individuals to discontinue it, and of government to 
withhold from it its sanctions. Government is instituted for the 
common good. Every subject of that government has a right to 
claim from it protection and security against the violation of his 
rights. The direct and inseparable consequence of this traffic, is, 
to violate the most sacred rights ; to sunder the bonds of society, 
and bury in everlasting forgetfulness the duties w^hich the dearest 
relations in life impose. There is not a tie which binds man to 
his fellow man, that has escaped its direful touch. The question 
arises, what ought legislators to do on this subject f I answer, 
place the article on the contraband list, and make the traffic in it 
penal, as deadly to the best interests of men. I would gravely 
ask, are not the evils arising from the traffic in ardent spirits as 
dangerous and destructive to the community as those that arise 

383] SEVENTH REPORT. — 1834. 46 

from the traffic in lottery tickets ? Nay, are they not much more 
so ? There was a time when the traffic in lotteries was sanc- 
tioned by Christian legislators — none appeared to question such 
enactments in tlieir moral tendency — but tlieir effects were found 
to be pernicious, and penalties have been substituted for licenses, 
for those who carry on the trade. 

By a careful examination of the laws authorising lotteries, they 
were found to induce idleness, dissipation of mind and morals, and 
crime, and a neglect and violation of the relative duties of life. 
These laws had the argument of revenue for their support. The 
fallacy of this, as well as all others for their support are now seen, 
and the whole system by common consent is abandoned. 

The system of revenue which impairs the health, the peace, 
the domestic and social comforts, the means of usefulness, the 
physical and moral energies of a people, is a revenue of death. 
To that people, notliing can be gamed by spreading such pesti- 
lence through the land. Why is not a government bound to pro- 
tect its subjects against unwholesome drinks as well as against 
unwholesome food 9 If one sells unwholesome food^ he supers 
the penalty of the law. If he sells unwholesome drinkj a dollar 
to the government atones for the wide-spread ruin which it pro- 
duces. By what authority does a government make such a 
grant ; and barter the health and the lives of their subjects f